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Topic: Vocal and instrumental pitch ranges

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In the News (Sat 15 Jun 19)

  Glossary - Content Standards (CA Dept of Education)
Vocal or instrumental parts that accompany a melody.
A musical instrument (as a trumpet or flute) in which sound is generated by a vibrating column of air.
The organized notation of all of the instrumental and/ or vocal parts of a composition.
www.cde.ca.gov /be/st/ss/muglossary.asp   (954 words)

  Pitch (music) - Psychology Wiki - A Wikia wiki
Pitches may be described in various ways, including high or low, as discrete or indiscrete, pitch that changes with time (chirping) and the manner in which this change with time occurs: gliding; portamento; or vibrato, and as determinate or indeterminate.
Pitches are named with integers because of octave and enharmonic equivalency (for example, C# and Db are the same pitch while C4 and C5 are functionally the same, one octave apart).
The pitch used for an English cathedral organ in the 17th century for example, could be as much as five semitones lower than that used for a domestic keyboard instrument in the same city.
psychology.wikia.com /wiki/Pitch_(music)   (2454 words)

In most musical instruments, the action of the musician on the instrument produces a source wave consisting of the vibrations of the vibrating column -- a string, a column of air, or a membrane, depending on the classification of the instrument.
When the vocal cords are tightened by the speaker, the frequency of the pulses emitted by the cords increases, and the fundamental and all its harmonics rise in pitch.
Vocal timbre is characterized by wide formants due to the softness of the vocal tract, while the timbre of a flute, for example, whose resonator is comparatively hard, depends on irregularly spaced, single harmonics emphasized over the others.
www.indiana.edu /~savail/workingpapers/sound.html   (2910 words)

 Pitch and Timbre: Definition, Meaning and Use
The pitch of periodically interrupted noise (Miller and Taylor 1948), the (missing fundamental) pitch of temporally sequential successive harmonics (Hall and Peters 1981), and binaural edge pitch (Klein and Hartmann 1981) were all identified and measured by means of discrimination or matching experiments, where only ordinal properties of the sensation play a role.
Although pitch space is a continuum, it is, at least in Western music, treated as a collection of steps, where pitch intervals correspond to certain well-defined frequency ratios.
In speech, a pitch contour is a rather continuous melody-like pattern that is evoked by vowels and voiced consonants, and is directly related to the vibration rate of the vocal cords.
www.zainea.com /pitchtimbre.htm   (3283 words)

 Musical instrument Summary
By the end of the nineteenth century, automatic musical instruments were becoming one of the primary sources of music in the lives of the masses.
The frequency of the wave generated is related to the length of the column of air and the shape of the instrument, while the tone quality of the sound generated is affected by the construction of the instrument and method of tone production.
The fundamental frequency is controlled by the tension of the vocal cords and the tone quality by the formation of the vocal tract; a wide range of sounds can be created.
www.bookrags.com /Musical_instrument   (1460 words)

 Bach Choir of Bethlehem
Often shortened to continuo, the basso continuo was composed of a bass-register instrument that could play melodic lines (such as the bassoon or cello), and an instrument capable of playing chords (the organ in church music, the harpsichord or sometimes the lute in secular music).
The chords could be played by single instrument (such as the harpsichord or organ), by a group of instruments (as in an orchestra), or sung by a choir (where the melody would normally be in the soprano).
Picardy third: the major third above the tonic pitch on the final chord Ana piece otherwise written in the minor mode; that is, a minor key piece ends with the major version of the tonic (a C minor piece ends with a C minor chord).
www.bach.org /bach101/glossary.html   (4373 words)

 Musical keyboard
of the wave generated is related to the length of the column of air and the shape of the instrument, while the
The shape and material of the part of the instrument to be struck and the shape of the resonating cavity, if any, determine the sound of the instrument.
The fundamental frequency is controlled by the tension of the vocal cords and the
www.mp3.fm /Musical_instrument.htm   (373 words)

 Middle C - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
It also tends to be to the middle of a keyboard, and it is near the top of the male vocal range and the bottom of the female vocal range.
For example, that note (C4) would be "low C" to the player of a Western concert flute (as it is in the lowest register of that instrument — see Vocal and instrumental pitch ranges), while C5 would be middle C. Nevertheless, the expression "middle C" is generally clear across instruments and clefs.
When calculated in equal temperament with a reference of A above middle C as 440 Hz, the frequency of the middle C note is approximately 261.6 hertz.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Middle_C   (247 words)

 SingerUniverse Magazine - "At Home In Your Range" article by Joanna Cazden
Different pitch ranges also require modification of breath support, but this is less significant than the length and tension of the vocal folds.
Of course, this won't tell you the range of intensities with which you can sing each note, but it will give you an idea of the pitch range that is practical for you.
The reference pitch you identify this way is typically one-fourth to one-third the distance from the bottom to the top of your speaking range.
www.singeruniverse.com /cazdenathomeinyourrange.htm   (1775 words)

 Timbral Analysis & Orchestration
Female and male voices obviously have different formant frequency ranges, however the ratio between formant frequencies is consistent across males, females, adults, and children.
Acoustic instrument sounds or their combinations are being selected to mimic vocal phonemes.
The formant chart or "vowel space" shows that each instruments, irrespective of family (brass, woodwinds, strings), exhibit formant properties which allow them to be classified in terms of a particular phoneme or pair of phonemes.
ccrma-www.stanford.edu /~jmccarty/formant.htm   (526 words)

 Dolmetsch Online - Music Theory Online - Musical Instrument Ranges & Names
Originally one of a family of instruments, the soprano oboe was the principal oboe that was still in use at the end of the 17th century.
They were pitched in G (range: Db2-D5, without attachments), F (range: B2-C5), E (Renaissance, Baroque instruments), E flat (range: A2-Bb5), D (Renaissance, Baroque instruments) or C (Renaissance, Baroque instruments) and had a longer slide and a handle attached to the outer slide stay to allow for full extension of the slide.
This instrument that is so characteristic of the hunt and the countryside began to be used in instrumental music at the beginning of the 18th century, as can be seen from French and German works of the period, Bach's 1st Brandenburg Concerto being one of the most famous examples.
www.dolmetsch.com /musictheory29.htm   (7608 words)

The range of a voice or instrument is the pitches, from lowest to highest, that it can sing or play.
A Note Name – If an instrument comes in several different sizes (and ranges), the name of a particular size of the instrument may be a note name: for example, an F horn, a B flat clarinet, and a C trumpet.
It may be in the middle of the range, or at the top or bottom, but writing in the power range should guarantee that the part is easy to play (or sing), sounds clear and strong, and can be easily heard, even when many other instruments are playing.
cnx.org /content/m12381/latest   (972 words)

 LA Music Academy - Programs - Course Descriptions
Vocal students perform with professional musicians 3-5 times per week in a variety of styles.
Topics covered are: The staff, pitch, note heads, clefs, ledger lines, sharps and flats, enharmonic equivalents, major scales, key signatures, circle of fifths (major keys) and intervals (major, perfect, minor, augmented, and diminished).
This class offers the knowledge and the skills to be able to apply the colors of the instruments to the score paper, as an artist may apply his/her palette of colors to a blank canvas.
www.lamusicacademy.com /departments/vocals/courseDescriptions.asp   (3130 words)

 ASAP>Academic Standards>Music   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
H.1.3 Sing alone or with a group, on pitch and in tempo, with clear diction, consistent breath control, and appropriate posture for singing.
H.1.4 Sing expressively a variety of vocal literature, utilizing dynamic contrasts, phrasing that fits the musical work, a variety of articulations, and a style appropriate to the piece being sung.
They implement arranging techniques for voices or instruments, other than those for which the pieces were written, in ways that preserve or enhance the expressive effect of the music.
www.doe.state.in.us /asap/standards/music/music_hs.html   (2341 words)

 Music - The UnspokenWord: Theory: Instruments and Voices
In order to be able to compose music for various instruments and have them all play together it's important to know what each instruments transposition is and how to write for them.
Instrument ranges, transpositions, tone colors and general characteristics are crucial for every musician to know.
Nontransposing instruments sound a pitch that is the same as the written pitch.
library.thinkquest.org /C0113187/en/html/theory/instrumentsvoices.shtml   (167 words)

 Making a Joyful Noise
In the absence of a discernible physical or physiological cause of sibilance, the culprit may be a condenser mic or compressor — or the subtle chemistry between the singer and the mic or compressor.
Folklore and vocal voodoo — such as swigging hot sauce to revive a flagging voice — are to be avoided when a singer's livelihood and future career are on the line.
Vocal cords (also known as vocal folds): A pair of soft-tissue cords that are joined at the front of the larynx but separated at the back.
emusician.com /met/emusic_making_joyful_noise   (5099 words)

 McLean School Upper School Music
Instrumental music electives focus on the refinement of technique, note-reading and part-following while playing traditional band instruments or instruments used in non-Western cultures.
Vocal music electives seek to develop vocal and choral skills through a growing appreciation of musical styles.
Vocal Ensemble: This course seeks to develop vocal skills through the practice and performance of repertoire written for a mixed vocal ensemble with instrumental accompaniment.
www.mcleanschool.org /upper/usmusic.html   (487 words)

 What is A Cappella?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Instruments may be used to double the vocal parts, such as using an electric bass to strengthen the vocal bass line, and the piece is still a cappella.
A good sense of pitch is important, as is a good singing voice (particularly one that can blend with others).
For example, second altos in female quartets often sing a "bass line" that pushes the bottom of their range, and many groups utilize modern or non-western vocal techniques (like vocal percussion) that aren't as dependent on pitch as they are on timbre.
www.arts-com.com /mourgos/about.acappella.html   (809 words)

 Music from the Renaissance and Baroque
It is likely that players of these instruments not only improvised dance music and doubled vocal parts but also occasionally stood in for parts when not all voice ranges were available.
Although notated music from the early Renaissance that is specifically composed to take advantage of the capabilities of different instruments is fairly rare, it was clear that some of the part-songs were in fact intended to have all but the top voice played by instruments.
Thus brief instrumental refrains, or interludes in the midst of vocal works, gradually took on lives of their own and became separated from any vocal works altogether; a purely musical logic supplied the necessary structure, without the aid of a text.
www.fathom.com /course/10701021/session3.html   (1238 words)

 Popular Singer Biography, Discography, lyric, Download mp3. lyric, polemics, dancer, orchestra, phrase, harmony, ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Unless these instruments are played by members doubling with another instrument (for example, a trombone player changing to euphonium for a certain passage), orchestras will use freelance musicians to enable them to authentically present works which require instrumentalists that they do not have on staff.
In addition, several chamber ensembles are highly regarded for their musicianship, including the national chamber orchestra of armenia and the serenade instrument orchestra.
The talking drums of africa can imitate the inflections and pitch variations of a spoken language and are used for communicating over great distances.
www.polemo.info /Lyric.html   (1071 words)

 Modified Pitch :: Softball : RSS Feeds : Gourt
Pitch (music), the property of a sound or musical tone measured by its perceived frequency
Central PA Modified Pitch Softball - Men's league based in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.
Cuban-American Softball League - Modified pitch softball league based in Miami, Florida.
sports.gourt.com /Softball/Modified-Pitch.html   (688 words)

 Robyn's Nest - The Parenting Network -Music Education Standards - Select a State
Infants and very young children experience music by hearing it, by feeling it, and by experimenting with pitch and timbre in their vocalizations.
Singing, playing instruments, moving to music, and creating music enable them to acquire musical skills and knowledge that can be developed in no other way.
Through singing, playing instruments, and composing, students can express themselves creatively, while a knowledge of notation and performance traditions enables them to learn new music independently throughout their lives.
www.robynsnest.com /musiced.htm   (3770 words)

 Fine Arts Content Standards - SD Department of Education
sing with expression and technical accuracy a large and varied repertoire of vocal literature, which requires well developed technical skills, attention to phrasing and interpretation, and ability to perform various meters and rhythms in a variety of keys, including some songs performed from memory.
Classroom instruments: Instruments typically used in the general music classroom, including, for example, recorder-type instruments, chorded zithers, mallet instruments, simple percussion instruments, *fretted instruments, keyboard instruments, and electronic instruments.
Fretted instruments: Instruments with frets (strips of material across the fingerboard allowing the strings to be stopped at predetermined locations), such as guitar, ukulele, and sitar.
doe.sd.gov /contentstandards/arts/music.asp   (3269 words)

 American Music Conference
Another factor that affects their assessment is the very wide range of individual developmental differences displayed by young children.
A variety of individual musical experiences is important for children at this age, with little emphasis on activities that require children to perform together as a unit.
Instruments typically used in the general music classroom, including, for example, recorder-type instruments, chorded zithers, mallet instruments, simple percussion instruments, fretted instruments, keyboard instruments, and electronic instruments.
www.amc-music.com /musicmaking/schools/standards.htm   (5068 words)

 Arts Ed (Grade 2) - Appendix B: Vocal and Instrumental Expectations for K-5
Exploration and experimentation are essential components in developing the student's vocal, instrumental, and creative capabilities.
As in the vocal area, students may require substantial support and encouragement in order to feel comfortable and willing to participate in instrumental or experimental sound activities.
Evaluation of vocal and instrumental capabilities must be approached in two ways: focusing on achievement and on growth.
www.sasked.gov.sk.ca /docs/artsed/g2arts_ed/music/appendix_b.html   (1936 words)

 Popular Singer Biography, Discography, lyric, Download mp3. monk, polemics, kelis, pitch, download mp3, liszt, ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
: * Pitch (flight), an aircraft's attitude as nose up or down (see flight dynamics) * Blade pitch, the angle of a propeller * Roof pitch, the ratio of vertical over horizontal measurements in carpentry * Pitch (handwriting), in graphonomics * Pitch (mining), the inclination of mineral veins from the vertical (also rake or dip).
I read a lot of classical books, like the return of the native and all, and i like them, and i read a lot of war books and mysteries and all, but they don't knock me out too much.
All cultures include a mixture of both, and performance may range from improvised solo playing for one's enjoyment to highly planned and organized performance rituals such as the modern classical concert or religious processions.
www.polemo.info /Monk.html   (959 words)

 Quality Music Education for Your Students - Daniels Music Schools - Putting Music Back Into Education
Daniels Music Schools currently administers vocal and instrumental music instruction to children in grades K-12.
Students are directed towards vocals or instrumental mediums based upon their interest and skills.
Students with advanced understanding will be invited to join a vocal or instrumental program.
www.danielsmusicschools.com /programs.htm   (1472 words)

 Arranging vocals for harmony singing groups
You will learn how vocal charts differ from instrumental arrangements, and how to optimize the potential of an a cappella arrangement regardless of the "style." Other featured topics include chord voicings, writing for specific ensembles, how to make charts "sing-able," and the unique requirements of singers.
Presented in an informal and conversational tone, "Arranging for Vocal Groups" is a valuable instructional resource for a cappella singers and arrangers, from beginning to advanced.
Anna Callahan is a vocal instructor from Los Angeles.
www.singers.com /instructional/vocalarranging.html   (1226 words)

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