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Topic: Vibrio cholerae

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In the News (Tue 22 Jan 19)

  Medmicro Chapter 24
Cholera is a potentially epidemic and life-threatening secretory diarrhea characterized by numerous, voluminous watery stools, often accompanied by vomiting, and resulting in hypovolemic shock and acidosis.
Vibrio cholerae exports its enterotoxin, whereas the E coli LTs occur primarily in the periplasmic space.
Suckling mice are susceptible to intragastric inoculation of vibrios and to orally administered toxin.
gsbs.utmb.edu /microbook/ch024.htm   (7197 words)

In liquid media vibrios are motile by polar flagella that are enclosed in a sheath continuous with the outer membrane of the cell wall.
cholerae produces cholera toxin, the model for enterotoxins, whose action on the mucosal epithelium is responsible for the characteristic diarrhea of the disease cholera.
In 1883, Robert Koch successfully isolated the cholera vibrio from the intestinal discharges of cholera patients and proved conclusively that it was the agent of the disease.
textbookofbacteriology.net /cholera.html   (3967 words)

 Vibrio cholerae - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Vibrio cholerae is a gram negative bacterium with a curved-rod shape that causes cholera in humans.
cholerae was first isolated as the cause of cholera by Italian anatomist Filippo Pacini in 1854, but his discovery was not widely known until Robert Koch, working independently thirty years later, publicized the knowledge and the means of fighting the disease.
cholerae occurs naturally in the plankton of fresh, brackish, and salt water, attached primarily to copepods in the zooplankton.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Vibrio_cholerae   (378 words)

Vibrio vulnificus is found in most coastal waters, primarily in estuaries where the tide flows in to a river causing fresh and salt water to mix.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes mild or moderate gastroenteritis with symptoms of diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headache, fever and chills.
Vibrio cholerae non-O1 is transmitted by consuming raw, improperly cooked, or cooked and re-contaminated shellfish.
www.ecolab.com /PublicHealth/Vibrio.asp   (885 words)

 Vibrio cholerae
With cholera being endemic in the country, there was an outbreak in Arida City, Wakayama Prefecture in 1977, of which the source of infection was ascribed to a returnee from the Philippines.
Cholera cases in 1996 numbered 62, comprising 49 (79%t) imported cases and 13 (21%) domestic cases without history of overseas travel; the total number of cases was markedly less than that of 1995 (377).
cholerae strains in Bangladesh are nearly all resistant to tetracycline, trimethoprim—sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin; though the strains are still sensitive to ciprofloxacin, the minimal inhibitory concentration is increasing, and we are using azithromycin or multiple doses of ciprofloxacin.
focosi.immunesig.org /pathobacteria_cholera.html   (4273 words)

 Disease Listing, Cholera, General Information | CDC Bacterial, Mycotic Diseases
Cholera has been very rare in industrialized nations for the last 100 years; however, the disease is still common today in other parts of the world, including the Indian subcontinent and sub-Saharan Africa.
Cholera is an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Cholera can be simply and successfully treated by immediate replacement of the fluid and salts lost through diarrhea.
www.cdc.gov /ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/cholera_g.htm   (1210 words)

 US FDA/CFSAN - Bad Bug Book: Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O1
Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O1 This bacterium is responsible for Asiatic or epidemic cholera.
Cholera can be confirmed only by the isolation of the causative organism from the diarrheic stools of infected individuals.
Cholera is generally a disease spread by poor sanitation, resulting in contaminated water supplies.
vm.cfsan.fda.gov /~mow/chap7.html   (1861 words)

 Vibrio cholerae Serogroup Non-O1 - WrongDiagnosis.com
Diagnosis of Human Illness: Diagnosis of a V. cholerae non-Ol infection is made by culturing the organism from an individual's diarrheic stool or from the blood of patients with septicemia.
This report documents the first case of cholera imported into the United States that was caused by this organism, the newly described toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O139 strain.
Loci index for genome Vibrio cholerae Available from the GenBank Taxonomy database, which contains the names of all organisms that are represented in the genetic databases with at least one nucleotide or protein sequence.
www.wrongdiagnosis.com /fda_bad_bug_book/vibrio_cholerae_non_01.htm   (940 words)

 New strains of Vibrio cholerae   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
cholerae is a water borne curved-rod-shaped gram-negative bacterium, measuring 0.3 micron (micron is one thousandth of a millimetre) in diametre and 1.3 micron in length.
The infection by the cholera toxin finally leads to expulsion of sodium chloride from the body along with 10-12 litres of water in a day.
Another dangerous trend noticed in recent years in some clinical isolates of V. cholerae is the acquisition of resistance to common antibiotics, thus rendering them useless in controlling the pathogen.
www.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk /genomes/madanm/articles/cholera.htm   (695 words)

 Vibrio cholerae - Cholera
Cholera is a severe bacterial disease, which infects the intestines, and is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
The cholera toxin released by the bacteria leads to a larger secretion of water and chloride ions in the intestine- resulting in diarrhea.
A cholera vaccine is available and can be recommended for travelers to foreign countries with cholera for temporary, limited protection.
www.lcusd.net /lchs/mewoldsen/FYu.html   (603 words)

 FDA/CFSAN Bad Bug Book Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O1   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
A report of a cholera incident in New York is found in MMWR 40(30):1991 Aug 01.
A case of importation of cholera from Peru to the United States is detailed in MMWR 40(15):1991 Apr 19.
The cholera outbreak in Peru is reported on in MMWR:40(6):1991 Feb 15, and the update of the South American endemic is in MMWR 40(13):1991 Apr 5.
www.seafoodhaccp.com /SeafoodData/BadBugBook/CHAP7.HTML   (886 words)

 eMedicine - Cholera : Article by Sajeev Handa, MBBCh, BAO
Background: The word cholera is derived from a Greek term that means "flow of bile." Cholera is caused by Vibrio cholerae, the most feared epidemic diarrheal disease because of its severity.
The treatment of patients with cholera "sicca" is difficult because the evaluation of the degree of dehydration is overshadowed by the accumulation of fluid in the intestinal lumen.
Cholera is endemic in parts of the United States and should be considered in cases of protracted secretory diarrhea in the correct epidemiological setting.
www.emedicine.com /med/topic351.htm   (3649 words)

 BD - Diagnostic Systems: Vibrio Cholerae Antiserum Poly, 3 mL
Difco™ Vibrio Cholerae antisera are recommended for use in slide agglutination tests for the identification and serotyping of Vibrio cholerae.
Difco Vibrio Cholerae antisera are stable, lyophilized polyclonal rabbit Vibrio cholerae O1 antisera containing approximately 0.04% Thimerosal as a preservative.
Difco Vibrio Cholerae Antiserum Ogawa and Difco Vibrio Cholerae Antiserum Inaba are monospecific absorbed antisera.
www.bd.com /ds/productCenter/224321.asp   (713 words)

 CDC Hurricanes | Vibrio cholerae
Non-O1 and non-O139 Vibrio cholerae are the third most commonly reported group of Vibrio bacteria.On the average, 44 cases of non-O1 and non-O139 Vibrio cholerae were reported to the CDC each year since 2000.
Infections are seasonal with a peak in the late summer and early fall, coinciding with the warmest water temperatures.
Diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholerae is treatable, primarily by rehydration, and antibiotic therapy.
www.bt.cdc.gov /disasters/hurricanes/katrina/vibrocholera.asp   (770 words)

 Cholera (Vibrio cholerae)
Two recently developed vaccines for cholera are licensed and available in other countries (DukoralĀ®, Biotec AB and MutacolĀ®, Berna).
In areas with inadequate sanitation, a cholera epidemic cannot be stopped immediately, and there are no signs that the epidemic in the Americas will end soon.
The Centers for Disease Control is investigating epidemic cholera wherever it occurs and is training laboratory workers in proper techniques for identification of V.cholerae.
www.drlera.com /bacterial_diseases/cholera_vibrio_cholerae.htm   (1219 words)

 FDA/CFSAN Bad Bug Book Vibrio cholerae Serogroup Non-O1
Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever are the predominant symptoms associated with this illness, with vomiting and nausea occurring in approximately 25% of infected individuals.
cholerae non-Ol infection is made by culturing the organism from an individual's diarrheic stool.
An update report from CDC on Vibrio cholerae O139 in Asia may be found in MMWR 44(11):1995 Mar 24.
www.seafoodhaccp.com /SeafoodData/BadBugBook/CHAP8.HTML   (603 words)

 Texas Department of State Health Services, Infectious Disease Control Unit > Fact Sheet
Agent: Vibrio cholerae, a gram-negative comma-shaped rod, would serve as an effective biological weapon if the organisms were used to contaminate a large supply of the drinking water or food.
cholerae may be asymptomatic (75%), have mild diarrhea (18%), moderate diarrhea (5%), or fulminant disease (2%) characterized by sudden onset of vomiting and abdominal distension followed by profuse watery diarrhea.
Since few persons in a non-endemic area would have immunity to cholera, in the event of deliberate contamination one would expect to see all age groups affected, with the very old and very young being more seriously ill.
www.dshs.state.tx.us /idcu/disease/vibrio/cholerae/factsheet   (992 words)

 US FDA/CFSAN - Bad Bug Book - Vibrio cholerae Serogroup Non-O1
Vibrio cholerae Serogroup Non-Ol This bacterium infects only humans and other primates.
cholerae Serogroup O1, the organism that causes Asiatic or epidemic cholera, but causes a disease reported to be less severe than cholera.
cholerae non-Ol infection is made by culturing the organism from an individual's diarrheic stool or from the blood of patients with septicemia.
vm.cfsan.fda.gov /~mow/chap8.html   (886 words)

 Differentiation of Environmental and Clinical Isolates of Vibrio mimicus from Vibrio cholerae by Multilocus Enzyme ...
Differentiation of Environmental and Clinical Isolates of Vibrio mimicus from Vibrio cholerae by Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis -- Vieira et al.
Vibrio mimicus is a species closely related to Vibrio cholerae.
Genomic fingerprints of Vibrio cholerae using arbitrary primer PCR are useful epidemiological tools, p.
aem.asm.org /cgi/content/full/67/5/2360   (1549 words)

 Dr. James Oliver's Vibrio vulnificus Home Page
Vibrio vulnificus is the cause of 95% of all seafood-related deaths in the United States.
Another 112 papers on Vibrio vulnificus and other pathogenic vibrios have been presented at national and international conferences.
My laboratory is internationally recognized as one of the top centers in the world for the study of Vibrio vulnificus, and I am consulted on a regular basis on many aspects of this bacterium, its relationship to oysters, and the disease it produces.
www.vibrio.com   (356 words)

 Chapter 20: Vibrio spp.
Intestinal fluid accumulation induced by oral challenge with Vibrio cholerae or cholera toxin in infant mice.
Bradshaw, J.G., Shah, D.B., Wehby, A.J., Peeler, J.T., and Twedt, R.M. Thermal inactivation of the Kanagawa hemolysin of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in buffer and shrimp.
Enzyme immunoassay for identification of Vibrio vulnificus in seawater, sediment, and oysters.
seafood.ucdavis.edu /haccp/compendium/chapt20.htm   (1974 words)

 Cholera (Vibrio cholerae) -- 2006 (1): 725a -- Red Book
ETIOLOGY: Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative, curved, motile
The 2 biotypes of V cholerae are classical and El Tor.
In 1991, epidemic cholera caused by toxigenic V cholerae
aapredbook.aappublications.org /cgi/content/extract/2006/1/3.149.1   (263 words)

 Vibrio cholerae SXT element, Laos Emerging Infectious Diseases - Find Articles   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
To the Editor: The SXT element is a Vibrio cholerae-derived ICE (integrating and conjugative element), which has also been referred to as a conjugative transposon (1) or a constin (2).
SXT element was originally isolated in 1993 from a V. cholerae O39 clinical isolate (SX[T.sup.MO210]) (1).
In contrast, in El Tor O1 V. cholerae strains isolated in India and Bangladesh, the resistance genes are located in SX[T.sup.ET], which is closely related but not identical to SX[T.sup.MO10] (2).
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m0GVK/is_2_11/ai_n11841406   (712 words)

 Vibrio cholerae Infection - Health Conditions and Diseases
At the present time, the manufacture and sale of the only licensed cholera vaccine in the United States (Wyeth-Ayerst) has been discontinued.
No cholera vaccination requirements exist for entry or exit in any country.
Predicting how long a Cholera epidemic will last is difficult.
www.thackeragency.com /healthconditions/vibrio-cholerae.htm   (1251 words)

 Vibrio Cholerae
living cholera vibrios rarely had an effect; in fact, the organisms usually could not be recovered from stools of the volunteers.
The growing cholera vibrios elaborate the cholera enterotoxin (CT or choleragen), a polymeric protein (M
strains of V cholerae have revealed that the vibrios have putative mechanisms in addition to CT for causing (milder) diarrheal disease.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov /books/bv.fcgi?rid=mmed.section.1369   (5675 words)

View the organism: Vibrio cholerae under the microscope (courtesy D. Kunkel)
Deaths from cholera in London, summer 1866 an animation showing the rapid spread on a map (Queen Mary college Uni London, Dept. Geography)
Cholera, Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139, and Other Pathogenic Vibrios in Microbook, by RA Finkelstein
www.bacteriamuseum.org /species/cholera.shtml   (212 words)

 Vibrio links- FoodHACCP.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Bioluminescence and the lux operon in Vibrio fischeri
Vibrio Parahaemolyticus Infection -Raw Oysters and Clams from...
Vibrio vulnificus infection after raw oyster ingestion in a...
www.foodhaccp.com /vibriolinks.html   (182 words)

 Food Safety Research Information Office: Vibrio cholerae Resource List
Provides online resources for Vibrio cholerae, a pathogen commonly found in shellfish.
Two Cases of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 Infection After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita --- Louisiana, October 2005
Annual Summaries of Surveillance of Outbreaks of Vibrio infection, 1997 - 2004
fsrio.nal.usda.gov /document_reslist.php?product_id=212   (203 words)

 Vibrio cholerae background   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
The complete genome of Vibrio cholerae El Tor N16961 consists of two circular chromosomes (2,961,146 and 1,072,313 base pair) with 3,890 predicted open reading frames (2,775 and 1,115 on each chromosome respectively).
The small chromosome contains a large percentage of hypothetical genes, more genes that appear to have origins other than the _ Proteobacteria, a gene capture system (integron island) that suggests this may have been a megaplasmid captured by an ancestral Vibrio species.
The Vibrio cholerae genome sequence provides a starting point for undersanding how a free living, environmental microorganism is also a human pathogen.
www.tigr.org /tdb/CMR/gvc/htmls/Background.html   (125 words)

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