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Topic: Volatilisation


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In the News (Sat 18 Nov 17)

  
  Pesticides in air and in precipitation and effects on plant communities, Danish Environmental Protection Agency
Volatilisation of lindane and MCPP methyl with an increased airflow
Volatilisation of lindane and MCPP methyl applied at the recommended dose to filter paper during a 30 hour period indicates that about 28% and 8% of the applied dose was volatised during the first hour after application for MCPP methyl and lindane, respectively.
Temperature affects the volatilisation of a given pesticide from soil by a direct influence on the vapour density of the pesticide and by temperature influences on the physical and chemical properties of the soil.
www2.mst.dk /udgiv/publications/2001/87-7944-929-8/html/helepubl_eng.htm   (13818 words)

  
  Teagasc - Project Report - 4270 - Ammonium Thiosulphate as an Environmentally Friendly Tool for Reducing Inputs
Volatilisation was estimated by means of a stirred dynamic chamber technique in combination with passive diffusion sampling.
Volatilisation from slurry decreased from a maximum emission within the first hour after application and between 75 and 90% of NH was volatilised within the first 24 hours.
The effect of ATS on N volatilisation from urea and slurry was inconclusive.
www.teagasc.ie /research/reports/environment/4270/eopr-4270.htm   (3042 words)

  
 SETAC Europe 2003   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Volatilisation rates were low for the first 7 d but rapidly increased during the second week.
Weekly volatilisation rates calculated from the flux chamber measurements were 40.0 mg ha-1 week-1 (week 1) and 143.8 mg ha-1 week-1 (second week).
Volatilisation rates measured with the flux chambers were, then, somewhat lower than those made using ambient air samples.
abstracts.co.allenpress.com /pweb/setaceu2003/document/?ID=22245   (223 words)

  
 Pesticides in air and in precipitation and effects on plant communities, Danish Environmental Protection Agency
Volatilisation of lindane and MCPP methyl with an increased airflow
Volatilisation of lindane and MCPP methyl applied at the recommended dose to filter paper during a 30 hour period indicates that about 28% and 8% of the applied dose was volatised during the first hour after application for MCPP methyl and lindane, respectively.
Temperature affects the volatilisation of a given pesticide from soil by a direct influence on the vapour density of the pesticide and by temperature influences on the physical and chemical properties of the soil.
www.mst.dk /udgiv/publications/2001/87-7944-929-8/html/helepubl_eng.htm   (11570 words)

  
 Volatilisation de l'azote
Field and laboratory studies were carried out to specify (i) the magnitude of ammonia emissions and (ii) the factors that influence the process of ammonia volatilization.
Using a wind tunnel system, percentages of NH3 volatilization ranging from 5 to 75% of the ammoniacal-N applied in pig (mainly) and cow slurries were measured during field experiments.
Results from the current work indicate that, in agricultural situations commonly found in Brittany, NH3 volatilization is an important way of nitrogen loss which affect the efficiency of nitrogen recycling from the spreading of animal slurries.
www.cemagref.fr /informations/produits/Editions/Eau/95-0084.htm   (292 words)

  
 The artificial stream and pond system
Volatilisation from the water body is one of the major elimination processes by which specific chemicals are irreversibly removed from aquatic ecosystems.
In order to determine the volatilisation rate under natural conditions, however, parameters such as temperature, water and wind speed as well as the average water depth and the bed roughness have to be taken into consideration.
At present, the volatilisation of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) is being examined by the Umweltbundesamt in cooperation with the Uni Osnabrück in controlled experiments at the FSA.
www.umweltbundesamt.de /fsa/htm_en/fate2.htm   (178 words)

  
 Volatilisation
Volatilisation is the process whereby a dissolved sample is vaporised.
In Atomic Spectroscopy this is usually a two step process.
The analyte is turned into small droplets in a nebuliser these are entrained in a gas flow which is in turn volatilised in a high temperature flame in the case of AAS or volatilised in a gas plasma torch in the case of ICP spectroscopy.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/vo/Volatilisation.html   (65 words)

  
 Measured and predicted volatilisation fluxes of PCBs from contaminated sludge-amended soils.
Volatilisation fluxes of individual congeners were generally highest for the surface sludge (1-cm depth) application and slightly lower for the plough layer (5-cm depth) application.
Results from a multiple regression analysis showed that volatilisation fluxes of PCBs from the surface application are highly dependent on both the sludge concentration and the log of the octanol-air partition coefficient (K(OA)).
A well-known soil volatilisation model, developed by Jury et al., was adapted and used to predict fluxes for the different sludge application methods during the experiment.
www.galenicom.com /medline/article/15093360/au:Cousins+IT   (362 words)

  
 Mass transfer of pesticides into the atmosphere by volatilization from soils and plants: overview
Volatilization may represent a major dissipation pathway for pesticides applied to soils or crops, accounting for up to 90% of the application dose in some cases.
In general, pesticides are volatilized from plant surfaces to a greater extent and faster than from the soil.
According to the experimental studies reported in the literature, the main factors affecting this process during the first few days after treatment have been identified as follows: the physico-chemical characteristics of the compound and the environmental conditions (temperature, soil moisture, nature of the soil or the crop) are key parameters, along with management practices.
www.edpsciences.org /articles/agro/abs/2002/01/03/03.html   (411 words)

  
 Slurry application
Interactions between ammonia volatilisation and nitrous oxide emission following slurry application to the land.
Ammonia emission from animal manures applied to land represents both a source of pollution and a loss of nitrogen available for crop uptake.
In order to achieve this a clear understanding of the process and the factors influencing it is required.
www.plymouth.ac.uk /pages/view.asp?page=2945   (190 words)

  
 PEARL: Publications archive (recent.htm)
Volatilisation of the pesticides chlorpyrifos and fenpropimorph from a potato crop
Volatilisation of pesticides from plants is one of the main pathways for their emission to the environment.
Simulation of volatilisation from plants is an important part in pesticide fate models, especially for the models used to predict the concentrations of pesticides in the environment in the registration procedures.
www.pearl.pesticidemodels.eu /recent.htm   (9355 words)

  
 details
Ammonia volatilisation was measured immediately after urea application in the three consecutive years 1995 to 1997.
Ammonia volatilisation was affected significantly by soil moisture and temperature before and after fertiliser application during the wheat growing season.
The results also show that the amount of N lost through NH3 volatilisation increased with increasing N application rate, but the ratio to applied N was not affected significantly by N application rate.
cmbi.bjmu.edu.cn /ChinaPaper/details.asp?PubMedID=11237290   (257 words)

  
 UNEP Global Programme of Action Clearing-House
In addition to the depletion of nutrients through the removal of the growing plants, soil-borne nutrients and those applied to the soil may be lost through leaching, soil fixation, erosion and volatilisation.
Hence, where continental shelves are dominated by cross-shelf advection, the increased inputs from rivers are relatively minor (229), a similar effect refers to water exchange processes (currents) (274).
A negative effect may also be caused by the volatilisation of nitrogen, i.e.
www.fao.org /gpa/nutrients/montool.htm   (664 words)

  
 GRDC - Research Updates - Matching N to water availability to maximise productivity (2004)
Plant available N can be lost from the soil by volatilisation of ammonium on alkaline soils, leaching in response to large or frequent rainfall events, and denitrification when soils become saturated for several days.
Volatilisation of urea nitrogen will be high if the urea is applied after rain.
Losses of urea N by volatilisation are typically <30% of applied N. Even under conditions of a 30% loss of nitrogen due to volatilisation, if the projected yield benefit translates into a value greater than the cost of the urea, it is still economically viable to apply urea.
www.grdc.com.au /growers/res_upd/south/s04s/baldock.htm   (1840 words)

  
 GRDC - On Farm Trials - Urea volatilisation (Birchip & Marnoo, VIC)
Volatilisation is the loss of ammonia to the atmosphere.
The advantage of green urea is that the granule is supposed to be protected from volatilisation for the first 14 days after application.
It is possible that the thick canopy at the end of tillering protects the granular urea from volatilisation until the next rainfall event.
www.grdc.com.au /growers/oft/oft_search/docs/vic/2006/snbcg1.htm   (1428 words)

  
 Capstock polymer composition - Patent 6696513   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The invention relates to a capstock polymer composition comprising a blend of a melt extrudable acrylic polymer component; from 10% to 50% by weight of a halogen donor component; a halogen volatilisation component; and a char-inducing component which induces formation of a char upon application of flame to the composition.
Halogen radicals released by the halogen donor, in the presence of a flame, combine with, for example, antimony oxide to form the volatile antimony trichloride, Sb.sub.2 Cl.sub.5, it is postulated.
In a preferred composition a synergistic combination of PVC and antimony oxide (or sodium antimonate) is used which forms volatile radical scavengers which terminate the flame propagation step in the burning process.
www.freepatentsonline.com /6696513.html   (4144 words)

  
 Analytical chemistry
Examples of this include ICP-MS(Inductively-Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry), where volatilisation of a sample occurs in the first step, and measuring of the concentration occurs in the second.
Techniques that involve volatilisation aim to produce free atoms of the elements making up the sample, which can then be measured in concentration by the degree to which they absorb or emit at a characteristic spectral frequency.
These techniques can still be used to study speciation, however by the incorporation of a separation stage before volatilisation.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/an/Analytical_chemistry.html   (641 words)

  
 NERC - Awards abstract
This project aims to further understanding of the photochemical transformations and chemical speciation of organic and inorganic iodine in the marine environment, and in particular, the relative roles of I2 and iodocarbons as iodine atom sources in coastal and open ocean environments.
The fact that coastal IO and OIO concentrations are not significantly greater than those measured in air representative of the open ocean suggests that iodocarbons may not be the dominant source in remote air, as has been previously assumed.
The possibility of direct volatilisation of I2 from the seawater surface via reaction of the atmospheric O3 with surface I- was first proposed decades ago.
www.nerc.ac.uk /research/programmes/solas/facts/abstract.asp?refno=NE%2FD006538%2F1   (551 words)

  
 [No title]
Thermal analysis experiments showed that addition of caffeine anhydrate to diacetylmorphine base resulted in a lower melting temperature and a higher volatilisation rate for the mixture than for diacetylmorphine base alone.
More elaborate in vitro volatilisation experiments showed that volatilisation of diacetylmorphine/caffeine mixtures resulted in sufficient amounts of diacetylmorphine in vapour and in particles small enough for efficient deposition in the lungs.
The powder mixture containing 75% w/w diacetylmorphine base and 25% w/w caffeine anhydrate was preferred for development of pharmaceutical heroin for inhalation after volatilisation.
igitur-archive.library.uu.nl /dissertations/2004-1206-111021/UUindex.html   (494 words)

  
 Amazon.com: volatilisation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Volatilisation of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during the pyrolysis of biomass: differences between sugar cane bagasse and cane trash [An article from: Bioresource Technology] by D.M. Keown, G. Favas, J.i.
Volatilisation of crop protection chemicals from crop and soil surfaces under controlled conditions-prediction of volatile losses from physico-chemical properties [An article from: Chemosphere] by J.A. Guth, F.J. Reischmann, R. Allen, and D. Arnold (Digital - Nov 1, 2004) - HTML
of the lion indicates the volatilisation of the denser aspects of...
www.amazon.com /s?ie=UTF8&keywords=volatilisation&index=blended&page=1   (886 words)

  
 Eclética Química - Dehydration and volatilization non isothermic kinetic of the solid state aluminium ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The TG curves in nitrogen atmosphere present mass losses due to dehydration, partial volatilisation (sublimation plus vaporisation) of the anhydrous compound followed by thermal decomposition with the formation of a mixture of carbonaceous and residues.
The partial volatilisation of the aluminium complex was observed by Charles and Perroto
They verified the co-precipitation of 8-hydroxyquinoline and formation of polynuclear species, besides the volatilisation when this compound was submitted to heating.
www.scielo.br /scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-46702001000100014&lng=en&nrm=iso   (1734 words)

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