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Topic: Vocal fold

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In the News (Sat 17 Aug 19)

  Voice Disorders
Vocal fold nodules are the most common benign vocal fold lesions, and are sometimes referred to as "singers nodes." They are usually bilateral and occur at the junction of the anterior 1/3 and posterior 2/3 of the vocal folds.
Vocal fold cysts generally do not respond to voice therapy, and surgical removal will most likely be recommended depending on the severity of the vocal problem; however, your physician may recommend voice therapy pre-surgically to clear the surgical field (reduce swelling and irritation) or post-surgically to address any residual hoarseness.
Vocal fold paresis (weakness) or paralysis (complete absence of movement) may result from a viral infection, cerebral vascular accident (stroke), trauma to the head, recurrent laryngeal nerve damage following surgery to the head, neck, or chest region, or may be ideopathic (cause unknown).
www.gbmc.org /voice/disorders.cfm   (1582 words)

  Vocal Fold Paralysis and Paresis
The vocal fold may be paralyzed in the midline, intermediate, or lateral position.
A vocal fold paralyzed in the midline position should not cause significant vocal complaints, for glottal closure is usually complete.
Unfortunately, the vocal fold is often paralyzed in the lateral position, resulting in a breathy, hoarse, voice.
www.ucdvoice.org /paresis.html   (771 words)

  Voice Disorders - Vocal Fold Scar
Although the cutting beam is reasonably precise, it appears that the reaction of the vocal fold tissue is somewhat unpredictable, possibly because of the emitted heat.
The rehabilitation of scarred vocal folds is one of the greatest clinical challenges in laryngology, and investigational efforts continue in a number of areas.
Vocal fold scar is one of Dr. Sulica’s special interests, and is a focus of his practice.
www.voicemedicine.com /vocal_fold_scar.htm   (811 words)

 [No title]
Vocal nodules are benign masses or lumps which form on both vocal folds, impair vocal fold vibration, and cause vocal difficulties.
Vocal polyps are masses which are generally softer, are formed more like blisters and can appear on one or both of the vocal folds.
Vocal fold cysts are masses which are located deep to the surface of the vocal fold.
www.emoryhealthcare.org /departments/voice_center/sub_menu/vocal_fold.html   (401 words)

 eMedicine - Vocal Fold Paralysis, Bilateral : Article by Joel A Ernster, MD
Bilateral vocal fold (cord) immobility (BVFI) is a broad term that refers to all forms of reduced or absent movement of the vocal folds.
Bilateral vocal fold (cord) paralysis (BVFP) refers to the neurologic causes of BVFI and specifically refers to the reduced or absent function of the vagus nerve or its distal branch, the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN).
Vocal fold immobility may also result from mechanical derangement of the laryngeal structures, such as the cricoarytenoid (CA) joint.
www.emedicine.com /ent/topic348.htm   (5460 words)

 Diseases of the Larynx
Laryngitis sicca is caused by inadequate hydration of the vocal folds.
Vocal fold hemorrhage is a very rare occurrence that usually is caused by aggressive or improper use of vocal folds (e.g.
With both vocal folds paralyzed in the midline position, the person has difficulty breathing and a tracheotomy may be necessary to establish an airway.
www.texasvoicecenter.com /diseases.html   (1118 words)

 Pa Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery/PAO-HNS Patient Information
Visualization of the vocal folds was limited to looking with a mirror placed inside the mouth using regular light, or to direct laryngoscopy (looking directly at the vocal folds through a metal pipe or endoscope) under anesthesia in the operating room.
Inflammation of the vocal folds is associated with increased capillary fragility and increased risk of vocal fold injury or hemorrhage.
When it is injured, the vocal fold cannot move toward or away from the midline, although longitudinal tension is preserved and the vocal fold remains at its appropriate vertical level if the superior laryngeal nerve is not injured.
www.otopa.org /Patient/vocalhealth.html   (11324 words)

 Emory HealthCare
Vocal nodules are benign masses or lumps which form on both vocal folds, impair vocal fold vibration, and cause vocal difficulties.
Vocal polyps are masses which are generally softer, are formed more like blisters and can appear on one or both of the vocal folds.
Vocal fold cysts are masses which are located deep to the surface of the vocal fold.
emoryhealthcare.org /departments/voice_center/sub_menu/vocal_fold.html   (521 words)

 Microvascular Lesions of the True Vocal Fold   (Site not responding. Last check: )
As opposed to vocal fold polyps with telangiectatic vessels, the term "varix" denotes a dilated, tortuous, and/or elongated blood vessel aris ing from the microcirculation of the vocal fold.
This may be secondary to a differential mass effect on vocal fold vibration, physical interposition of the lesion between the vocal folds, or adjacent inflammation in the superficial layer of the lamina propria which hinders the movement of the "cover layer" upon the vocal ligament and produces greater "stiffness" of the fold.
Surgery is indicated for recurrent or imminent hemorrhage, large or enlarging varices8, the development of a vocal fold mass in conjunction with vocal fold hemorrhage or varix.
www1.wfubmc.edu /voice/topics/microvascular.htm   (2917 words)

 Kansas Voice Center - Common Voice Disorders
Vocal nodules are small callous-like bumps located at the junction of the anterior and middle thirds of the vocal folds.
Vocal fold paralysis is the result of nerve damage and includes the causes of cerebrovascular accident (stroke), trauma, or virus.
Vocal fold bowing results in a small gap in the middle of the vocal folds, causing incomplete vocal fold closure.
www.sunflower.com /~ksvoice/common_disorders.html   (1011 words)

 Vocal Fold Paralysis
Less commonly, the vocal fold may not move well due to structural reasons -- such as scar tissue or a mass effect from a tumor growing in the larynx.
Often the vocal fold becomes paralyzed in a position that does not allow the vocal folds to come together properly, giving such symptoms as a weak breathy voice, difficulty swallowing and choking on fluids, and difficulty creating an effective cough.
It is important to examine the larynx and confirm that the vocal fold indeed does not move correctly.
www.umm.edu /voice/vocal_fold.htm   (1235 words)

 Medical College of Wisconsin - Paradoxical Vocal Fold (Vocal Cord) Dysfunction Program
Paradoxical vocal fold dysfunction is a disorder that occurs with abnormal movement of the vocal folds while breathing.
Normally the vocal folds are in an abducted (open) position in the shape of a "V" during inspiration and exhalation of air, which easily allows for the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
If paradoxical vocal fold dysfunction is suspected from the history or observed during the clinical examination, a plan of care is presented that normally includes the recommendation for therapy with a speech-language pathologist and may include treatment with medication.
www.mcw.edu /display/router.asp?docid=7911   (464 words)

 eMedicine - Vascular Lesions of the Vocal Fold : Article by John Schweinfurth, MD
Prominent or enlarged blood vessels that exist on the vibratory surface of the vocal fold may eventually cause problems from hemorrhage or mass effect within the lamina propria and may cause dysphonia by disrupting the vibratory pattern and closure of the true vocal folds.
Microvascular lesions of the true vocal folds are known as varices, capillary ectasias, papillary ectasias, capillary and venous lakes, and spider telangiectasias.
Vocal fold varices may be entirely asymptomatic, or they may result in dysphonia through hemorrhage and edema, scarring, or mass effect with resultant disruption of mucosal wave.
www.emedicine.com /ent/topic608.htm   (2037 words)

 Treatment of Unilateral Adductor Vocal Cord Paralysis
The vocal process attaches to the vocalis muscle and vocal ligament.  The posterior and lateral cricoarytenoid muscles attach to the muscular process.  The inferior aspect of the aryepiglottic fold attaches to the apical process.
Vocal fold lubrication is crucial to effective voice production.  The epithelial layer of the vocal folds contains microridges which are important in enabling spread and retention of mucous on the epithelium.  This lubrication is important in maintaining the pliability of the vocal cords and prevents abrasion on forceful adduction.  Fukuda et al.
The first two steps are the development of tension in the vocal folds and their adduction to the midline (also known as the phonatory attack phase).
www.utmb.edu /otoref/Grnds/VC-paralysis-001108/VC-paralysis-001108.htm   (2459 words)

 Engineering Acoustics/Human Vocal Fold - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks
Human vocal fold is a set of lip-like tissues located inside the larynx, and is the source of sound for a human and many animals.
Basically, vocal folds (or lips or a pair of grass) make a constriction to the airflow, and as the air is forced through the narrow opening, the vocal folds oscillate.
The mass represents one vocal fold, and the second vocal fold is assumed to be symmetry about the axis of symmetry.
en.wikibooks.org /wiki/Engineering_Acoustics/Human_Vocal_Fold   (1150 words)

 The Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery
The vocal folds, because of their position in the airway, play a vital role in speech, swallowing, and breathing.
Vocal fold nodules and cysts are benign (non-cancerous) growths which can affect people of all ages.
There is often thinning of the elastin fibers in the vocal folds, thickening or fibrosis of the collagen fibers, and atrophy of the vocalis muscle.
www.hopkinsmedicine.org /voice/disorders.html   (3308 words)

 The National Center for Voice and Speech - Tutorials
The lateral movement of the vocal folds continues until the natural elasticity of the tissue takes over, and the vocal folds move back to their original, closed position.
A spring is useful for portraying the tissue stiffness or restoring force in the vocal fold.
When the vocal folds are opening, fluid pressure against the walls is greater than when the vocal folds are close together.
www.ncvs.org /ncvs/tutorials/voiceprod/tutorial/model.html   (1035 words)

 Voiceproblem.org: Vocal Fold Paresis/Paralysis: Highlights
Vocal fold paresis and paralysis comprise a range - from mild to severe - of abnormal voice box muscle functions due to varying degrees of abnormal nerve input.
Absence of vocal fold movement (vocal fold immobility) is highly suggestive of vocal fold paralysis but may also be due to other causes - hence thorough medical evaluation is necessary.
Laryngeal electromyography or LEMG confirms the diagnosis of vocal fold paralysis or vocal fold paresis.
www.voiceproblem.org /disorders/paresis   (585 words)

 Scripps Health -Scripps Center for Voice & Swallowing - Vocal Fold Paresis
Vocal fold paresis refers to partial, or reduced neural activity of the vocal fold.
Vocal fold paresis is commonly caused by post-viral vagal neuropathy and endotracheal intubation during surgical procedures.
Treatment of vocal fold paresis may be observation for a paresis with a good prognosis or surgery for old injuries with little chance of recovery.
www.scrippshealth.org /Locations.asp?ID=201   (197 words)

 Vocal Essentials - Professional Voice Training & Care
Laryngitis is the inflammation of the vocal fold tissues.
A nodule is a benign growth on the vocal fold that usually occurs on both vocal folds and is caused from chronic vocal abuse (kind of like a callus).
A polyp is also typically a benign vocal fold growth, although polyps generally occur only on one side and often arise from a traumatic incident to the vocal folds, e.g., after a vocal fold hemorrhage or mucosal tear.
www.vocalessentials.com /faq.html   (2144 words)

 Vocal Fold Nodules and Polyps   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Vocal fold nodules are benign growths on both vocal folds that are caused by vocal abuse.
Polyps appear on either one or both of the vocal folds and appear as a swelling or bump (like a nodule), a stalk-like growth, or a blister-like lesion.
Polyps may be caused by prolonged vocal abuse, but may also occur after a single, traumatic event to the vocal folds, such as yelling at a concert.
www.asha.org /public/speech/disorders/nodules_polyps.htm   (596 words)

 The Voice and Swallowing Institute: Neurological Trauma and Disease Vocal Progr - New York Eye & Ear Infirmary
It is important to understand that in the case of surgeries, immobility of the vocal fold does not mean that the nerve was cut.
The goal of treatment is to improve vocal fold closure, because all of the symptoms caused by vocal fold paralysis are due to incomplete vocal fold closure.
In cases where the gap between the paralyzed vocal fold and the working one is small, and sometimes in cases where the paralyzed vocal fold recovers only partially, voice therapy alone may be enough to achieve normal voice.
www.nyee.com /cfv-neuro.html   (2837 words)

 Regulation of vocal fold transepithelial water fluxes -- Fisher et al. 91 (3): 1401 -- Journal of Applied Physiology
fold oscillation by increasing the viscosity and decreasing the
In the stratified, squamous epithelium of the vocal fold, the 100-kDa
to the vibratory margin of the vocal fold (10, 19, 29, 31).
jap.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/91/3/1401   (5526 words)

 Voice Disorders
Symptoms of a voice disorder range from hoarseness or chronic dry, scratchy throat, a pitch/tone that is not pleasing, to limitations in the ability to speak clearly, or periods of voice loss.
Occurring initially as small bumps on the vocal fold, cysts are a fluid collection in a sac like structure.
There can also be many other causes for vocal fold bowing and there can be more serious conditions that might initially appear as a bowing of the vocal fold.
www.wchi.com /slp/t_vd.html   (863 words)

 Therapy for vocal underdoers
One may be born with or genetically determined - to have or develop - relatively thin vocal folds, just like there are all types of bodies, there are all sizes of vocal cords.
The vocal folds may not be able to reach each other or touch.
The vocal folds may have an irregular edge or even scar bands connecting the vocal folds.
www.voicedoctor.net /therapy/underdoer.html   (749 words)

 Hyaluronic Acid-Based Microgels and Microgel Networks for Vocal Fold Regeneration
Vocal fold scarring disrupts the viscoelastic properties of the lamina propria that are critical for normal phonation.
Mechanical measurements using a torsional wave apparatus indicate that HA-based DXNs exhibit elastic moduli that are similar to those of vocal fold lamina propria at frequencies close to the range of human phonation.
These HA-based microgel systems are promising candidates for the treatment of vocal fold scarring, not just as biocompatible filler materials, but as smart entities that can repair focal defects, smooth the vocal fold margin, and potentially soften and dissolve scar tissue.
pubs.acs.org /cgi-bin/abstract.cgi/bomaf6/2006/7/i12/abs/bm0604956.html   (301 words)

 History of Scottish Fold cats and kittens from the Katareece Cattery.
The folded ear is produced by an incomplete dominant gene and is the result of a spontaneous mutation.
Due to the rarity of the Fold, and due to the fact that not every kitten born has folded ears, it is very hard for the supply to keep up with the demand.
Scottish Fold adapt to almost any home situation and are as comfortable in a room full of noisy children and dogs as they are in a single person's dwelling.
www.katareececattery.com /History/history.html   (739 words)

 Science Netlinks: Science Updates
But in 1997, vocal cord surgery left scarring that robbed her of her singing voice.
That strategy involves a material that would be soft enough to be implanted in the damaged vocal fold tissue, and it would in all likelihood have cells that come from the individual.
One of the key challenges is coming up with a material that really works like vocal fold tissue (the stuff your vocal cords are made of).
www.sciencenetlinks.com /sci_update.cfm?DocID=165   (710 words)

 2002 International Conference on Voice Physiology and Biomechanics Web Proceedings
Development of these conferences grew out of a desire to replace the biennial Vocal Fold Physiology conferences, begun in 1980, with meetings having a more open format.
DPC Inhibition of Vocal Fold Transepithelial Chloride Ion Fluxes
Modelling the role of vocal membranes in bats and primates: dynamical effects of local morphological changes of vocal folds
www.ncvs2.org /icvpb/2002ICVPB.html   (562 words)

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