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Topic: Vinyl chloride


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In the News (Tue 20 Aug 19)

  
  Vinyl chloride - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Vinyl chloride is manufactured on the industrial scale from ethylene and chlorine.
Vinyl chloride's toxicity limits its use in consumer goods, though it has been historically (until 1974) utilized as an aerosol spray propellant; carcinogenic potential has long been established and the prospective legal liability is comparable to that of asbestos (implicated in the causality of mesothelioma).
Vinyl chloride is considered to be a carcinogen and has in particular been linked to certain cancers of the liver—chiefly, hepatocellular carcinoma.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Vinyl_chloride   (577 words)

  
 Polyvinyl chloride - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Polyvinyl chloride is produced by polymerization of the monomer, vinyl chloride as shown.
According to the EPA, "vinyl chloride emissions from polyvinyl chloride (PVC), ethylene dichloride (EDC), and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) plants cause or contribute to air pollution that may reasonably be anticipated to result in an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible illness.
Vinyl chloride production is also inherently a source of dioxins, a highly toxic substance that can cause cancer and other illnesses in humans even at very low exposure levels.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Polyvinyl_chloride   (1436 words)

  
 The Inside Story: Vinyl Chloride
The story of vinyl chloride is a tale of corporate deception in which chemical industry executives kept workers and government health officials in the dark about the debilitating and sometimes fatal consequences of working with the chemical.
As evidence emerged over a 20 year period that vinyl chloride caused signature injuries such as disintegration of the bones in the fingers and then fatal liver cancer, and perhaps other cancers, the chemical industry engaged in an increasingly complex and coordinated plot to keep anyone from knowing the chemical's true hazards.
Today, thirty years after the industry first learned that vinyl chloride caused cancer, workers are still dying, and many people -including an untold number of beauty shop workers in the 1960s and 1970s- remain unaware that they were heavily exposed for years to a highly hazardous, potentially deadly substance.
www.chemicalindustryarchives.org /dirtysecrets/vinyl/1.asp   (412 words)

  
 Info and facts on 'Vinyl chloride'   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Vinyl chloride, also known as chloroethene in IUPAC nomenclature, is an important industrial chemical chiefly used to produce its polymer (A naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers), polyvinyl chloride (A polymer of vinyl chloride used instead of rubber in electric cables) (PVC).
Vinyl chloride depresses the central nervous system (The portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord), and inhaling its vapors produces symptoms similar to alcohol intoxication (Excitement and elation beyond the bounds of sobriety).
In laboratory animals, exposure to vinyl chloride during pregnancy (The state of being pregnant; the period from conception to birth when a woman carries a developing fetus in her uterus) has produced miscarriage (Failure of a plan) s and birth defect (A defect that is present at birth) s.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/v/vi/vinyl_chloride.htm   (1062 words)

  
 Eco-USA: Vinyl chloride
Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas as normal temperatures.
Since vinyl chloride commonly exists in a gaseous state, you are most likely to be exposed to it by breathing it in.
Vinyl chloride is not normally found in urban, suburban, or rural air in amounts that are detectable by the usual methods of analysis.
www.eco-usa.net /toxics/vinylcl.shtml   (1647 words)

  
 Vinyl chloride (PIM 558)
Vinyl chloride is also responsible for an excess of other hepatic cancers, of brain tumours, lung tumours and of malignancies of the lymphatic and haemotopoietic system, in exposed workers.
Vinyl chloride is a synthetic chemical obtained either by hydrochlorination of acetylene or by halogenation of ethylene (ILO, 1983; Budavari, 1989).
Pretreatment with ethanol increased the incidence of liver tumours induced by vinyl chloride in rats (IARC, 1979; IARC, 1987).
www.intox.org /databank/documents/chemical/vinylchl/pim558.htm   (4859 words)

  
 Vinyl Chloride (Suppl7)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Exposure to polyvinyl chloride dust was associated with an increased incidence of lung tumours in one study; the authors suggested that trapped vinyl chloride monomer was responsible [ref: 30].
Vinyl chloride administered orally or by inhalation to mice, rats and hamsters produced tumours in the mammary gland, lung, Zymbal gland and skin and angiosarcomas of the liver [ref: 1].
Vinyl chloride induced chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges and micronuclei in rodents exposed in vivo but did not induce mutation in the mouse spot test or dominant lethal mutations in rats or mice.
www-cie.iarc.fr /htdocs/monographs/suppl7/vinylchloride.html   (1288 words)

  
 RAIS: VINYL CHLORIDE (75-01-4)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Vinyl chloride is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and lungs.
Inhalation exposure to vinyl chloride induced an increased incidence of liver angiosarcomas; kidney nephroblastomas; and lung, brain, and forestomach tumors in rodents (Maltoni et al., 1980, 1981; Feron et al., 1981; Hong et al., 1981; Suzuki, 1978; Lee et al., 1977, 1978).
Following inhalation exposure of rats to 10 ppm of radiolabeled vinyl chloride for 6 hours, urinary and expired radioactivity comprised 68 and 2% of the recovered radioactivity, respectively; after exposure to 1000 ppm, the proportion of radioactivity was lower in the urine but higher in expired air, representing 56 and 12% of the radioactivity, respectively.
risk.lsd.ornl.gov /tox/profiles/vinyl.shtml   (5221 words)

  
 VINYL CHLORIDE - (Organic Method #75)
Epidemiological reports regarding clastogenic effects among vinyl chloride-exposed workers and a single study of increased fetal mortality among the wives of workers who had been exposed to vinyl chloride suggest that vinyl chloride could be mutagenic to humans.
Since vinyl chloride is a gas at room temperature and pressure, the common route of toxic exposure is by inhalation.
Because the recovery of vinyl chloride from the spiked samples was greater than 75% and had a precision of ±25 or better, the detection limit of the overall procedure and reliable quantitation limit are the same.
www.osha.gov /dts/sltc/methods/organic/org075/org075.html   (3369 words)

  
 ATSDR - Public Health Statement: Vinyl Chloride - Draft for Public Comment
Vinyl chloride is a manufactured substance that does not occur naturally; however, it can be formed in the environment when other manufactured substances, such as trichloroethylene, trichloroethane, and tetrachloroethylene, are broken down by certain microorganisms.
Vinyl chloride has entered the environment at hazardous waste sites as a result of improper disposal or leakage from storage containers or spills, but some may result from the breakdown of other chemicals.
Vinyl chloride can leach from plastic PVC bottles or containers used to contain foods or beverages, but government agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have restricted the amount of vinyl chloride that can be present in these packages.
www.atsdr.cdc.gov /toxprofiles/phs20.html   (3333 words)

  
 EPA Ground Water & Drinking Water > breadcrumb? > Consumer Factsheet on: VINYL CHLORIDE
Vinyl chloride is a colorless organic gas with a sweet odor.
Short-term: EPA has found vinyl chloride to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: damage to the nervous system.
Vinyl chloride released to soil will either quickly evaporate, be broken down by microbes or may leach to the groundwater.
www.epa.gov /safewater/contaminants/dw_contamfs/vinylchl.html   (866 words)

  
 ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: Vinyl Chloride
Vinyl chloride is also known as chloroethene, chloroethylene, and ethylene monochloride.
Vinyl chloride in the air breaks down in a few days to other substances, some of which can be harmful.
Vinyl chloride is unlikely to build up in plants or animals that you might eat.
www.atsdr.cdc.gov /tfacts20.html   (1101 words)

  
 EPA - Air Toxics Website - Vinyl chloride
Ambient air concentrations of vinyl chloride are generally quite low, with exposure occurring from the discharge of exhaust gases from factories that manufacture or process vinyl chloride, or evaporation from areas where chemical wastes are stored.
Vinyl chloride is reported to be slightly irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract in humans.
The odor threshold for vinyl chloride is 3,000 ppm.
www.epa.gov /ttn/atw/hlthef/vinylchl.html   (1356 words)

  
 Occupational Health and Safety Act - R.R.O. 1990, Reg. 846   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
      (4) The time-weighted average exposure of a worker to vinyl chloride shall be calculated in accordance with the Schedule and the result of the calculation of the exposure may be certified by an inspector.  R.R.O. 1990, Reg.
The procedures for monitoring, sampling and determining the concentrations of airborne vinyl chloride in the atmosphere of a workplace and a worker’s exposure to airborne vinyl chloride shall be in accordance with standard methods for workplace air sampling and analysis.  O. Reg.
           1.    The average concentrations of vinyl chloride to which a worker is exposed shall be determined from analyses of air samples representative of the exposure of the worker to vinyl chloride during work operations in accordance with standard methods for workplace air sampling and analysis.
www.e-laws.gov.on.ca /DBLaws/Regs/English/900846_e.htm   (1669 words)

  
 Vinyl chloride. - 1910.1017
This section applies to the transportation of vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride except to the extent that the Department of Transportation may regulate the hazards covered by this section.
Vinyl chloride concentrations are in excess of the permissible exposure limit.
Each employee engaged in vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride operations shall be provided training in a program relating to the hazards of vinyl chloride and precautions for its safe use.
www.osha.gov /pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=STANDARDS&p_id=10021   (2143 words)

  
 ipedia.com: Vinyl chloride Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Vinyl chloride, also known as chloroethene, is an important industrial chemical chiefly used to produce its polymer, polyvinyl chloride (PVC).
Vinyl chloride depresses the central nervous system, and inhaling its vapors produces symptoms similar to intoxication.
Long-term exposure to vinyl chloride can cause chronic skin irritations and has also been linked to a painful inflammation of the extremities called Raynaud's syndrome Vinyl chloride is considered to be a carcinogen and has in particular been linked to certain cancers of the liver.
www.ipedia.com /vinyl_chloride.html   (496 words)

  
 Vinyl Chloride Injury Litigation
Vinyl chloride is a colorless, flammable gas with a mild, sweet odor.
Vinyl chloride production has almost doubled over the last 20 years and is currently estimated at around 27 million tons/year worldwide.
Exposure to vinyl chloride occurs primarily in the workplace (although it has also been found in landfill gas and groundwater as a result of degradation of chloroethylene solvents).
www.vinylchloride.net   (438 words)

  
 Chemical Fact Sheets -- Vinyl Chloride
Vinyl chloride can be formed in the environment when soil organisms break down "chlorinated" solvents.
Vinyl chloride that is released by industries or formed by the breakdown of other chlorinated chemicals can enter the air and drinking water supplies.
Vinyl chloride is a common contaminant found near landfills.
www.dhfs.state.wi.us /eh/ChemFS/fs/VC.htm   (693 words)

  
 The Vinyl Chloride Story - AboutTradeSecrets.org
The vinyl chloride story is about an industry that acted responsibly: it discovered a serious health problem; reported that problem to the government; redesigned its technology to reduce exposure to safe levels; and by so doing is a safe industry today.
One part of this industry-sponsored research includes the milestone studies of the early 1970s that led to the discovery of the link between vinyl chloride and angiosarcoma of the liver, the rare disease that struck approximately 200 VCM workers worldwide, a fourth of whom were in the United States.
Allegations that the vinyl chloride industry was not diligent in the events leading to discovery of angiosarcoma are wrong.
www.abouttradesecrets.org /press_room/vc_story.html   (716 words)

  
 Vinyl Chloride in Groundwater Fact Sheet
Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas that has a mild, sweet odor.
Breathing very high levels of vinyl chloride over several years is thought to cause liver damage, kidney damage, nerve damage, and immune disorders.
Vinyl chloride can be detected in the urine after recent exposures.
www.idph.state.il.us /cancer/factsheets/vinyl-chloride.htm   (645 words)

  
 Vinyl Chloride (EHC 215, 1999)
This monograph deals with vinyl chloride (VC) monomer itself and is not an evaluation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), the polymer of VC.
Under ambient conditions, vinyl chloride is a colourless, flammable gas with a slightly sweet odour.
In chlorine-atom-initiated oxidation of VC, the vinyl chloride peroxide formed decomposes to formaldehyde, hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide (Bauer & Sabel, 1975; Sanhueza et al., 1976).
www.inchem.org /documents/ehc/ehc/ehc215.htm   (13730 words)

  
 Vinyl chloride [factsheet]
* Ambient air concentrations of vinyl chloride are generally quite low, with exposure occurring from the discharge of exhaust gases from factories that manufacture or process vinyl chloride, or evaporation from areas where chemical wastes are stored.
* Individuals occupationally exposed to vinyl chloride through inhalation have developed a set of symptoms termed "vinyl chloride disease," which is characterized by liver damage, effects on the lung, poor circulation in the fingers, changes in the bones at the end of the fingers, thickening of the skin, and changes in the blood.
* Animal studies have shown that vinyl chloride, via inhalation, increases the incidence of angiosarcoma of the liver and cancer of the liver and brain.
www.lakes-environmental.com /toxic/VINYL_CHLORIDE.HTML   (1268 words)

  
 HoustonChronicle.com - In Strictest Confidence
Manufacturers of vinyl chloride -- then known only as an explosion hazard and an intoxicant -- came to realize that the compound might be poisoning the people who worked with it.
A federal ban was imposed on the use of vinyl chloride as a propellant in hair sprays, pesticides and other aerosol products; a proposed ban on PVC liquor bottles was averted when the industry found a way to limit migration of vinyl chloride into the liquor.
New ways were found to lower the vinyl chloride content of PVC resin from hundreds of parts per million to less than 1 ppm.
www.chron.com /content/chronicle/special/vinyl   (3635 words)

  
 Greenaction - Fact Sheet, AMCO Chemical Vinyl Chloride/Toxic Contamination Site, West Oakland
Vinyl Chloride was found at the AMCO Chemical Site (formerly known as DC Metals) at 3rd and Mandela in West Oakland, California in June 1995 when utility workers were digging in the area.
According to the EPA low levels of vinyl chloride were found in crawlspace air and soil gas at nearby homes in September 1999 – but not in 2000.
Vinyl chloride has been identified as a “toxic air contaminant” by the California Air Resources Board and is recognized as capable of causing cancer by a number of health agencies and the USEPA.
www.greenaction.org /westoakland/amco/factsheet.shtml   (414 words)

  
 PBS : Trade Secrets : The Documents
The severity of exposure of reactor cleaner to vinyl chloride should be kept at a minimum…”
All recognized that in insistent discouragement of the use of vinyl chloride as a propellant might focus undue and premature attention on the industrial hygiene aspects of the problem.”
… If vinyl chloride proves to be hazardous to health, a producing company’s liability to its employees is limited by various Workmen’s Compensation laws.
www.pbs.org /tradesecrets/program/vinyl.html   (1499 words)

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