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Topic: Viking colonization of the Americas

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  Royalty.nu - History of the Vikings - Viking Chiefs
An overview of the archaeology of the Vikings in Scotland, concentrating on the eighth to 13th centuries in northern and western Scotland.
From the Vikings to the Normans by Wendy Davies.
Vikings: The Norse Discovery of America by Andrea Hopkins.
www.royalty.nu /Europe/Scandinavia/Vikings.html   (1727 words)

 NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Dutch colonization of the Americas (via CobWeb/3.1 planetlab1.tamu.edu)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Spanish conquest and colonization of America began with the arrival in America of Christopher Columbus in 1492.
The Swedish colonization of the Americas consisted of a 17th century settlement on the Delaware River in Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, and possessions in the Caribbean during the 18th and 19th century.
Dutch colonization of Sint Maarten began in 1620 although the ownership of the island changed hands at least 16 times before 1816, when it was permanently split between France and the Netherlands.
www.nationmaster.com.cob-web.org:8888 /encyclopedia/Dutch-colonization-of-the-Americas   (4889 words)

 Newfoundland Flotilla 2000: The Saga of Vikings in Canada
Despite the stereotypically fierce, horn-helmeted Viking most commonly found in popular culture today, the motives behind the "Viking Age" of expansion and invasion were far more complex than mere bloodlust or greed.
For centuries the accepted theory was that a shortage of arable land in Scandinavia was the major cause of Viking exporation.
For longer voyages of exploration, the knarr was the favoured vessel of the Viking.
www.canoe.ca /nfflotilla2000/story_vikings.html   (1112 words)

 European colonization of the Americas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The first European contact with the Americas was with the Vikings in the year 1000.
The first phase of European activity in the Americas began with the Atlantic Ocean crossings of Christopher Columbus (1492-1500), sponsored by Spain, whose original attempt was to find a new route to India and China, known as "the Indies".
In the French colonial regions, the focus of economy was the trading with the natives.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/European_colonization_of_the_Americas   (1584 words)

 The Vikings: The warrior gods
They were explorers who colonized previously uninhabited lands in the North Atlantic, such as the Faroes, Iceland, and Greenland, and the Vikings were the first Europeans to reach America, around 1,000 A.D. Large groups of Vikings settled in the areas they had conquered, cultivated the land, and became integrated with the native population.
As with the tribes of the Americas, history is full of examples of local rulers aligning themselves with the Vikings for their own political ends, demonstrating another phenomenon of history: conquest is often possible because of simple human greed.
The Vikings are portrayed as a barbaric, violent force of destruction, yet they were responsible for a great deal of contact between civilizations, setting the trend for the interrelationship of civilizations that formed the modern division of territories.
personales.mundivia.es /angoga/vikings.htm   (1573 words)

 British Colonization of The Americas Encyclopedia Article @ Foaks.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
British Colonization of The Americas in the News
The British were one of the most important colonizers of the Americas and their American empire came to rival the
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines - Saint Vincent was colonized in 1762.
www.foaks.com /encyclopedia/British_colonization_of_the_Americas   (1817 words)

 Viking colonization of the Americas (via CobWeb/3.1 planetlab1.tamu.edu)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Vikings, or Norse, explored and settled areas of the North Atlantic, including the northeast fringes of North America, beginning in the 10th century of the common era.
There is a map describing North America, the Vinland map, the Age of which is subject to Some debate.
The question was definitively settled in the 1960s, when a Viking settlement was excavated at L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland.
viking-colonization-of-the-americas.iqnaut.net.cob-web.org:8888   (1039 words)

 European Colonization of The Americas Encyclopedia Article @ AmericaLeadsTheWay.com (America Leads The Way)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
European Colonization of The Americas in the News
Russians on the northwest coast of North America and Alaska.
Africans, who were taken aboard slave ships to the Americas, were primarily obtained from their African homelands by coastal tribes who captured and sold them.
www.americaleadstheway.com /encyclopedia/European_colonization_of_the_Americas   (1529 words)

 European colonization of the Americas
The Vikings were the first Europeans to reach the Americas, starting but then abandoning a colonisation process.
Slavery under European rule began with importation of white European slaves (or indentured servants), was followed by the enslavement of local aborigines in the Caribbean, and eventually was primarily replaced with Africans imported through a large slave trade as the native populations declined through disease.
On the other hand, the descendants of the native Americans constitute the base of the population of the countries that long ago comprised of the Spanish Empire[?] in America, excepting Argentina, Uruguay and the Caribbean ones.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/eu/European_colonization_of_the_Americas.html   (402 words)

 Wikinfo | Colonial history of the United States   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
From 1492, when Christopher Columbus brought the lands of the Western Hemisphere to the attention of a Europe that had long forgotten about them, throughout the 16th century, North America was a backwater of colonialism.
Little Portugal, which had in fact begun charting the far shores of the Atlantic Ocean before Spain began, was limited by the Treaty of Tordesillas to the easterly lands of Brazil.
The men and women who sailed to America on the Mayflower intended to arrive in the northern parts of what was known as Virginia - somewhere in the area of today's New York.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Colonial_History_of_the_United_States   (1218 words)

 contact trans union Resources & Information - trans union contact
Recent evidence from molecular genetics suggests that the entire Amerindian population of the Americas may be derived from an effective founding population that was as small as 80 (Source: Hey, 2005).
The general belief was no trans-oceanic voyages to the Americas could have occurred before the age of European exploration, which culminated in Christopher Columbus's voyage of 1492.
This was clear proof that the Vikings had crossed the Atlantic by way of Iceland and Greenland around the year 1000.
www.bizhisto.com /Biz-Services-Con---Da/contact-trans-union.html   (3871 words)

 History of Scandinavia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (via CobWeb/3.1 planetlab1.tamu.edu)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The beginning of the Viking Age is commonly given as 793, when norwegian Vikings pillaged the important British island monastery of Lindisfarne, and its end is marked by the unsuccessful invasion of England attempted by Harald Hårdråde in 1066 and the Norman conquest.
The Vikings invaded and eventually settled in England, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Ireland, Livonia, Normandy, the Shetland Islands, Sicily, Rus' and Vinland.
Proof of Viking presence in Newfoundland was substantiated by the discovery of Viking relics and dwellings in the area, after a joint team of archaeologists unearthed runic treasure and found a Viking village in L'Anse aux Meadows in 1960.
en.wikipedia.org.cob-web.org:8888 /wiki/History_of_Scandinavia   (5419 words)

He was an explorer and trader who crossed the Atlantic Ocean and reached the Americas on October 12th 1492 under the flag of Castilian Spain.
It is widely acknowledged today that Scandinavians had travelled to North America from Greenland in the 11th century and set up a short-lived colony at L'Anse aux Meadows.
He never reached the present-day U.S.A. although he is generally regarded as the first European to reach "America", and "Columbus Day" (12 October, the anniversary of Columbus' landing in the Bahamas) is celebrated as a holiday.
www.solarnavigator.net /history/christopher_columbus.htm   (7086 words)

 French colonization of the Americas   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
French colonization of the Americas began in the 16th century, and continued as France established a colonial empire in the 17th century.
In 1524 or 1525, Francis sent Italian born Giovanni da Verrazano to explore the region between Florida and Newfoundland for a route to the Pacific Ocean.
The French were able to briefly regain some of their former possessions in North America from the Spanish in 1800, during the Napoleonic Era, under the Treaty of San Ildefonso.
www.cheguevara.co.za /wiki/French_colonization_of_the_Americas   (1450 words)

 Russian colonization of the Americas   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
After the discovery of northern Alaska by Ivan Fedorov in 1732, and the Aleutian Islands, southern Alaska, and northwestern shores of North America in 1741 during the Russian exploration conducted by Vitus Bering and Aleksei Chirikov, it took 50 years until the founding of the first Russian colony in Alaska in 1784 by Grigory Shelikhov.
The Russian-American Company was formed in 1799 by Nikolay Rezanov for the purpose of hunting sea otters for their fur.
A series of commemorative coins was released in the USSR in 1990 and 1991 to commemorate the 250th anniversary of the discovery of Russian America.
www.cheguevara.co.za /wiki/Russian_colonization_of_the_Americas   (474 words)

 ipedia.com: History of the Americas Article (via CobWeb/3.1 planetlab1.tamu.edu)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
European colonization of the Americas History of the Americas Viking colonization British colonization Danish colonization Dutch colonization French colonization German colonization Portuguese coloniz...
It was the later voyage of Christopher Columbus that led to extensive European colonization of the Americas.
Vast immigration from Europe along with smaller immigration from Asia and forced movement of African slaves led to population growth throughout the Americas after the population of Native Americans collapsed from war, slavery and foreign diseases.
www.ipedia.com.cob-web.org:8888 /history_of_the_americas.html   (558 words)

 Geopolitics of Europe
[9] Viking depredations from the eighth through eleventh centuries caused no less havoc than raids by Huns and Magyars across the European plain, and their ships allowed the Vikings voyages as far as Greenland while also having sufficiently shallow drafts to penetrate far inland along river systems including the Dvina, Dnieper, and Volga.
Vikings set a pattern of exploiting seaborne and riverine communications that would be followed in peaceful form by the Hanseatic League and other merchants during the high Middle Ages.
Colonization in America, particularly the Caribbean and North America, created an Atlantic world that dominated the seventeenth- and eighteenth-century European economy.
www.fpri.org /orbis/4702/hay.geopoliticseurope.html   (6467 words)

 Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact (via CobWeb/3.1 planetlab1.tamu.edu)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
For about 75 years, the mainstream conclusions, called the "Landbridge Theory", are that the native cultures of America developed in complete isolation from the rest of humanity until the voyages of Columbus initiated contact from Europe.
While the Landbridge Theory of Americas' settlement has dominated archeological thinking for years, like any scientific theory it should be open to refutation by New evidence which is convincing enough.
Possible evidence of the voyage is preserved by the grave of a Scottish Knight found in Westford, Massachusetts.
pre-columbian-trans-oceanic-contact.iqnaut.net.cob-web.org:8888   (2287 words)

 AlterNet: Blogs: The Mix: Goodbye, Columbus   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Viking route in the north was dongerous and all but cut off in the mid-1400's with the death of the Greenland settlements, and other early European voyages didn't bother to publicize their landings.
Northern Europeans and North American historians love to vilify the Spanish invasion of America, without fully addressing the behaviour of Norhtern Europeans in the lands that they did conquer, and conquer is the appropriate word.
The Vikings confuse the story, and they don't really fit into the moral tale, no matter how interesting the history of Viking exploration may be.
www.alternet.org /blogs/themix/36142   (5821 words)

 Talk History Forum - When did we discover America?
Columbus only is important because his travel allowed the Europeans the colonization of America, not for being the first in arriving there.
some say the original inhabitants moved south towards mexico and central america and is one reason why the north american indians are a little different looks wise from south american and central american indians.
As it goes, though, the first Old World peoples to discover the Americas and colonize them after the native Americans are not Spaniards or Vikings at all - they are the Inuit, who crossed to Alaska from Siberia around 4000 years ago, reaching Greenland around the same time as the Vikings (in the 13th century).
www.talk-history.com /forum/printthread.php?t=1591   (4028 words)

 The Last Viking: West by North West
In many ways, the whole Viking endeavor was no more than the active aspect of the Viking belief, a version of their own legends, an extension of the ancient sagas, an attempt to force the undivined future into a shape of their own choosing.
Either way it would not be the daunting prospect it might seem; the Vikings had after all wintered in settlements further north along the west coast of Greenland thus it would not be a new experience for them.
The Arctic Institute of North America of the University of Calgary, Calgary, 1996.
www.spirasolaris.ca /sbb4g1bv.html   (15312 words)

 European colonization of the Americas: Definition and Links by Encyclopedian.com (via CobWeb/3.1 planetlab1.tamu.edu)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
European colonization of the Americas: Definition and Links by Encyclopedian.com (via CobWeb/3.1 planetlab1.tamu.edu)
Over 25% of Zaire is infected with a form of the Ebola virus that does not kill.
Post a link to definition / meaning of " European colonization of the Americas " on your site.
www.encyclopedian.com.cob-web.org:8888 /eu/European-colonization-of-the-Americas.html   (473 words)

 Mystery of the Oak Island Treasure
The Vikings - There is some record of Viking visitation to the Americas.
Inca or Maya treasure - During the conquering of the Americas by the Europeans in the 17th and 18th centuries, much of the wealth of the Incas and Mayas disappeared.
Usually rumored to have been buried or sunken at the bottom of lakes, some researchers believe that it's possible that a group of Incas or Mayas, possible with the help of sympathetic Europeans, stole away with the wealth and buried on Oak Island out of the reach of the conquerors.
www.mendhak.com /paranormal/mystery/show.php?id=30   (2454 words)

 Wikinfo | European colonization of the Americas (via CobWeb/3.1 planetlab1.tamu.edu)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
European colonization of the Americas (via CobWeb/3.1 planetlab1.tamu.edu)
Various places in the Americas are sometimes considered colonies of the United States, such as the Panama Canal Zone and Puerto Rico.
Images, some of which are used under the doctrine of Fair use or used with permission, may not be available.
www.wikinfo.org.cob-web.org:8888 /wiki.php?title=European_colonization_of_the_Americas   (513 words)

 Archeological Stonewalling And Shadow Science
In past issues of SF, we have presented considerable evidence for the existence of humans in America well before 12,000 years ago -- the "acceptable" limit.
"In recent years anthropological opinion has been shifting in favor of a relatively recent date (not much more than 11,500 years ago) for the first human colonization of the Americas."
In all of these articles, anomalous data are simply labelled "erroneous."
www.science-frontiers.com /sf055/sf055p01.htm   (339 words)

 Spain Comes to America: Explorers and European Settlement   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
This lesson introduces some of the first European explorers in the Americas and describes their influence on colonization.
Duncan and Izzy visit St. Augustine, Florida, site of the first European settlement in America.
They visit a Spanish fort and learn about the relationship of the Spanish with both the native Timucuan people and the English who arrived later.
www.ecb.org /tracks/mod2.htm   (122 words)

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