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Topic: Virus biology

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  Virus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Virus particles comprise a nucleic acid genome that may be either DNA or RNA, single- or double-stranded, and positive or negative sense.
This complex of protein and nucleic acid is called the nucleocapsid, and, in the case of the measles virus, is enclosed in a lipid "envelope" acquired from the host cell, in which virus-encoded glycoproteins are embedded.
In the case of the hepatitis B virus, the T-number is 4, therefore 240 proteins assemble to form the capsid.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Virus_(biology)   (2710 words)

 MSN Encarta - Virus (biology)
The term “virus” was first used in the 1890s to describe agents that caused diseases but were smaller than bacteria.
By itself a virus is a lifeless form, but within living cells it can replicate many times and harm its host in the process.
The virus coat is removed by cellular enzymes, and the virus RNA or DNA comes into contact with ribosomes (cell organs that synthesize proteins) inside the cell.
uk.encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761575740/Virus_(biology).html   (1237 words)

 Virus   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
A virus is a small particle that infects cells in biological organisms.
Viruses are important to the study of molecular and cellular biology because they provide simple systems that can be used to manipulate and investigate the functions of cell types.
Deaths have occurred through virus infections caused by virus vectors used in gene therapy, so their application to human subjects is still nascent.
www.worldhistory.com /wiki/V/Virus.htm   (2552 words)

 Kids.net.au - Encyclopedia Virus -   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
A virus is a small particle which can infect other biological organisms.
The term "virus" usually refers to those particles which infect eukaryotes (multi-celled organisms and many single-celled organisms), whilst "bacteriophage" or "phage" is used to describe those infecting prokaryotes (bacteria and bacteria-like organisms).
The origin of viruses is not entirely clear, but the currently favoured explanation is that they are derived from their host organisms, originating from transferrable elements like plasmids or transposons.
www.kids.net.au /encyclopedia-wiki/vi/Virus_(biology)   (668 words)

 Host (biology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In biology, a host is an organism that harbors a parasite, mutual partner, or commensal partner, typically providing nourishment and shelter.
Examples: A cell can be host to a virus, a legume plant can be host to helpful nitrogen-fixing bacteria, an animal can be host to a parasitic worm, e.g., a nematode.
For instance, the production of antigenic shifts in Influenza A virus can result from pigs being infected with the virus from several different hosts (such as human and bird).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Host_(biology)   (265 words)

 Virus   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Three types of viruses: a bacterial virus, otherwise called a bacteriophage (left center); an animal virus (top right); and a retrovirus (bottom right).
Importantly a virus' genomes code not only for the proteins needed to package its genetic material but for those proteins needed by the virus to reproduce during its infective cycle.
A giant intracellular virus, Mimivirus, survives inside amoebae that can be found in the water of cooling towers.
www.mywiseowl.com /articles/Virus_(biology)   (2114 words)

 Biology - Modeling
Each virus type has a different known shape or structure that allows it to be recognized, as well as a life cycle for which it can reproduce.
Once a virus is identified, have students to begin the modeling by first sketching the virus on grid paper and if animating the model, have students make a storyboard.
Once the research stage is completed, have students sketch their virus on grid paper to identify the various parts they want to show and where each part is to be placed within the model.
www.ncsu.edu /scivis/biology.html   (1178 words)

 101 VIRUS LINKS - www.101science.com
VIRUS - Viruses are infectious particles that consist of a DNA or RNA molecule packaged in a protein capsid.
Both the structure of the virus and its mode of replication differ widely between viruses.
Virus infected bacteria which appear un-infected but have the hereditary ability to produce phage, are called lysogenic.
www.101science.com /xxxxxvirus_link.htm   (574 words)

 QIMR Website - Epstein-Barr Virus Biology Laboratory
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes glandular fever and is associated with a number of cancers, including lymphomas in transplant patients and a relatively common form of cancer in the back of the nose called nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
The EBV Biology laboratory has a broad interest in all aspects of the biology of the virus and is closely linked with other EBV laboratories within the Division.
X-linked agammaglobulinaemia patients are not infected with Epstein-Barr virus: implications for the biology of the virus.
www.qimr.edu.au /research/labs/denism   (1148 words)

 txt001sjd: Molecular biology and pathogenesis of hepatitis E virus
The virus is transmitted in a faecal–oral manner and is a major cause of viral hepatitis in much of the developing world, where it causes rampant sporadic infections and large epidemics.
This pattern suggests a sporadic transmission of the virus that accumulates over age; this is consistent with the predominantly subclinical nature of infections, the short periods of infectious viraemia (virus in the bloodstream), and the consequently limited pool of HEV infection in the community.
HEV is a spherical, nonenveloped, RNA virus that is approximately 32–34 nm in diameter (Fig.
www.expertreviews.org /99001271h.htm   (7035 words)

 Hepatitis B Virus Biology -- Seeger and Mason 64 (1): 51 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes transient and chronic infections of the liver.
The woodchuck hepatitis virus X gene is important for establishment of virus infection in woodchucks.
Hepatitis B virus capsid: localization of the putative immunodominant loop (residues 78 to 83) on the capsid surface, and implications for the distinction between c- and e-antigens.
mmbr.asm.org /cgi/content/full/64/1/51   (10752 words)

 Biology News: Virus takes out killer caterpillar
They harvested the virus, mixed it with water and sticky molasses, and squirted the mixture on to individual trees in Cape Cod.
Should the preliminary trials hold up, he hopes the virus could be mass produced as an alternative to the harsh pesticides that kill many moth species.
Releasing a virus to combat a moth may raise environmental concerns, as it could infect other species with unknown consequences.
www.bioedonline.org /news/news.cfm?art=879   (551 words)

 Young, Mark   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Three principle areas of research are under investigation: (1) the study of spherical virus assembly and disassembly processes; (2) the use of viral protein cages as constrained reaction vessels for nano-materials synthesis; (3) and the isolation and genetic characterization of viruses from extreme thermal environments found in Yellowstone National Park.
Characterization of a mutant of CCMV and its indication for virus disassembly.
Heterologous expression of laminin peptide 11 on a virus particle surface for use in malignant cell targeting.
plantsciences.montana.edu /Faculty/young.htm   (1770 words)

 UCLA Microbiology & Immunology Faculty
Nayak, D.P., and Hui, E.A. Assembly and Morphogenesis of Influenza virus.
Conserved cysteine and histidine residues of the putative zinc finger motiff of influenza virus M1 protein are not critical for influenza virus replication.
Nayak, D.P., Hui,E.K.-W. and Barman,S.(2004) Assembly and budding of Influenza virus.
www.mimg.ucla.edu /faculty/Nayak/fac_nayak.html   (856 words)

 MRB: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Biology, Immunology, and Therapy.
Researchers have acquired new understanding of the virus's biochemistry, molecular biology, pathogenesis, genetics, and immunobiology.
The result is a broad introduction for students and researchers new to the field as well as an integrated overview for researchers specialized in particular areas of HIV investigation.
Each chapter is a comprehensive presentation of one area of current AIDS research--including work on the virus life cycle, epidemiology, genetics, protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitors, receptor and co-receptor interactions, therapeutic targets, clinical treatment, immunobiology, and vaccines--written by a leading researcher in that area.
www.medical-research-books.com /mrb-books-reviewed/0691004544.html   (693 words)

 Biology of Virus Infections: Radiation and Immunity
All humans are infected for life with latent and persistent viruses, and it is well-known that suppression of the immune system allows latent viruses to reactivate and multiply, which may cause disease in the person undergoing reactivation or in contacts to whom the virus is transmitted.
Preliminary studies suggest that combined effects of radiation and virus infection on experimental animals lead to immunosuppression and enhanced virus replication.
The knowledge gained from studies of virus infections in these test models will be applicable to Earth-bound individuals at risk of suffering similar virus reactivations and serious, sometimes life-threatening, consequences due to immunosuppression following organ transplantation or cancer chemotherapy, and during pregnancy, old age and AIDS.
www.nsbri.org /Research/Projects/viewsummary.epl?pid=153   (544 words)

 Epstein-Barr Virus Infections: Biology, Pathogenesis, and Management -- Straus et al. 118 (1): 45 -- Annals of Internal ...
Several of the Epstein-Barr virus genes expressed during the viral replication cycle (third line) and during viral latency in B lymphocytes (fourth line) are depicted.
The coding regions of EBNA (Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen)-LP, LMP (latent membrane protein)-1, and LMP-2A and LMP-2B are spliced (-o) from discontinuous portions of the genome; LMP-2A and LMP-2B begin at the right end of the circularized genome and extend across the terminal repeats to the left end of the genome.
Expression of Epstein-Barr virus transformation-associated genes in tissues of patients with EBV lymphoproliferative disease.
www.annals.org /cgi/content/full/118/1/45   (7685 words)

 NIDCR DIR: Adeno-Associated Virus Biology Unit, GTTB   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The overall research goal of the Adeno-Associated Virus Biology Unit is to define the interactions of adeno-associated virus (AAV) with its target cell.
Our hypothesis is that by understanding these interactions, and the biology of the virus, we can contribute to the use of AAV vectors for gene therapy.
Staff members focus on two types of interactions: those involved in viral transduction of the target cell, and those between the Rep proteins of the wild type AAV and their cellular partners.
wwwdir.nidcr.nih.gov /dirweb/gttb/aavu.asp   (136 words)

 Research School of Biological Sciences Genomic Interactions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
As a team, we take an integrated approach to plant biology using a wide range of techniques including genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, proteomics, cell biology and bioinformatics.
The third objective is to undertake a systematic systems biology analysis of the model legumes describing the interacting gene networks and key metabolic pathways.
Molecular and Cell Biology: standard array of techniques for molecular biology and cell biology, including direct and indirect access to plant and microbial strains, transformants and mutants.
www.rsbs.anu.edu.au /ResearchGroups/GIG/index.asp#bioinfo   (782 words)

 HUM-MOLGEN events: Cell Biology of Virus Infections
The aim is to bring together scientists at all stages of their career to discuss cell biological aspects of virus infections.
The topics include viral entry, virus cytoskeletal and membrane interactions, virus assembly and structure.
The specific topics will be preceeded by special cell biology overview lectures on microtubules, actin, endocytosis and exocytosis.
hum-molgen.org /meetings/courses/0359.html   (215 words)

 Turnip vein-clearing virus molecular biology
that subgroup 3 arose from a subgroup 1 virus that infected a cruciferous plant.
The patterns of accumulation of one virus are not appreciably affected by the presence of the other virus.
However, in tobacco protoplasts, the rate of accumulation of viral CP for each virus is accelerated in the presence of both viruses.
opbs.okstate.edu /~melcher/TVCVinfect.html   (769 words)

 What the difference between a bacteria and a virus? : Biology
You may have seen pictures of viruses looking like moon-landers- the legs attach onto the surface of the cell, then the genetic material contained inside the head of the virus is injected into the cell.
This genetic material can either use the cell's machinery to produce its own proteins and/or virus bits, or it can be integrated into the cell's DNA/RNA and then translated later.
Viruses are not really living organisms (my high school biology classes stressed that there was a debate about whether we could actually say they were alive).
www.answerbag.com /q_view.php/9151   (468 words)

 Hepatitis B Virus Biology -- Seeger and Mason 64 (1): 51 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews
Vanlandschoot, P., Van Houtte, F., Serruys, B., Leroux-Roels, G. The arginine-rich carboxy-terminal domain of the hepatitis B virus core protein mediates attachment of nucleocapsids to cell-surface-expressed heparan sulfate.
Rabe, B., Vlachou, A., Pante, N., Helenius, A., Kann, M. Nuclear import of hepatitis B virus capsids and release of the viral genome.
Mabit, H., Knaust, A., Breiner, K. M., Schaller, H. Nuclear Localization of the Duck Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Protein: Detection and Functional Implications of Distinct Subnuclear Bodies in a Compartment Associated with RNA Synthesis and Maturation.
mmbr.asm.org /cgi/content/abstract/64/1/51   (1965 words)

 QIMR Website - Epstein-Barr Virus Molecular Biology Laboratory
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects more than 90% of the human population, and following primary infection with EBV all individuals retain the virus for life.
EBV is the aetiological agent of infectious mononucleosis and is associated with a variety of lymphoid and epithelial cancers such as Burkitts' lymphoma (BL), Hodgkin's disease, T cell lymphomas, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and a number of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas such as gastric carcinoma.
The EBV Molecular Biology Laboratory has a number of projects available for students at BSc Honours and PhD level.
www.qimr.edu.au /research/labs/toms   (1283 words)

 Amazon.fr : Livres en anglais: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Biology, Immunology, and Therapy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
In the 19 years since virologists at the Institut Pasteur first isolated HIV, the detailed understanding of its molecular biology has led to successful drug regimens involving combinations of drugs that inhibit reverse transcription early in the infection cycle and inhibit protein cleavage late in HIV-particle formation.
These drugs and their mechanisms of action are addressed in detail in this book, as are the prospects for other targets, including integrase, envelope-receptor interactions, accessory-gene functions, and the blocking of crucial host-cell functions.
The introductory chapter on the structure and biology of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) is masterly and succinct, but the pages of text are followed by as many pages of references, none of them more recent than 1998.
www.amazon.fr /exec/obidos/ASIN/0691004544   (1223 words)

 Biology And Virus Transmission Of Citrus Aphids   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Aphid species of the world which attack citrus and transmit citrus tristeza virus (CTV) are reviewed.
The aphid life cycle in general, and that of the four species listed above in particular, are described, together with the seasonal occurrence of major citrus aphids in Japan and the virus diseases they transmit.
The control of aphids in order to prevent virus disease is also discussed.
www.agnet.org /library/abstract/tb136.html   (145 words)

Have a knowledge of the principles of structure, classification and replication of major viruses of medical importance.
Understand the principles of diagnosis of virus infections.
Management of more trivial infections depends on control of symptoms, as there are few antiviral agents available.
www-micro.msb.le.ac.uk /MBChB/7.html   (210 words)

 Biology Department - Virus Help   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Departmental Virus Information: Fortunately now that we force automatic updates of the sophos antivirus software onto departmental machines there has been a dramatic reduction in virus infection so we rarely need to broadcast virus warnings to the Department.
Please be aware that there is a new and fast spreading variant of the SoBig virus.
There is a vulnerability in Windows which has allowed the new virus known as Blaster-a to infect multiple machines in the department.
www.york.ac.uk /depts/biol/itsupport/virus/warning.htm   (556 words)

 Biology Department - Virus Help
If you do get a virus chances are it will be because you have not kept your Sophos Anti-Virus up to date.
If your pc still misbehaves then it is time to contact biolhelp and we will see if we can rescue your machine.
The key important message though is to make sure that you keep your anti virus software up to date.
www.york.ac.uk /depts/biol/itsupport/virus/infect.htm   (214 words)

 MyNevadaCounty - West Nile Virus - Mosquito Biology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Certain species of mosquitoes prefer to feed at twilight or nighttime; others bite mostly during the day.
While there are many different species of mosquitoes, only a small proportion actually carry West Nile virus.
West Nile Virus symptoms to watch for; information on vaccination.
new.mynevadacounty.com /westnilevirus/index.cfm?ccs=949   (792 words)

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