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Topic: Vertical integration

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  Vertical integration - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Vertically integrated companies are united through a hierarchy and share a common owner.
Vertical integration is one method of avoiding the hold-up problem.
vertical integration is called a vertical monopoly, although it might be more appropriate to speak of this as some form of cartel.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Vertical_integration   (1001 words)

 Vertical - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An object is in a vertical position when it is aligned in an "up-down" direction, roughly speaking perpendicular to the horizon or horizontal.
In science, a vertical direction is aligned with the direction of the force of gravity, as materialized with a plumb line.
In networking the vertical is typically the portion of network cabling that runs between floors, and is usually considered the backbone.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Vertical   (221 words)

 Vertical Integration
Vertical Integration is an approach for increasing or decreasing the level of control which a firm has over its inputs and distribution of outputs.
Vertical integration refers to the degree of integration between a firm’s value chain and the value chains of its suppliers and distributors.
During the middle of the 20th century, vertical integration was used to assure a steady supply of vital inputs.
www.12manage.com /methods_vertical_integration.html   (780 words)

 Vertical versus virtual integration
Vertically integrated delivery systems offer opportunities to reduce costs and improve health care delivery, but the negative aspects of asset-based integration can reduce or eliminate the value of these benefits.
Virtual integration is similar to vertical integration in the sense that it attempts to link the components of an integrated system to operate as a single entity.
Virtual integration has the opportunity to revolutionize the health care industry because it is able to draw on the positive aspects of vertical integration (reduced costs, a focus on the care continuum and increased market share) without creating sizable debt for the parent organization.
www.physiciansnews.com /business/198zimba.html   (1197 words)

 Medical College of Wisconsin - Vertical Integration
An integrated curriculum aims to bring students beyond mere fact and concept acquisition to a level of scientific fluency, using a common language of medical science, with which they can begin to think creatively about medical problems.
True vertical integration refers to the interweaving of clinical skills and knowledge into the basic science years and, in turn, reinforcing and continuing to teach basic science concepts as they apply during the clinical years.
Horizontal integration refers to identifying concepts or skills, particularly those that are clinically relevant, that cut across, for example, the basic sciences and then using these as an integrated focus for presentations, clinical examples, and course materials.
www.mcw.edu /display/router.asp?docid=1760   (250 words)

 Vertical Integration   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Vertical integration is the process whereby different aspects of a business, "upstream" and "downstream" -- ranging from sourcing raw materials and production to marketing -- are brought together.
Vertical integration may also occur when complementary companies make long term contracts with one another or joint ventures, or if they decide to merge.
Vertical integration should not be confused with horizontal integration, or movements toward greater oligopoly or monopoly within an industry.
www.la.utexas.edu /chenry/oil/vertical.html   (172 words)

 Does Vertical Integration Effect Market Power? Evidence from U.S. Food Manufacturing Industries Journal of Agricultural ...
For example, the percent of total production under ownership integration and contracts during the early 1990s was 100% in the poultry industry, 98% in the processed vegetables industry, 26% in the processed milk industry, 16% in the meat packing industry, and 21% in the hog industries (O'Brian), and the trend is continuing.
Vertical integration in lamb and sheep production has increased from 12% in 1970 to 28% in 1990, and vertical integration in potato production and marketing increased from 25% in 1970 to 40% in 1990 (Martinez and Reed).
This study is limited to a snapshot of vertical ownership integration or vertical merger (these two terms are used here interchangeably) as it relates to market power at that point in time.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa4051/is_200504/ai_n13635252   (903 words)

 Vertical Integration
As the result of the successful implementation of its vertical integration strategy, the firm not only became a stronger competitor within the construction segment, but also enjoyed the profits and cash flows from the operation of the quarries and asphalt plant.
Vertical integration has been one of the driving forces for consolidation within the aggregates and broader construction materials industries.
Vertical integration and consolidation within the industry has created a playing field containing several larger and better capitalized competitors.
www.aggman.com /articles/jul05d.htm   (1618 words)

 Vertical Coordination and Consumer Welfare: The Case of the Pork Industry.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Contracting and vertical integration between producers and packers can help to ensure that processing plants operate closer to optimum capacity with few disruptions in the supply of hogs.
Contracting and vertical integration, plus consolidation, can create barriers to entry and reduce the amount and accuracy of publicly available market information, which may distort smaller, independent producers production and marketing decisions.
Policymakers are interested in monitoring the effects of contracting and vertical integration on prices, price variability, margins, and food quality.
www.ers.usda.gov /publications/summaries/aer753.htm   (425 words)

 SSRN-Vertical Integration and Media Regulation in the New Economy by Christopher Yoo
It does so initially by applying the basic static efficiency analyses of vertical integration developed under the Chicago and post-Chicago Schools of antitrust law and economics to three industries: broadcasting, cable television, and cable modem systems.
In addition, the cost structure of these industries suggests that vertical integration may well lead to efficiencies sufficient to justify allowing such integration to occur.
Growing reliance on compelled access to redress the problems purportedly caused by vertical integration threatens to dampen investment incentives in technologically dynamic industries in which such incentives are particularly important.
papers.ssrn.com /sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=319122   (495 words)

 Vertical Integration   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Vertical integration is how much of the process is done in the company rather than outside the company.
Example of backward integration: One of your customers builds log homes and they want to use backward integration so they construct their own plant to acquire the lumber that they need to build their homes.
If you were to vertically integrate your business you would be spending a lot of money on it, and if something were to go wrong you would lose much more money.
uwacadweb.uwyo.edu /WFCUCLASS/process03/vertical_integration.htm   (543 words)

 Vertical integration
Vertical integration is integration along a supply chain.
Vertical integration is most often justifiable where it leads to either operational efficiencies or some other source of strategic advantage.
This is often a significant move away from vertical integration - for example the separation of design and marketing from manufacturing that has occurred in electronics.
www.moneyterms.co.uk /horizontal-vertical-integration   (138 words)

 Vertical integration: Definition and Links by Encyclopedian.com
Vertical integration is an economic theory describing a style of ownership.Vertically integrated companies are united through a hierarchy and share a common owner.
There are three varieties of this : backward vertical integration, forward vertical integration, and balanced vertical integration.
See also zaibatsu for the Japanese approach to vertical integration.
www.encyclopedian.com /ve/Vertical-integration.html   (241 words)

 Vertical Integration in the cement and concrete industries
We are opposed to vertical integration in the cement and concrete industries, and urge that it be prohibited by this Commission.
In some markets, cement industry representatives say their companies are opposed to vertical integration while the recent conduct of their companies in other markets may be exactly in the opposite direction.
Integrating cement companies will use market extension mergers to minimize cement competition regionally; they will use the combination of horizontal and vertical mergers to minimize or eliminate competition on big construction jobs the country over in both industries.
concreteproducts.com /news/vertical_integration   (4964 words)

 The Economics of Vertical Relationships - Publicaciones
With this caveat in mind we should stress that vertical integration or vertical restraints should not be of antitrust concern insofar as they do not per se facilitate the existence of upstream monopoly power.
They then define integration" in terms of ownership of assets" and develop a model of incomplete contracts in which one of the parties is allocated the right to decide over those contingencies that were not specified beforehand in the contract.
It is therefore conceivable that in the cases studied we have witnessed two opposite processes in operation underpinning vertical integration and vertical restraints: the setting-up of an efficient distribution network, and also barrier-building and market monopolization.
www.procompetencia.gov.ve /economicsofverticalrelationship.html   (7786 words)

 Commodore 64 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In January 1981, MOS Technology, Inc., Commodore's integrated circuit design subsidiary, initiated a project to design the graphic and audio chips for a next generation video game console.
The new "SuperPLA" as it was dubbed, integrated many discrete components and TTL chips.
The 2114 color RAM was integrated into the last revision of the PLA.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Commodore_64   (3824 words)

 vertical integration
In the vertical integration decision, one question is concerned: which parts to be done internally and which parts to be outsourced among the whole components of car.
Vertical integration can be effectively used to ensure the intermediary products and end-products are profits maximized in a firm with market power.
In addition, outsourcing was used to move away from vertical integration to help firms satisfy the maximum value of investment according to kinds of situation.
www.doingmyhomework.com /show_essay/46980.html   (374 words)

 PF Online Feature Article - Growth and Diversification through Vertical Integration
Horizontal integration is often a natural and appropriate route to customer retention and increased sales because it relies on the shop's current knowledge base and resources.
Vertical integration is achieved when a shop acquires companies or technologies involved in different levels of production of the same part.
The first step of vertical integration is to find out exactly what happens to a customer's parts before and after they are processed in your shop.
www.pfonline.com /articles/040104.html   (1564 words)

 Vertical Integration and Economic Welfare
Firms may integrate forward by undertaking additional manufacturing, processing, or marketing activities involved in transforming their products into final products purchased by consumers, or they may integrate backward to produce raw materials or other inputs they otherwise would purchase from independent suppliers.
Although vertical integration because of technological or transactional economies can generally be expected to improve economic welfare, welfare is not necessarily increased by integration in response to the existence of an imperfect market.
Nevertheless, vertical integration is socially desirable from the perspective of increased total economic welfare.
agecon.unl.edu /royer/vertwelf.htm   (712 words)

 Vertical Integration: managementpapers.com- management term papers, management essays, management research reports
It is the responsibility of corporate managers to develop integrating procedures and control methods, which are most suitable for efficient operations of the overall organizational structure.
Vertical integration is one of the strategies adopted by the firms to add value to their businesses.
Thank you for choosing to use managementpapers.com for help with your management paper on "Vertical Integration." managementpapers.com is a site that will help you select from over 2607 management paper.
www.managementpapers.com /paper/1036/vertical-integration-1.html   (369 words)

 Economic Research Service--Vertical Coordination (summary)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Vertical coordination refers to the way products are acquired or traded in a market.
For example, pasta processors who prefer a specific type of wheat for a specific type of pasta gain control over planting decisions or seed selection that were previously made by farmers who sold their wheat on the spot market.
Because of the changing nature of vertical coordination, new methods and data may be needed to accurately monitor food industry concentration.
www.ers.usda.gov /publications/summaries/vertical.htm   (479 words)

 Animal Factories Report - Vertical Integration
These animal factory farms are often part of a vertically integrated national or multinational commodities corporation that can provide its own feed and take the animals directly to its own slaughterhouse.
Over time, companies began to integrate and own all aspects of the production process-feed mill, growing birds, and processing plant-and then would contract with growers to house and care for their birds in exchange for a fee.
Pilgrim's Pride Corporation is a model of vertical integration, owning everything from the breeding hens and hatcheries to the feed mills and processing plants.
www.consumersunion.org /other/animal/vertical.htm   (1685 words)

 The St. Petersburg Times - Business - Vertical Integration: Free-Market Substitute
Vertically integrated oil companies, for example, evade taxes levied at the site of oil production by selling the parent company cheap "liquid from the well" instead of expensive crude.
Ideally, vertical integration of this sort provides for a merger with the source of the administrative currency.
Of course, vertical integration of this kind results in dismissals, like those of former Interior Minister Vladimir Rushailo or ex-Tax Police chief Vyacheslav Soltaganov, the most vertically integrated and valuable assets of all.
www.sptimes.ru /index.php?action_id=2&story_id=4792   (576 words)

 Vertical integration back on agenda - www.theage.com.au
Vertical integration of the power industry may be back on the political agenda following recommendations in a report to the State Government by Henry Ergas, a high-profile consultant in the telecommunications and energy areas.
Deregulation split integrated systems into retail, distribution and generation assets but "the second phase (of restructure) has seen a substantial degree of vertical integration", Mr Ergas said.
Australia would need to boost vertical integration to get necessary investment in base load power in years to come, he said.
www.theage.com.au /articles/2003/11/30/1070127268754.html   (485 words)

 Vertical Integration (Vertikale Integration)
Vertical Integration (Vertikale Integration) ist ein Ansatz für das Erhöhen oder das Verringern des Niveaus an Kontrolle, das ein Unternehmen über seine Inputs und Distribution von Outputs hat.
Vertikale Integration bezieht sich auf den Grad von Integration zwischen der Wertkette eines Unternehmens und den Wertketten seiner Lieferanten und Distributoren.
Ein Beispiel vertikaler Integration kann in der Fluglinienindustrie gefunden werden.
www.12manage.com /methods_vertical_integration_de.html   (818 words)

 Supply Management: The Return of Vertical Integration?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Companies aren’t returning to vertical integration completely, but rather in areas where they perceive the greatest supply and pricing risks.
In some respects, this shows signs of a return to the notion of “vertical integration,” where a company directly owned a controlled most of its entire supply capabilities and processes.
Vertical integration has gone almost completely out of favor in recent decades, as companies look to shed hard assets, move to a more variable cost model, and focus on core competencies.
www.scdigest.com /assets/NewsViews/06-08-17-1.cfm   (840 words)

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