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# Topic: Viewing frustum

###### In the News (Thu 18 Jul 19)

 Viewing frustum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In 3D computer graphics, the viewing frustum or view frustum is the region of space in the modeled world that may appear on the screen; it is the field of view of the notional camera. Viewing frustum culling or view frustum culling is the process of removing objects that lie completely outside the viewing frustum from the rendering process. In ray tracing, viewing frustum culling cannot be peformed because objects outside the viewing frustum may be visible when reflected off an object inside the frustum. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Viewing_frustum_culling   (236 words)

 Dr HS Fortuna Playstation 2 Linux Games Programming To compute the view of a 3D model, the 3D world coordinates of the vertices in the model must be converted to 2D screen coordinates, which determine which screen pixel represent each vertex. The viewing angle or field of view (FOV) is defined as the angle alpha, which is an angle defined in the direction of the y axis. The aspect ratio of the view frustum is defined as A = w/h. www.hsfortuna.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk /view/view.htm   (1498 words)

 Frustum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A frustum is the portion of a solid  â“ normally a cone or pyramid  â“ which lies between two parallel planes cutting the solid. An example of a pyramidal frustum may be seen on the reverse of the Great Seal of the United States, as on the back of the U.S. one-dollar bill. In 3D computer graphics, this is called the viewing frustum. www.wikipedia.org /wiki/Frustum   (200 words)

 Four-Space Visualization of 4D Objects - Chapter 3   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03) The viewing frustum is a rectangular cone in three-space that has the from-point as its tip, and that encloses the projection rectangle, which is perpendicular to the cone axis. It is generally easier to let the viewing angle specify the angle for one dimension of the projection rectangle, and then to tailor the angle of the perpendicular angle of the viewing frustum to match the other dimension of the projection rectangle. The angle from D to From to B is the horizontal viewing angle, and the angle from A to From to C is the vertical viewing angle. stevehollasch.com /thesis/chapter3.html   (862 words)

 Rick Towler's IDL: RHTgrCamera View Frustum Culling View frustum culling was used to limit the number of individuals drawn to only those that were in the viewing frustum. View frustum culling (VFC) is a form of visibility culling based on the premise that only objects in the current view volume must be drawn. If a node is found to be completely in or out of the viewing frustum the visibility of all the models in the node are set and traversal stops. www.acoustics.washington.edu /~towler/RHTgrCamera_VFCperf.html   (1207 words)

 Frustum A frustum is the portion of a solid (normally a cone or pyramid) which lies between two parallel planes cutting the solid. In computer graphics, this is called the viewing frustum. Viewing frustum culling involves ignoring those portions of the image outside the viewing frustum in order to process the relevant visual data more efficiently. www.brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/f/fr/frustum.html   (209 words)

 Hidden surface determination - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The viewing frustum is a geometric representation of the volume visible to the virtual camera. Often, objects lie on the boundary of the viewing frustum. Occlusion culling is the process of determining which portions of objects are hidden by other objects from a given viewpoint. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Hidden_face_removal   (492 words)

 Dr HS Fortuna Polygons that lie completely outside the canonical view volume do not need further treatment and will be invisible to the viewer — they will be rejected from the remainder of the drawing pipline. The centre of projection is at the origin and the viewing window is located at z = -1 as illustrated in figure 5. Following the view to screen transformation, clipping against the canonical frustum is illustrated. www.hsfortuna.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk /old/view/view.htm   (1501 words)

 Computation of Near Macro-Cells However, there are cases of macro-cells intersecting the viewing frustum as well as back space (see figure 3.7). The macro-cell is clipped, which means, the intersection of the viewing frustum with the macro-cell is calculated, and the projection silhouette is derived from it. If the opening angle of the viewing frustum does not exceed a certain bound (which is the usual case), only macro-cells, which are immediate neighbors (26-neighborhood) of the macro-cell enclosing the eye point can intersect back space as well as the viewing frustum. www.vrvis.at /vis/resources/DA-ANeubauer/node21.html   (1654 words)

 The View Volume Editor One of the most important operation that the GM has to perform is the modification of the view volume frustum with respect to the viewing system adopted by the ROV camera. The viewing system type is given by the height angle and the aspect ratio, that is the result of the width angle divided by the height angle. The viewing frustum is shown as a transparent shape with the starting point coincident with the currently selected viewpoint in order to represent the correct position and orientation of the view volume clipping planes. www.disi.unige.it /project/venice/ViewVol.htm   (210 words)

 DevMaster.net - Hidden Surface Removal   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03) To remove a hidden part heavy computations are needed to be done, such as view frustum[ * ] culling and portal[ * ] rendering[ 1 ]. Object 1 in the figure is on the positive side of the right plane in the view frustum, but it is on the negative side of the left plane so it is culled. A view frustum is a structure that holds n number of planes, each of these planes’ normals faces inwards the view frustum, thus enclosing a volume referred to as inside the frustum. www.devmaster.net /articles/hidden-surface-removal   (5175 words)

 Performer Perfly This is the shape of the viewing frustum. It interacts with the cull process and the viewing frustum to determine which nodes should be displayed. Because the bounding volume may be larger than the object it surrounds, it is possible for it to be partially in the viewing frustum and yet have none of its geometry displayed to the user. www.eg.bucknell.edu /~lwittie/reu/perfly.html   (1359 words)

 flipcode - Frustum Culling   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03) Frustum culling is simply the process of determining whether or not objects are visible in this area. What we want with the sphere is to have it situated in the middle of the frustum with a radius that extends from the center of the sphere to a far corner of the frustum. If we choose the cone angle to be the same as the field of view of the frustum, then we create a cone that cuts off the corners of the frustum. www.flipcode.com /articles/article_frustumculling.shtml   (4216 words)

 (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03) The viewing and modeling transformations you specify are combined to form the modelview matrix, which is applied to the incoming object coordinates to yield eye coordinates. The viewing volume determines how an object is projected onto the screen (that is, by using a perspective or an orthographic projection), and it defines which objects or portions of objects are clipped out of the final image. Objects that fall within the viewing volume are projected toward the apex of the pyramid, where the camera or viewpoint is. Objects that are closer to the viewpoint appear larger because they occupy a proportionally larger amount of the viewing volume than those that are farther away, in the larger part of the frustum. www.acs.ilstu.edu /faculty/portegys/teach/acs356/GLtutorials/c03.htm   (12651 words)

 frustum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03) pyramidal frustum is a frustum made by chopping the top off a pyramid. Frustum of a Cone or Pyramid A truncated cone or pyramid in which the plane cutting off the apex is parallel to the base. that's completely inside the 'view frustum' needs to be drawn - everything that's completely outside can certainly be thrown away - anything that crosses the frustum is...erm... frustum.networklive.org   (294 words)

 Viewing frustum - LearnThis.Info Enclyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03) In computer graphics, the viewing frustum or view frustum is the region of space which may appear on the screen; it is the field of view of the notional camera. Viewing frustum culling or view frustum culling is the process of discovering which objects do not appear in the viewing frustum and so need not be drawn. The culling is usually done using bounding volumes surrounding the objects, rather than the objects themselves. encyclopedia.learnthis.info /v/vi/viewing_frustum.html   (96 words)

 Chapter 4. Viewing Recall that the viewing volume is used to clip objects that lie outside of it; the four sides of the frustum, its top, and its base correspond to the six clipping planes of the viewing volume, as shown in Figure 3-13. The frustum's viewing volume is defined by the parameters: ( left, bottom, -near) and ( right, top, -near) specify the ( x, y, z) coordinates of the lower-left and upper-right corners of the near clipping plane; near and far give the distances from the viewpoint to the near and far clipping planes. You can use trigonometry to calculate the desired field of view given the size of the object and its distance from the viewpoint: The tangent of half the desired angle is half the size of the object divided by the distance to the object (see Figure 3-19). www.cepba.upc.edu /docs/sgi_doc/SGI_Developer/books/OpenGL_PG/sgi_html/ch04.html   (12677 words)

 Gamasutra - Features - "Fast Occlusion Culling for Outdoor Environments" [07.17.02] The viewing frustum is typically a cut pyramid (if a pro-jection transformation is used) or a cube (if an orthogonal transformation is used). Transparent or translu-cent objects are not good view occluders, because as light rays pass through the material, so we’ll ignore transparent objects as occluders in 3D rendering. Looking closer, we can see that the frustum is made of all of the occluder’s polygons facing the viewer, and from new planes made of edges and the viewer’s position. www.gamasutra.com /features/20020717/bacik_03.htm   (1242 words)

 PEXlib 5.2 Specification - Viewing Transformation Utilities - PEXPerspProjMatrix   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03) The height of the frustum at the near clipping plane is determined by The width of the frustum is determined from the point at the center of the cube or a "polar" view with the viewed point at the center of the cube, places the cube at the origin. www.szn.pl /amsk/uzytki/R6/man/PEXlib/Utilities_ViewingTransform_PEXPerspProjMatrix.html   (357 words)

 DevMaster.net - Advanced Graphics Algorithms The point-of-view determines the position and direction from which the world is rendered, while the viewing frustum determines the scope of the field-of-view (FOV). Applications requiring far viewing distances (such as dynamically changing terrain or rendering from vastly different levels-of-detail (such as a descent from orbital height around a planet to surface level of that planet) are not suited for static quad-based terrain renderers. If a visible polygon is in fact a portal, then the viewing frustum is redefined to exactly encompass the visible portal and the sector pointed to by the portal is rendered using this refined viewing frustum. www.devmaster.net /articles/graphics_alg   (4886 words)

 8.Viewing Aligning a viewing system with the world-coordinate axes using a sequence of translate-rotate transformations. Advanced Viewing system: view frustum formed by six planes and the view volume. View volume specified, but view plane constrained to be coincident with near plane cs.umbc.edu /~rheingan/435/pages/res/gen-8.Viewing-single-page-0.html   (950 words)

 Viewing frustum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03) In computer graphics, the viewing frustum or view frustum is the region of space which may appear on the screen; it is the field of view of the notionalcamera. Viewing frustum culling or view frustum culling is the process of discovering which objectsdo not appear in the viewing frustum and so need not be drawn. The culling is usuallydone using bounding volumes surrounding the objects, rather than theobjects themselves. www.therfcc.org /viewing-frustum-331210.html   (86 words)

 ftz86 - F5: The PORTAL   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03) An interesting method to enable stereo viewing on LCD panels is to place a lens system in front of them, that refracts the light from each pixel column into the direction of the two eyes. Another approach is to draw the different views in two different colors (usually red and blue or red and green)into one image. This technique is similar to the separation by color, but avoids its main disadvantage: instead of using different colors for the views in the image one uses polarization. www.math.tu-berlin.de /geometrie/f5/stereoView.shtml   (1033 words)

 Efficient View Frustum Culling We have implemented efficient algorithms for view frustum culling introduced in the article Optimized View Frustum Culling Algorithms for Bounding Boxes [ 1 ] by Ulf Assarson and Thomas Möller (2000). specify the VF ( viewing frustum) as an axes symmetrical quadrilateral frustum. Often the reduced versions of the viewing frustum without the far plane and sometimes without the near plane are used in practice. www.cg.tuwien.ac.at /studentwork/CESCG/CESCG-2002/DSykoraJJelinek/index.html   (3659 words)

 stereo geometry in OpenGL Asymmetric frustum parallel projection (equivalent to lens-shift in photography) corrects for this keystone distortion and puts the rendering plane and viewing plane in the same orientation. It is essential that when using the asymmetric frustum technique that the rendering geometry closely matches the geometry of the viewing system. From the geometry it is evident that the ratio of frustum shift to the near clipping plane is equal to the ratio of IOD/2 to the distance from the screenplane. www.orthostereo.com /geometryopengl.html   (557 words)

 Viewing frustum - Result for Viewing frustum - Meaning of Viewing frustum - Definition of Viewing frustum - Dictionary ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03) '''Viewing frustum culling''' or '''view frustum culling''' is the process of removing objects that lie completely outside the viewing frustum from the rendering (computer graphics) rendering process. To make culling fast, it is usually done using bounding volume s surrounding the objects rather than the objects themselves. There you find a list of all editors and the possibility to edit the original text of the article Viewing frustum. www.mauspfeil.net /Viewing_frustum.html   (296 words)

 Viewing transformation The viewing transformation transforms the scene in such a way that an arbitrarily given virtual camera is converted into a camera with eyepoint in the origin and viewing direction along the negative Z-axis (see figure 1 on the previous page). The shape of the frustum (projection type and parameters) does not influence the viewing transformation. This is an intermediate stage between the first two coordinate systems shown in figure 1. www.cs.kuleuven.ac.be /cwis/research/graphics/INFOTEC/viewing-in-3d/node4.html   (161 words)

 Lens class Reference Given a field of view in degrees and a width (or height) on the film, compute the focal length of the lens. Given a field of view in degrees and a focal length, compute the corresponding width (or height) on the film. Returns true if the 3-d point is in front of the lens and within the viewing frustum (in which case point2d is filled in), or false otherwise (in which case point2d will be filled in with something, which may or may not be meaningful). www.etc.cmu.edu /projects/panda3d/PandaDox/Panda/html/classLens.html   (3218 words)

 Viewing Techniques The viewing frustum is visualized in a window, allowing students to understand how the parameters relate to the shape of the viewing frustum. The Parallel Camera Transformation applet aims to familiarize students with the transformations necessary for rendering a scene using a particular synthetic camera and how the camera's parameters affect the transformed scene geometry. The algorithms are animated for each iteration of the algorithms and the resulting visualization of a discretized scene and of its form factor matrix can be viewed as the animation progresses. www.cs.brown.edu /exploratories/freeSoftware/catalogs/viewing_techniques.html   (407 words)

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