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Topic: Viru Valley

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  Viru Valley - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Viru Valley is on the north west coast of Peru.
In 1946 the first attempt to study settlement patterns in the Americas took place in the Viru Valley, led by Gordon Willey.
The study showed that villages were located in places which reflected their relationship with the wider landscape and their neighbours.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Viru_Valley   (157 words)

 The Huancaco Project - Virú Valley
The archaeological complex of Huancaco is situated about 10 kilometres south-east of the village of Virú in the Virú Valley, Peru.
The complex lies in the southern limit of agriculture in the valley and is partly covered, and therefore protected, by sand dunes.
The ceremonial area was the subject of intensive survey during the 1998 season.
www.nottingham.ac.uk /archaeology/research/huancaco/viru.htm   (190 words)

 Museo Larco
Discovery of the hybrid vases Salinar - Cupisnique in the valley of Virú.
Discovery of the fact that the culture called Recuay or Callejón de Huaylas had its center in the valley of Santa and not in the mountains, as it was thought.
Demonstration, for the first time, of the charts of the different coast valleys and of the main mountain centers classifying them by ages and periods and including within them the cultures settled in those places.
museolarco.perucultural.org.pe /iaportes.shtml   (848 words)

 The Huancaco Project
Archaeological Research at the Moche Capital of the Virú Valley, North Coast of Peru
Huancaco is a large Moche period archaeological complex situated about 10 kilometres south-east of the village of Virú in the Virú Valley, Peru.
It is currently the subject of an intensive four year project to study its development and its role in the wider Moche world.
www.nottingham.ac.uk /archaeology/research/huancaco   (112 words)

 Viru Tourist Information and Travel Guide at InfoHub.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
The main town in the valley is Viru, a small place at Km 515 of the Panamerican Highway, with a bridge over the river bed that, in the dry season, looks as though it has never seen rain.
Here in the valley you can see the dwellings, murals and pyramids of a significant religious and administrative centre, its internal layout derived from kinship networks.
From Viru, the Panamerican Highway cuts north across a desert plain, close to the sea.
www.infohub.com /destinations/South-America/Peru/Viru   (350 words)

 Tiwanaku and Andean Archaeology Page - SAA99
In Mantaro, the upper valley was studied by Earle and team in the early 1980s.
The Mantaro middle valley, was surveyed by Browman in the late 60s (Browman 1970).
A case in point is West's Viru valley study, after Willey's "intensive sampling survey" as Parsons put it.
www.tiwanakuarcheo.net /1_main/saa99txt.html   (2352 words)

 The Early Intermediate Period Origins of Moche Civilization
  In the southern valleys of the North Coast like Virú and Santa much of the population abandoned their fields nearest the coast and moved further inland to defensible inland ridge-top locations.
   In the Moche Valley this process resulted in a significant portion of the population congregating in a single densely occupied site, Cerro Arena, which, with its corporate architecture and specialized storage buildings was the first example of a north coast urban settlement.
Thus this was a time of stability and consolidation of the strategies of socio-political integration that were brought to their full fruition in the succeeding Moche period.
www.unm.edu /~gbawden/324-MochOrigins/324-MochOrigins.htm   (810 words)

 CSISS Classics - Gordon R. Willey: Settlement Patterns in Archaeology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
In 1946 and 1953, field surveys were combined with aerial photography to produce detailed maps of all of the archaeological features of the valley.
After completing the Virú Valley work, Willey continued to focus on the spatial distribution of cultural activities across landscapes at given moments in time.
As a result of his settlement pattern studies, by the 1960s the research emphasis of many archaeologists was shifting from single sites to the study of regions and their archaeological contents.
www.csiss.org /classics/content/70   (1129 words)

 Southern Methodist University - Department of Anthropology
The strong similarities between Santa ceramics and those of valleys to the north (e.g., Virú) coupled with the equally strong dissimilarities between Santa and valleys to the south suggest that the source of the attacks was either Nepeña or Casma Valleys to the south, if not both.
The principal features of sites (including habitation sites, ceremonial-civic center s, fortresses, and cemeteries) and other features (e.g., walls and roads), as well as the ceramic diagnostics found in association with these remains, are marked directly onto the airphotos for later tracing in the field laboratory.
It may be noted with regard to the use of the term "processual" here that the building of forts on a large and extensive scale suggests that conflict, or the threat of conflict, was an ongoing phenomenon in a context of a continual balance of power.
www.smu.edu /anthro/faculty/dWilson/dWilson.htm   (2164 words)

 Viru Ceramic Vessel in the Form of a Swimmer
This vessel typifies the spirited yet unfettered "Gallinazo" style which developed in the Viru Valley.
The features of the figure--large hook nose, lenticular incised eyes, smiling mouth and negative resist geometric painting technique are consistent with the Vicus style of pottery.
Peru, Viru valley, North Coast, Early Intermediate Period AD 1-100.
www.trocadero.com /AAA/items/278868/item278868store.html   (176 words)

 ANTH P376 - Take Home Final Exam Question 2   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
Survey and excavations in the Virú Valley that the Early Horizon (800 ­ 200 BC) Cupisnique influence was replaced by the Salinar (~400 ­ 1 BC) followed by the Gallinazo (~AD 1 ­ 200) who were finally replaced by the Moche (~AD 200 ­ 650) (Fig3.jpg).
Based upon this early seminal work, the Moche were assumed to have expanded from this central region of the north coast, first into the valleys immediately to the south (i.e., the Virú, Santa, Huarmey, etc.) during periods Moche III and IV, and later (Moche V) into the northern valleys (Lambayeque, Piura).
Other evidence suggests that the expression of Moche culture and iconography varied from valley to valley, leading other scholars to question whether the Moche represent a single state, a confederation of culturally-related but independent states, or complex chiefdoms with autonomous leadership in each valley.
users.ipfw.edu /sutterr/P376/Q2Background.html   (2319 words)

 Gordon Willey - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
He also wrote many books including some in the archaeology of North America.
Perhaps his most significant work was the 1953 work Prehistoric Settlement Patterns in the Viru Valley, Peru which launched the new archaeological interest in settlement patterns.
This first major study of settlement patterns was a great bolster to the New Archaeology, associated with Lewis Binford among others because it focused not on the pottery chronologies of urban areas, but rather on the function of smaller satellite settlements and ceramic scatters across a landscape.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Gordon_Willey   (227 words)

 Education | Gordon Willey
Willey is also recognised as the creator of "settlement pattern studies", a methodological advance that he pioneered in the Viru Valley, Peru, in the late 1940s.
Prior to his Viru Valley work, from 1936 to 1939 he developed new methods of pottery analysis, and reconstruction of ancient culture history in Georgia and Louisiana, where he met Katharine Whaley, whom he married in 1938.
He went on to the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, before going to Harvard as the first Charles P Bowditch professor of central American and Mexican archaeology and ethnology, a post he held from 1950 to 1983.
education.guardian.co.uk /print/0,3858,4410618-110843,00.html   (533 words)

 References   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
Ancient Burial Patterns of the Moche Valley, Peru.
Peters, Ann H. Pchinga: Habitation and Necropolis in the Lower Posco Valley.
Cultural Stratigraphy in the Virú Valley, Northern Peru.
www.columbia.edu /~mth21/references.html   (1057 words)

 Tiwanaku and Andean Archaeology Page - Hydraulic Systems on the Peruvian Coast, bibliography
1974 Irrigation and Urbanization in Pre-Hispanic Peru: the Moche Valley.
1988 Prehispanic settlement patterns in the lower Santa Valley, Peru: a regional perspective on the origins and development of complex North Coast society.
Kosok (1965) considers that the Fortaleza, Pativilca and Supe valleys and the Chillon and Rimac valleys constitute two different irrigational complexes.
www.tiwanakuarcheo.net /1_main/hydraulic.html   (2322 words)

 Some Historical Background 3
Many of Larco's interpretations were borne out during the 1940s by the work of North American archaeologist Gordon Willey and other members of the Virú Valley Project.
In effect, the Moche presence in the Virú valley appears in phase III.
The discovery of the tomb of a warrior priest at Huaca La Cruz became one of the most oft-cited lines of evidence to support the notion that Moche was a theocratic state.
www.huacas.com /Page07.htm   (185 words)

 Gordon R. Willey Obituary   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
He is recognized as the creator of the field of “settlement pattern studies” in archaeology, a tremendous methodological advance that he pioneered in the Viru Valley on the northern coast of Peru in the late 1940s.
The ancient settlements and other features were shown to reflect people’s uses of the landscape and relations with their neighbors, thus enabling scholars to reconstruct the economic, political, and social organization of past cultures.
Prior to the Viru Valley work, Willey made important contributions to the archaeology of the Southeastern U.S. through his creative new methods of pottery analysis and reconstruction of ancient culture history.
www.peabody.harvard.edu /Willey_obit.htm   (614 words)

 Peace Corps Online | DAVID J. WILSON - I worked as a Peace Corps volunteer in Bolivia during the late 1960s
Here, it is worth noting that in contrast to the Santa River, which has a relatively huge flow of water on a year-rou nd basis (4600 million cubic meters per year, on average), the Casma Valley has far less flow (320 million cubic meters per year).
Briefly to refer more specifically to the research methods employed in the Casma and preceding projects, all three surveys h ave relied on the intensive prior study of ceramic diagnostics using both the published literature and type collections available in various American and Peruvian museums.
As shown in Figure 5, a far better candidate for pristine state formation in the Casma Valley is the Patazca Period system.
peacecorpsonline.org /messages/messages/467/3608.html   (2703 words)

 Introduction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
One of the most important developments in archaeological method and theory in the past twenty years has been the recognition of the importance of regional archaeological surface surveys.
This technique was pioneered in the Viru River Valley by Gordon Willey in the early 1940's, and has become an indispensable tool in the archaeologist's arsenal of research tools since that time.
Of course, the sophistication of survey techniques has improved since then, as well as the sophistication of archaeologists in understanding the compexities of survey strategy.
www.anth.ucsb.edu /faculty/stsmith/classes/anth3/courseware/Survey/2_Introduction.html   (204 words)

 bio on james a. ford
James Alfred Ford, also known as Jim by his colleagues, was a highly regarded archaeologist who made many contributions to the field of archaeology.
Ford was born on February 12, 1911 and raised in Water Valley, a small town in rural Mississippi.
Ford's historical career began his last year of high school where he and a fellow classmate worked for the Mississippi Department of Archives and History studying Indian sites in the areas surrounding Jackson, Mississippi.
www.utexas.edu /courses/wilson/ant304/biography/arybios98/ramirezbio.html   (879 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
Title : Dissertation Research: Archaeology of the Viru Valley, Peru Abstract : Burger Under the direction of Dr. Richard Burger, Mr.
He will conduct archaeological excavation at the site of Huaca El Gallo/Huaca La Gallina which is located in the Viru Valley on the northern coast of Peru.
It will increase understanding of how complex societies develop and will also contribute to the training of a promising young scientist.
www.cs.utexas.edu /users/yguan/NSFAbstracts/Abstracts/SBE/SBR.SBE.a9418963.txt   (353 words)

 Register to the Papers of James Alfred Ford
The Lower Mississippi Valley Survey correspondence was originally divided among three folders and arranged in roughly chronological order.
Prints of the Viru Valley artifacts are in the series of photographs.
In the series of correspondence, under Columbia, 1941-1942, and Viru Valley are materials concerned with Ford's South American expeditions.
www.nmnh.si.edu /naa/fa/ford.htm   (6064 words)

 James A.Ford
James Ford was born on February 12, 1911 among the hills and small farms of Water Valley, Mississippi.
Although he had no previous archaeological training, Ford began his career collecting Native American artifacts for the Mississippi Department of Archives and History shortly after high school graduation.
From late 1945 until early 1946 Ford assisted in the survey and seriation study of ceramics in the Viru Valley of Peru.
www.mnsu.edu /emuseum/information/biography/fghij/ford_james.html   (621 words)

 Settlement Pattern Studies in the Americas: Fifty Years Since Viru:1560988266:Billman, Brian R.; Feinman, Gary M. ...
By providing a context for interpreting sites and artifacts, settlement pattern surveys enable archaeologists to address such fundamental anthropological issues as the formation of sedentary communities; the evolution of ranking; and the development of chiefdoms, states, and empires.
The first settlement pattern survey was initiated in 1946 in the Viru Valley on the north coast of Peru; today methodological and theoretical advances have allowed the settlement pattern survey to mature as a feasible, commonly used tool for analyzing broad cultural changes.
In Settlement Pattern Studies in the Americas, seventeen distinguished scholars recount the history of settlement pattern archaeology and detail current case studies ranging from Alaska to Oaxaca to Peru.
www.ecampus.com /bk_detail.asp?isbn=1560988266&referrer=CJ   (498 words)

 Passion for Peru History
Cave dwellings in the Ayacucho Valley; stone artifacts in the Chillon Valley.
300 AD Technological advance marked above all in the Viru Valley - the Gallinazo culture - and at Paracas.
Sites in the Viru Valley, at Paracas, and the growth of Tiahuanaco Culture around Lake Titicaca.
passionforperu.com /history.htm   (387 words)

 The Andes: Moche   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
earliest defensible towns were at the valley necks, where the earliest canals were built
in later Moche times, they really did conquer the valleys to the south, grow increasingly secular, and eventually collapse...
Late Preceramic, especially the Supe valley, with Aspero and Caral (3000 BC - 2000 BC)
members.aol.com /emciv/34103s23.htm   (2124 words)

 The Early Intermediate Period: Moche
considers the earlier "fortresses" in the Casma, Santa, and Nepeña valleys to indicate an early bout of conflict at the dawn of the Early Horizon
the growth of Cerro Blanco was accompanied by the cultural and political unification of the Moche valley and the neighboring Chicama valley
Moseley suggests that the large valleys of the northern area were indirectly ruled, through existing elites, while the smaller valleys of the southern area were directly ruled after military conquest, with the imposition of state centers and administrators
bruceowen.com /andeanae/490-03f-13.htm   (3505 words)

 [No title]
State controlled coastal plain from Huarmey to Piura Valleys, ca.
AD 500-600 state shows signs of stress (state contracts) capital moves from Cerro Blanco in the Moche Valley far north to
Priest buried in Virú Valley, excavated by Strong and Evans 1947
www.public.asu.edu /~kintigh/asb223/bc08moch.htm   (609 words)

 BrennanC_7_1   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
of the lower Moche River valley and including a minimum of 2,000 separate structures, the site of Cerro Arena constitutes the earliest large, nucleated, predominantly residential site now known on the Peruvian North Coast, and the first large Salinar Phase residential site to be extensively excavated.
A comprehensive program of site mapping and selective excavations revealed a diversity of specialized architecture, including elite residences, public ceremonial architecture, possible specialized administrative facilities, and ordinary domestic architecture.
The significance of this reconstruction is assessed relative to what is known of the character of Salinar settlement in the remainder of the Moche Valley and the neighboring Viru Valley, and of the preceding and suceeding cultural phases on the North Coast.
www.bu.edu /jfa/Abstracts/B/BrennanC_7_1.html   (156 words)

 Amazon.ca: Cultural Stratigraphy in Viru Valley, Northern Peru: Books   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
Amazon.ca: Cultural Stratigraphy in Viru Valley, Northern Peru: Books
Be the first person to review this item.
Top of Page : Cultural Stratigraphy in Viru Valley, Northern Peru
www.amazon.ca /exec/obidos/ASIN/0231018371   (119 words)

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