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Topic: Virgin lands campaign


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In the News (Thu 27 Nov 14)

  
  Virgin Lands Campaign - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Virgin Lands Campaign was an initiative by Nikita Khrushchev to open up vast tracts of unplowed (virgin) steppe in the northern Kazakh SSR and the Altay region of the Russian SFSR, started in 1954.
The first harvest on the Virgin Lands, in 1956, was a stunning success.
Nearly all of the collective farms in the Virgin Lands grew one crop alone: wheat.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Virgin_Lands_Campaign   (446 words)

  
 History of Central Asia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This process was initially limited to the northern fringes of the Steppe, and it was only in the 1890s that significant numbers of Russians began to settle farther south, especially in Semirechie.
In 1881-85 the Transcaspian region was annexed in the course of a campaign led by Generals Annenkov and Mikhail Skobelev, and Ashkhabad, Merv and Pendjeh all came under Russian control.
The Virgin Lands Campaign, starting in 1954, was a massive Soviet agricultural resettlement program that brought more than 300,000 individuals, mostly from the Ukraine, to the northern Kazakh SSR and the Altai region of the Russian SFSR.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/History_of_Central_Asia   (4913 words)

  
 Kazakhstan   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
The deterioration of cultivated land due to overall re-structuring, non-observance and violation of farming techniques, increasing area of abandoned land, alongside failure to carry out preventive measures and adverse climatic conditions, has created a favourable environment for the reproduction and spreading of harmful organisms.
In addition to wheat, arable lands in the south produce fruit, vegetables, tobacco, rice and hemp, whereas drier areas are used for seasonal grazing of sheep, horses and some cattle.
Land reform in favour of small- and medium-size farms are difficult to implement and often innovations lead to a return to the old system of large collective farms.
www.fao.org /DOCREP/005/Y2722E/y2722e0s.htm   (687 words)

  
 Astana - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In 1961, it was renamed Tselinograd and made capital of the Soviet Virgin Lands Territory (Tselinny Kray).
The city was at the centre of the Virgin Lands Campaign.
After Kazakhstan gained its independence in 1991, the city and the region were renamed Aqmola (literally "White Tombstone," probably meaning "Holy Place", but the literal translation was too appropriate for many visitors to escape notification in almost all guide books and travel accounts).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Astana   (625 words)

  
 CONTEXT - This Week in Arts and Ideas from The Moscow Times
As the chorus of this 1953 song suggests, there was a distinctly romantic ring to the Khrushchev-era campaign to cultivate untilled land in the remotest stretches of the Soviet Union.
This year marks 50 years since the start of the Virgin Lands campaign, which saw hundreds of thousands of volunteers from the All-Union Lenin Communist Youth League, or Komsomol, travel to far-flung areas of Siberia, Altai and Kazakhstan to plough up unused land and plant wheat to ease food shortages.
The Virgin Lands campaign was kicked off by party decree in 1954, and saw more than 350,000 members of the Komsomol heading for the countryside in the first year alone.
context.themoscowtimes.com /stories/2004/07/16/102.html   (912 words)

  
 [No title]
The norms of land use for Kazakhs were cut to 55-350 ha per household and an additional 120,000 sq.km were seized for Russian peasant resettlement.(15) This policy met with criticism from progressive Russian intellectuals and the press.
The economic viability of the Virgin Lands campaign was always a point of controversy in the Soviet Union.
The Virgin Lands campaign was highly reminiscent of Stolypin's drive in the early 20th century.
www.cerc.unimelb.edu.au /bulletin/buljun.htm   (3864 words)

  
 Nikita Khrushchev - Search View - MSN Encarta
In this speech, which was not released in full to the Soviet press, Khrushchev sharply criticized Stalin for his purge of the party, the large-scale executions of Soviet citizens, the deportation of a number of national minorities from their homelands, his cult of personality, and widespread violations of the law.
In order to undermine the position of the central ministries, he initiated a reorganization that transferred the functions of many central economic ministries to regional economic councils, a scheme that caused considerable chaos.
In the mid-1950s he launched his dramatic Virgin Lands campaign to initiate farming on vast tracts of previously uncultivated lands, mainly in the northern part of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (present-day Kazakhstan).
encarta.msn.com /text_761574624__1/Nikita_Khrushchev.html   (1616 words)

  
 YourArt.com >> Encyclopedia >> Astana   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
After Kazakhstan gained its independence, the city and the region were renamed Aqmola (1991), and in 1994, Aqmola was designated as the future capital of Kazakhstan.
After Kazakhstan gained its independence, the city and the region were renamed Aqmola (1991), and in 1994, designated as the future capital of the newly-independent country.
After Kazakhstan gained its independence, the city and the region were renamed Aqmola ("White Grave", 1991), and in 1994, it was designated as the future capital of the newly-independent country.
www.yourart.com /research/encyclopedia.cgi?subject=/Astana   (6467 words)

  
 Virgin Lands Campaign
The Virgin Lands campaign was a huge operation designed to open up a vast tract of steppe land, mainly in northern Kazakhstan and the Altai region of the RSFSR, for grain cultivation.
The campaign bore the stamp of Nikita Khrushchev and his efforts to rekindle popular identification with and participation in state economic initiatives.
Although after 1956 some of these groups were permitted to return to their native regions, authorities considered Crimean Tatars and Volga Germans too valuable to the Virgin Lands program to be released from what was for all intents and purposes internal exile.
www.soviethistory.org /index.php?action=L2&SubjectID=1954tselina&Year=1954   (354 words)

  
 Commanding Heights : Russia | on PBS
A xenophobic campaign, zhdanovschina, is launched to purify Soviet life of Western bourgeois influences.
The economy's militarization assists the takeover by the Bolshevik dictatorship and the institution of "war communism." Private land and the free market are abolished, and a state monopoly on prices and the food trade imposed.
The Russian Orthodox religion is attacked: The state expropriates church land and property and outlaws religious education and most forms of religious activity.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/commandingheights/lo/countries/ru/ru_full.html   (6884 words)

  
 Ch16
During the Virgin Lands Campaign in Kazakhstan (1954-60) 25.5 million hectares of fragile virgin grasslands were ploughed up and seeded.
(The exception was Kazakhstan, where cereal farming was greatly expanded under the Virgin Lands Programme.) From 1960 until the early 1980s, planners expanded the total irrigated area of the five republics by 60 percent or some 3 million hectares, dedicated mostly to cotton.
The resolution of the land property issue and the final assignment of useful land shares to farm and service workers and pensioners have an implication for the ease of eventual transition from farming.
www.fao.org /docrep/v6800e/V6800E0h.htm   (5691 words)

  
 What's New -- Historical & Political Articles   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
"Virgin lands" was a hasty and ill-conceived plan to convert millions of acres of infertile land in Central Asia into a cotton-growing region.
The "virgin lands" campaign also brought a new influx of Russians and Ukrainians to administrate the program.
By the time the "virgin lands" campaign had come to an end, the Kazakhs were a minority in their own republic.
www.geohistory.com /Geoworld/politics.asp?Type=Article&TOPIC_ID=NATSTAT0036   (3131 words)

  
 HighBeam Encyclopedia - Virgin Lands Territory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
Created in 1960 by the merger of Kokchetav (Kökshetau), Kustanay (Qostanay), North Kazakhstan, Pavlodar, and Akmolinsk (Aqmola) regions to administer the grain-producing areas of the Kazakh steppe, it was abolished in 1965.
Seeking Virgin territory: British entrepreneur Richard Branson soars across the Atlantic and lands in America.
Damaged Virgin Mary statue a symbol for Holy Land Christians under attack.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/V/VirginLa.asp   (237 words)

  
 Alexander's Gas & Oil Connections - Kazakhstan and international energy development (1)
These are not limited to the Virgin Lands of Khrushchevian fame; they stretch down almost to the central part of the country.
It intersects with the region of the Virgin Lands campaign and the historical area of Russian agricultural and industrial settlement, mainly in the Pavlodar and Akmola provinces and in part of the Karaganda province.
The economy of the western region is based mainly on oil, that of the southern mainly on agriculture, and that of the north-central mainly on extractive industry with some agriculture.
www.gasandoil.com /goc/news/ntc94521.htm   (1304 words)

  
 Commanding Heights : Russia Environmental | on PBS
Khrushchev launches the Virgin Lands Campaign to cultivate Western Siberia and Kazakhstan's vast steppe, previously used by nomads for grazing.
The wheat harvest soars, but overexploitation soon leads to soil erosion, and much of the land turns to huge dust bowls.
Faced with increased pollution and the costs of large-scale waste, resolutions are passed outlining the protection of land, water, air, and wildlife, but the commitment exists almost entirely on paper.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/commandingheights/lo/countries/ru/ru_env.html   (928 words)

  
 Kazakh Adoptive Families: Kostanai
Founded by Russian settlers from the Volga region in 1879, it became a centre of trade in the steppe, particularly in grain, a role that was enhanced by the construction of a branch railway in 1913.
Kustanay was made an oblast (province) administrative centre in 1933, but its greatest expansion dates from the mid-1950s and the Virgin and Idle Lands Campaign, which extended agriculture and hastened the exploitation of mineral wealth, and the construction of rail lines in the region.
Kostanay was made an oblast (region) administrative center in 1933, but its greatest expansion dates from the mid-1950s and the Virgin and Idle Lands Campaign, which extended agriculture, hastened the exploitation of mineral wealth, and the construction of rail lines in the region.
kazakhadoptivefamilies.com /cities/qostanay.html   (772 words)

  
 Kazakstan   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
In fact, the campaign in favor of bilingualism was transformed into a campaign to improve the teaching of Russian.
Some 9.4 percent of Kazakstan's land is mixed prairie and forest or treeless prairie, primarily in the north or in the basin of the Ural River in the west.
An estimated 30 percent of that land was not suitable for cultivation, however, and Khrushchev was ousted in 1964 after a series of crop failures in Kazakstan.
www.mongabay.com /reference/country_studies/kazakstan/all.html   (17592 words)

  
 Soviet Russia
The plan for the 1943 summer campaign was to concentrate most of the new weapons north and south of the city of Kursk, a vulnerable spot between the USSR's central and southern army groups, in the hope of achieving a critical breakthrough there.
The success of the Virgin Lands campaign made him set extremely high goals for this plan: grain output was to double, milk to triple, and meat to quadruple.
Bad land management caused the topsoil of the Virgin Lands area to be blown away, turning Kazakhstan into a dustbowl, and old agricultural regions like the Ukraine fell into neglect as manpower and machines were poured into Central Asia.
xenohistorian.faithweb.com /russia/ru03.html   (17339 words)

  
 CNN Cold War - Knowledge Bank: Glossary
Bombing campaign against North Vietnam launched by Johnson in response to a Viet Cong attack on Pleiku air base that killed eight Americans and wounded hundreds more.
The 1917 Bolshevik uprising against the czarist autocracy; it was an effort to turn a peasant society into a new kind of democratic, collectivized country.
Campaign launched by Khrushchev to cultivate Soviet grasslands in central Asia; Khrushchev boasted the Soviets would overtake the Americans in wheat production.
www.cnn.com /SPECIALS/cold.war/kbank/glossary/nz.index.html   (2210 words)

  
 Kazakhstan Effects of Immigration
During this campaign the goal of cultivating 13 million hectares6 was set, even amidst much criticism from the upper levels of Russian and Kazakhstani leadership.
This in turn led to two things, the sudden shift from an industrial to an agricultural base and another influx of Russian immigrants aimed at making the Virgin Lands project a success.
Though the Virgin Lands campaign eventually failed and the Soviet Union became the Republic of Russia, the scars that were wrought upon Kazakhstan during this 60 year period still largely remain today.
www.bu.edu /econ/faculty/kyn/newweb/economic_systems/NatIdentity/FSU/Central_Asia/Kazakhstan/kazakh_immigr.htm   (1131 words)

  
 Sobaka :: Escape from Tashkent Part Three   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
And the dusty soil of Western Uzbekistan would be irrigated, fertilized, and, when all else failed, physically coerced into producing the raw material for future proletarian fashion designers.
Enormous sums were poured into what Nikita called his "Virgin Lands Campaign".
The total cost of the Virgin Lands Campaign, beyond the measure of dollars and kopeks, was enormous.
www.diacritica.com /sobaka/2002/escape3.html   (1621 words)

  
 Perestroika [Sam Marcy]: Article 14 (1990)
You can imagine the difficulties that the Virgin Lands campaign posed for a family which had to be picked up and moved from the home where it had lived for generations.
But here again, their concern is all with Khrushchev and his factional opponents, the success and failures of the agricultural campaign in Kazakhstan, but not so much as a word about the participation of the Kazakh people or what their leaders said, thought or did.
Of course, the virgin lands campaign concerned areas within the socialist state of Kazakhstan that had been mostly unpopulated.
www.workers.org /marcy/cd/sampere/perehtml/14.htm   (4417 words)

  
 Russia
The Romanovs regained much of the land lost previously to Sweden, Lithuania and Poland and the Cossacks of the eastern Ukraine rose against Poland and swore allegiance to the Tsar in 1648.
Despite setbacks, including the startling incident of 'The Charge of The Light Brigade', Russia could not remove her attackers and in 1856 was forced to sign the Peace of Paris, agreeing not to keep a navy in the Black Sea or maintain bases on the shore.
Campaigns took over the Caucasus from 1857 to 1864 and used it as a base to subdue central Asia; the Uzbek khanates of Khokand, Khiva and Bokhara, the Turkmen nomads and the Tadzhik and Kirgiz mountain tribes.
www.gaminggeeks.org /Resources/KateMonk/Former-Soviet-Union/Russia/History.htm   (2763 words)

  
 Pavlodar, Kazakhstan
Open to the dry, sandy winds of the steppes, it was little more than a collection of dusty clay huts and warehouses with no paved streets or central plumbing.
Even the little character it had suffered the typical country-wide fate: all of the churches and the mosque's minaret were destroyed during the Soviet anti-religion campaign in the 1930s (one unfinished cathedral survived till 1970s).
In 1955, the Virgin Lands Campaign gave start to modern Pavlodar.
creekin.net /c4697-n94-pavlodar-kazakhstan.html   (288 words)

  
 Sample Chapter for Weiner, A.: Making Sense of War: The Second World War and the Fate of the Bolshevik Revolution.
The extent of the pacification campaign and the introduction of the irredeemability of certain categories of Soviet citizens reflected a shift in the pattern of Soviet cleansing, namely, indiscriminate and irreversible excision of those stigmatized as wartime collaborators.
Khrushchev, in turn, launched the Virgin Lands campaign in 1954-56, revived the late Stalinist concept of "communism in our lifetime," advanced communal surveillance to an unprecedented degree, and set out to convince the collective farm peasants to give up their household plots.
The war was followed by an acceleration in the continuous purification campaign that sought the elimination of divisive and counterproductive elements.
www.pupress.princeton.edu /chapters/s6957.html   (8744 words)

  
 School 21st Century World - Resources
China depends on irrigated land to produce 70 percent of the grain for its huge population of 1.2 billion people, but it is drawing more and more of that water to supply the needs of its fast-growing cities and industries.
Nikita Khrushchev, the Soviet leader, as the Virgin Lands Campaign.
Land use conflicts in tropical rainforests, like those of Brazil and Borneo are even more controversial.
www.design4effect.com /soc11/res.htm   (9859 words)

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