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# Topic: Vigesimal

###### In the News (Sat 25 May 19)

 Omniglot - the blog » Counting in twenties The word vigesimal comes from the Latin vīgēsimus, which is a variant of vīcēsimus (twentieth) and influenced by viginti (twenty). The vigesimal system is also used in the other Celtic languages and in a number of other languages, at least to some extent. The number from 16-19 in the Welsh vigesimal system are unusual: 16 = un ar bymtheg (one on fifteen), 17 = dau ar bymtheg (two on fifteen), 18 = deunaw (two nines), and 19 = pedwar ar bymtheg (four on fifteen). www.omniglot.com /blog/2006/04/15/counting-in-twenties   (863 words)

 Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Vigesimal A vigesimal number system has a base of twenty. Twenty (vingt) is used as a base number in French. Twenty (ugain) is used as a base number in the Welsh language, although in the latter part of the twentieth century a decimal counting system came to be preferred, with the vigesimal system becoming 'traditional'. www.kids.net.au /encyclopedia-wiki/vi/Vigesimal   (232 words)

 Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal The vigesimal or base- numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the ordinary decimal numeral system is based on ten). According to German linguist Theo Vennemann, the vigesimal system in Europe is of Basque (Vasconic) origin and spread from the so-called Vasconic languages to other European tongues, such as many Celtic languages, French and Danish. According to Menninger, the vigesimal system originated with the Normans and spread through them to Western Europe, the evidence being that Celtic languages often use vigesimal counting systems. www.goupstate.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=vigesimal   (1061 words)

 Vigesimal Summary In writing these symbols, the bars are placed horizontally and the dots placed on top of them, and the vigesimal positions develop upward from the base. In a vigesimal place system, twenty individual numerals (or digit symbols) are used, ten more than in the usual decimal system. In many languages, especially in Europe, 20 is a base, at least with respect to the linguistic structure of the names of certain numbers (though a thoroughgoing consistent vigesimal system, based on the powers 20, 400, 8000 etc., is not generally used). www.bookrags.com /Vigesimal   (1878 words)

 Vigesimal   (Site not responding. Last check: ) The vigesimal or ''' base -num20''' numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the ordinary decimal numeral system is based on ten). According to German linguist Theo Vennemann, the vigesimal system in Europe is of Basque (Vasconic) origin and spread from the Vasconic languages to other European tongues, such as many Celtic languages, French and Danish. However according to Menninger the vigesimal system originated with the Normans and spread through them to Western Europe; as Celtic languages often use vigesimal counting systems, some believe that this theory is unlikely, however. www.seattleluxury.com /encyclopedia/entry/vigesimal   (1095 words)

 Vigesimal A vigesimal number system has a base of twenty. Twenty (vingt) is used as a base number in French. Twenty (ugain) is used as a base number in the Welsh language, although in the latter part of the twentieth century a decimal counting system came to be preferred, with the vigesimal system becoming 'traditional'. www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/vi/Vigesimal.html   (207 words)

 Maya Mathematics, simple and ingenious. Fast to learn, easy as a game. Just as the decimal system goes by 1, 10, 100, 1000, 10000, etc., the Maya vigesimal system goes 1, 20, 400, 8000, 160000, etc. While in the decimal system there are ten possible digits for each placeholder [0 - 9], in the Maya vigesimal system each placeholder has a possible twenty digits [0 - 19]. When written horizontally, the bars are placed vertically and the dots go to their left and higher vigesimal positions grow to the left of the first entry. Thus when writing vertically the vigesimal positioning system, to write 20 a zero is placed in the first position (base) with a dot on top of it, in the second position. www.mayacalendar.com /mayamath.html   (494 words)

 [Aztlan] Perhaps Calendrics, architecture Well also a natural outcome of the vigesimal count is 4 * 5 = 20, so the leap year effect every 4y naturally must be considered as 5 chunks of 4y - and also therefore 5 leap days every 20y in terms of the 365 day haab. The problem with the 365-day haab is that it is not a whole multiple of 20s, and hence a 360-day tun period would also be considered a natural outgrowth from a vigesimal counting system, as a preferred period used for counting. With this calendric structure both the TZOLKIN and the TUN are of paramount importance as multiples of 20, and as integrating elements of the 20y tropical span. www.famsi.org /pipermail/aztlan/2006-May/002148.html   (3086 words)

 Vigesimal - ZDNet The vigesimal or base-20 numeral system is; based on twenty (in the; same way in which the ordinary decimal numeral system is; based on ten). In a vigesimal place system, twenty individual numerals (or digit symbols) are used, ten more than in the usual decimal system. According to Menninger, the vigesimal system originated with the Normans and spread through them to Western Europe, the; evidence being that Celtic languages often use vigesimal counting systems. www.zdnet.co.za /wiki/Vigesimal   (1378 words)

 A Comparison of the Organization and Use of Chinese and Mesoamerican Abaci This is a fully functional Vigesimal Abacus, but owing to a 13-column limitation, only 11 bar-and-dot signs and values, and two uses of the "zero" sign are shown. Finally, in order for the duodecimal abacus to be fully functional, each Upper Deck bead and associated Solid Bar sign would have necessitated a value of "3", and each Lower Deck bead and associated Broken Bar sign, a value of "1". Remnants of the vigesimal system used by the Mayans still remain today; e.g. www.ee.ryerson.ca /~elf/abacus/dbk   (853 words)

 Numbers' history 2 The Mayas, as well as the Aztecs, used a vigesimal (20) numeration. Although various numeration systems have been used (duodecimal, vigesimal and sexagesimal numerations), the decimal system survived all of them. However, we can find traces of the vigesimal system in some French, Danish and Basque number names. www.archimedes-lab.org /numeral2.html   (473 words)

 mayanpaper Based on twenty, the numerals in their vigesimal system (in contrast to our decimal system) had many representations. The Mayan numeral system is unique in that it is a vigesimal system, which means it is based on twenty instead of ten like our decimal system. Their unique vigesimal system allowed them to use their calendar system to predict many astronomical things, including eclipses and the movement of Venus and Mars. filebox.vt.edu /j/jtoffene/mayanpaper.htm   (2049 words)

 .:. Maya Calendar .:. ASTRAL TRAVELER .:. Today, not much is known about the Mayas or their neighbours in Central/South America; unfortunately, the early Christian conquerers destroyed most of the ancient records of the native American cultures. In a pure vigesimal system each place in a number is occupied by a number from 0 to 19, and that number is understood as being multiplied by a power of 20. A Maya long-count date is a modified vigesimal number (as described above) composed of five places; for example, 9.11.16.0.0, and interpreted as a count of days from some base date. www.astraltraveler.com /calendars/maya.html   (1742 words)

 Vigesimal - RecipeFacts   (Site not responding. Last check: ) Template:Table Numeral Systems The vigesimal or base-Template:Num numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the ordinary decimal numeral system is based on ten). Twenty (Template:Lang) is used as a base number in the French language names of numbers from 80 to 99. Twenty (Template:Lang) is used as a base number in the Welsh language, although in the latter part of the twentieth century a decimal counting system has come to be preferred (particularly in the South), with the vigesimal system becoming 'traditional' and more popular in North Welsh. www.recipeland.com /facts/Vigesimal   (1142 words)

 Maya numerals at AllExperts The numerals are made up of three symbols; zero (shell shape), one (a dot) and five (a bar). In the "Long Count" portion of the Maya calendar, a variation on the strictly vigesimal numbering is used. The Long Count changes in the second place value; it is not 20Ã—20 = 400, as would otherwise be expected, but 18Ã—20, so that one dot over two zeros signifies 360. en.allexperts.com /e/m/ma/maya_numerals.htm   (386 words)

 The Mathematics of Nature: The CanamaytÈ Quadrivertex It is through their writing with pictographic images that we have come to know the customs and decipher the knowledge of the Mayas, including their positional numeration system. It should be pointed out that there exists another way to represent Mayan numerals: with the use of various representations of a human head, which were considered to be the gods of each of the numbers in the vigesimal system. It would appear that the only reason that the pre-hispanic cultures chose the vigesimal system is the obvious one: not only can we count with are fingers, but also with our toes. www.ethnomath.org /resources/ISGEm/081.htm   (2253 words)

 Glyph I SECTION V   (Site not responding. Last check: ) Digital Counting is common throughout the world and is the likely origin of both the decimal system in common use today and the vigesimal system employed by the Maya. Vigesimal Numeration, employed by the Maya, is based on sequences of 20 with each successive position increasing by a factor of 20. The vigesimal count is the main organizing feature from which the Maya calendar derives its structure. mayaglyphs.net /glyph-1/glyph-1e.html   (3264 words)

 A Comparison of the Organization and Use of Chinese and Mesoamerican Abaci This is a fully functional Vigesimal Abacus, but owing to a 13-column limitation, only 11 bar-and-dot signs and values, and two uses of the "zero" sign are shown. Finally, in order for the duodecimal abacus to be fully functional, each Upper Deck bead and associated Solid Bar sign would have necessitated a value of "3", and each Lower Deck bead and associated Broken Bar sign, a value of "1". Remnants of the vigesimal system used by the Mayans still remain today; e.g. www.ee.ryerson.ca:8080 /~elf/abacus/dbk   (853 words)

 CHAPTER 3 for example, discusses three variants: the "pure" quinary, the "quinary vigesimal", and the "quinary decimal". The "quinary vigesimal" system has a (5, 20) cyclic pattern which is such that it is "pure" quinary up to 20 after which a secondary 20-cycle comes into play and we have, for example, 40 = 2x20 and 100 = 5x20. In some of the islands of the New Hebrides group and in the Banks Islands the notation is quinary; in other islands of the New Hebrides, in Fiji and in the Solomon Islands, it is decimal; in the Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia and Anaiteum, the notation is, or was, vigesimal". www.uog.ac.pg /glec/thesis/ch3web/ch3.htm   (4772 words)

 MAYAN MATH   (Site not responding. Last check: ) The Mayan numerical system was vigesimal (20-base); symbols were given a value according to position and the concept of zero was known. Three symbols were used in writing numbers: a dot for one, a bar for five and a seashell for zero. The place system is vigesimal, so that the value of the places increases by 20 (reading up). fsweb.bainbridge.edu /bdubay/mexico/mayan_math.html   (218 words)

 Detail Page The system of vigesimal numerations used in Mesoamerica throughout the historical periods, called the base 20 system as opposed to the modern base 10. The Maya, and probably the Olmec before them, used three symbols as determinatives, allowing for the expression of values: the dot for one, the bar for five and a stylized shell for zero. A flag represented the number 20 in this vigesimal system, and it was the basis for the designation of all larger totals, which were multiples of 20. www.fofweb.com /Onfiles/Ancient/AncientDetail.asp?iPin=MES0746   (346 words)

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