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Topic: Virus classification

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  Medmicro Chapter 41
Self assembly of virus capsids follows two basic patterns: helical symmetry, in which the protein subunits and the nucleic acid are arranged in a helix, and icosahedral symmetry, in which the protein subunits assemble into a symmetric shell that covers the nucleic acid-containing core.
The adeno-associated virus (AAV, a dependovirus) is incapable of producing progeny virions except in the presence of helper viruses (adenovirus or herpesvirus).
Besides physical properties, several factors pertaining to the mode of replication play a role in classification: the configuration of the nucleic acid (ss or ds, linear or circular), whether the genome consists of one molecule of nucleic acid or is segmented, and whether the strand of ss RNA is sense or antisense.
gsbs.utmb.edu /microbook/ch041.htm   (3397 words)

 Virus classification - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Virus classification is based mainly on phenotypic chracteristics, including morphology, nucleic acid type, mode of replication, host organisms, and the type of disease they cause.
Baltimore classification is a classification system which places viruses into one of seven groups depending on a combination of their nucleic acid (DNA or RNA), strandedness (single-stranded or double-stranded), and method of replication.
Other classifications are determined by the disease caused by the virus or its morphology, neither of which are satisfactory due to different viruses either causing the same disease or looking very similar.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Virus_classification   (733 words)

 Animal Viruses and Viral Diseases of Humans
The virus infects the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract and occassionally invades the lungs.
The H and N antigens are essential for the virulence of the virus: the H antigen is involved in attachment and the N antigen is probably involved in penetration and the eventual release of the virus.
Hepatitis A is caused by Hepatitis A virus (HAV).
www.bact.wisc.edu /themicrobialworld/Viruses1.html   (17196 words)

 CDC - Emerging Issues in Virus Taxonomy
Virus classification places the viruses in a series of classes or taxonomic categories with a hierarchical structure, the ranks being the species, genus, family, and order.
Allocating a virus to a family or a genus is thus an easy task since all that is required is to consider a few morphologic or chemical features that suffice to unambiguously position the virus in the classification scheme.
On the relative merits of italics, Latin and binomial nomenclature in virus taxonomy.
www.cdc.gov /ncidod/EID/vol10no1/03-0279.htm   (3978 words)

 Animal Viruses
The DNA of the virus resides in the core.
Whenever a virus acquires a membrane envelope, it always inserts specific viral proteins into the that envelope which become unique viral antigens and which will be used by the virus to gain entry into a new host cell.
Their are several possible consequences to a cell that is infected by a virus, and ultimately this may determine the pathology of a disease caused by the virus.
www.bact.wisc.edu /themicrobialworld/AnimalViruses.html   (3668 words)

 LiveScience.com - Huge New Virus Defies Classification
The typical virus is 200 nanometers, or 8 millionths of an inch wide and writes its genetic code in either of two molecules: DNA or RNA, but not both.
Although the virus was spotted inside an amoeba, it was not immediately identified and, therefore, sat in limbo for several years.
Raoult and his colleagues later obtained the mysterious "bug" and identified it as a virus a year ago.
www.livescience.com /animalworld/041111_giant_virus.html   (606 words)

 Sequence Relationships and Taxonomy
The classification of plant viruses has traditionally been a conservative field of endeavour, with plant virologists resolutely resisting the introduction of Latinate nomenclature and Linnaean classification schemes.
These may productively be used for re-classification of certain of the viruses, and as confirmation of the classification of several others: for example, closely-clustered viruses could be regarded as strains, and distinct clusters as groups of strains of different viruses.
This is nowhere more clear than among the plant virus groups linked by possession of a tripartite ssRNA genome and isometric or bacilliform particles: the bromo-, cucumo-, ilar- and alfalfa mosaic virus groups, which have been proposed as members of a plant virus family to be called the Bromoviridae).
www.mcb.uct.ac.za /tutorial/virustax.html   (1405 words)

 Virus Types   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
In terms of tropism, distinguish a virus which is capable of causing viral pneumonia from one which is incapable of causing viral pneumonia.
The strand of RNA is equivalent to a messenger RNA (i.e., as opposed to be complementary to the messenger RNA).
An arbovirus is a virus which is transmitted by an insect while a bacteriophage is a virus that infects a bacterium.
www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu /~sabedon/biol3025.htm   (2536 words)

 Clinical Care of Adolescents & Children Sec.2 APPENDIX C   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and virus culture are probably the most sensitive and specific assays for detecting HIV infection in children born to infected mothers (4-6).
For the purposes of classification, a child meeting the criteria for AIDS in the 1987 case definition (10) should be considered HIV infected-even in the absence of definitive laboratory assays.
Because the classification system is used in conjunction with the AIDS case definition, the 1994 revision provided an opportunity to update certain features of the 1987 AIDS surveillance case definition for children <13 years of age(10).
www.hivdent.org /pediatrics/dohdoh11/2section2c.htm   (2392 words)

 Virus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In taxonomy, the classification of viruses is rather difficult due to the lack of a fossil record and the dispute over whether they are living or non-living.
A complete virus particle, known as a virion, is little more than a gene transporter, consisting of nucleic acid surrounded by a protective coat of protein called a capsid.
Frequently after a chance collision with an appropriate surface receptor on a cell, the virus penetrates the cell, the viral genome is released from the capsid and host polymerases begin transcribing viral mRNA.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Virus   (4586 words)

 virus: Classification
Viruses are not usually classified into conventional taxonomic groups but are usually grouped according to such properties as size, the type of nucleic acid they contain, the structure of the capsid and the number of protein subunits in it, host species, and immunological characteristics.
Sjogren syndrome associated with hepatitis C virus: a multicenter analysis of 137 cases.
Cutaneous vasculitis in primary Sjogren syndrome: classification and clinical significance of 52 patients.
www.infoplease.com /ce6/sci/A0861815.html   (208 words)

 SparkNotes: Viruses: General Characteristics of Viruses
The type of genetic material a virus contains is used in classification, and is discussed in Virus Classification.
Though the details of virus infection and replication vary greatly with host type, all viruses share 6 basic steps in their replication cycles.
Once all of the necessary parts have been replicated, individual virus particles are assembled and released.
www.sparknotes.com /biology/microorganisms/viruses/section1.html   (458 words)

 Virus Guide
A virus is basically a gene transporter with the express purpose of infecting another cell in order to replicate.
Virus classification is the process of naming viruses and placing them in a ‘family tree’ in relation to other viruses.
The latest threat in the computer virus list is the "e-mail virus" which ingrains itself in a document that sends a dummy letter (attaching itself) to all the people in a person's address book.
virus-guides.com   (1351 words)

 Virus Portal - Virus News: Classification of malicious code (V). Trojans
Virus Portal - Virus News: Classification of malicious code (V).
Unlike other malicious code, Trojans do not reproduce by infecting other machines and so, on their own, their ability to spread is limited.
With these kinds of threats around, it is essential that computers are protected with antiviruses that include daily updates to the virus signature file and is able to detect these viruses.
www.virusportal.com /com/virusinfo/virusnews/viewnews.aspx?news=3843   (418 words)

 Appendix 2. Newcastle disease virus: classification and important viral proteins
These two proteins are important in determining the virulence of the virus and how the virus infects host cells.
Attachment of the virus to red blood cells is an important property used in the laboratory to detect the presence of the virus and to detect antibodies to the virus.
The neuraminidase section is the active site of an enzyme that aids in the release of the virus from the membrane of host cells.
www.fao.org /docrep/005/ac802e/ac802e0o.htm   (361 words)

 Huge New Virus Defies Classification   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Gene duplication is key to molecular evolution in all three domains of life and may be the first step in the emergence of new gene function.
It is a well-recognized feature in large DNA viruses but has not been studied extensively in the largest known virus to date, the recently discovered Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus.
This virus is known to burn the eyes and cause severe "turtling".
www.freerepublic.com /focus/f-news/1536753/posts   (2224 words)

 CDC: West Nile Virus - Virology: Classification of West Nile Virus
CDC: West Nile Virus - Virology: Classification of West Nile Virus
Scanned images are of West Nile virus isolated from brain tissue from a crow found in New York.
Therefore, images of West Nile virus are representative for this group of viruses.
www.cdc.gov /ncidod/dvbid/westnile/virus.htm   (152 words)

 The Big Picture Book of Viruses
ICTV Net is an email network of ICTV members that provides the virology community with the opportunity to interact with ICTV, ask questions, and even make proposals...
he Big Picture Book of Viruses is intended to serve as both a catalog of virus pictures on the Internet and as an educational resource to those seeking more information about viruses.
f you know of a virus picture that is not listed here, or would like to update the listing of a site, please use our virology site submission form or email me with the address.
www.tulane.edu /~dmsander/Big_Virology/BVHomePage.html   (443 words)

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