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Topic: Vowel length

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The different vowel qualities are realized in acoustic analyses of vowels by the relative values of the formants, acoustic resonances of the vocal tract which show up as dark bands on a spectrogram.
A vowel sound that glides from one quality to another is called a diphthong, and a vowel sound that glides between three qualities is a triphthong.
Vowels are especially important to the structures of words in languages that have very few consonants (like Polynesian languages such as Maori and Hawaiian), and in languages whose inventories of vowels are larger than their inventories of consonants.
www.oobdoo.com /wikipedia/?title=Vowel   (3748 words)

 Tungusic Research Group: About the Languages: Section 3
In general the rules of harmony of harmony are: 1) All the vowels in a word must have the same ATR value; that is, all the vowels must be lax or all must be tense.
In 1a, both the vowels are lax (as predicted by the first rule of harmony) and there are no unround vowels to the right of a round vowel (as predicted by the second rule).
The diminutive represents a suffix with an underlying unround vowel.
www.dartmouth.edu /~trg/languages/section3.html   (2149 words)

 Vowel length   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
In linguistics, vowel length is the duration of a vowel sound.
However, in modern varieties of English, especially American English, the lengths are no longer contrasted; rather, the distinction is on vowel tenseness, with the "long" vowels being tenser than the "short" vowels.
In the modern English language, vowel length is manifested in another way: vowels are long before voiced consonants in the coda of a syllable.
vowel-length.kiwiki.homeip.net   (1030 words)

It is found that lexical pitch-accent and vowel length contrasts influence the expression of pragmatic focus: the phonemic contrasts are enhanced in narrow focus rather than uniformly made more prominent.
The goal of this study is to investigate the interaction of universal, auditory-perceptual factors, which serve to enhance the overall acoustic salience of the speech signal, and language-specific structural factors, which serve to enhance phonologically important contrasts in naturally produced clear speech.
the vowel length contrast in Croatian) and allophonic (e.g.
humanities.uchicago.edu /depts/linguistics/abstract/smilijanic.html   (357 words)

 Vowel duration
Although the acquisition of contrastive vowel quantity has not received much empirical attention, it appears to be quite challenging unless their native language employs an analogous property.
Average ratio of long to short vowels as produced by Russian talkers for whom Latvian is a second language.
The Grabe metric is based on the insight that stressed and unstressed vowels in languages employing stress rhythm vary widely in duration, whereas the durations of vowels in syllable rhythm languages vary less.
oak.cats.ohiou.edu /~bond/ICPhS.html   (1690 words)

 Vowel length   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Arabic is generally regarded as having 28 consonants, 3 long vowels (/a:/,/i:/,/u:/), and 3 short vowels (/a/,/i/,/u/).
The opposition between the three long vowels is present in all modern Arabic dialects.
We found it quite difficult to achieve inter-coder agreement even with this vowel set, and the presence of an /e/ or /o/ vowel was not something that our speakers were able to identify with a great deal of consistency.
www.cs.cmu.edu /~awb/papers/eurospeech2003/arabic/node16.html   (180 words)

 Degrees of Phonological Vowel Length (via CobWeb/3.1 planetlab2.cs.virginia.edu)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Giving acceptable names to this class of vowels and to the difference between it and the first class of vowels above is a problem that has occupied phonologists and phoneticians for decades.
Vowels that can occur in open syllables on the other hand are ``long enough'' in this sense, since they provide the necessary quantity of material to form a stressable syllable on their own.
These three degrees of apparent vowel length will be explicated in a theory of the temporal structure of vowels within the syllable in the next sections.
tomveatch.com.cob-web.org:8888 /Veatch1991/node17.html   (1216 words)

 Great Vowel Shift
Indeed, we might guess that the earlier stage either had (a) just three vowels (spelled ‘i’ ‘e’ and ‘a’), or else (b) three close pairs of vowels, where each member of a pair was represented in spelling with the same vowel letter.
The modern informal terms of "long vowels" and "short vowels" are thus a reflection of an earlier stage of the language where vowel length was a distinctive feature.
The GVS, then, eradicated from English all words in which a difference in vowel length alone functioned to indicate a morhphological relationship; the consequence seems to have been that there was no longer any reason to maintain vowel length as a distinctive feature in English.
asstudents.unco.edu /faculty/tbredehoft/UNCclasses/ENG419/GVS.html   (1727 words)

 LINGUIST List 5.1463: Vowel length in orthographies
The obvious hypothesis is that though the words are differentiated phonetically by length, this is not the distinction that is most salient to the native speakers.
Vowel length, at least for Nahuatl, is not taken into account in these cases.
The honorific suffix today has the reflex of a long vowel in most modern dialects of Nahuatl, making it homophonous with the stem of "buttocks", but attestation from the sixteenth century consistently show them to contrast in vowel length (short for the honorific, long for "buttocks").
www.ling.ed.ac.uk /linguist/issues/5/5-1463.html   (1090 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
English also has significant vowel length, (ship - sheep, foot - food), but English vowel sounds are more complex and long vowels sound different from short vowels, not just longer: (breath - breathe, sock - soak).
They either "can't" hear the difference in vowel length (although they will certainly hear the difference between "beach" and "bitch" in English), or they can't remember whether the vowel is long or short, and they won't look it up in a dictionary.
Doubling is the oldest method of indicating vowel length.
www.cs.cmu.edu /People/mjw/Language/Maaori/VowelLength.post   (443 words)

 Length and Complexity in Structuralist Treatments of English Vowels   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Characterizations of English vowels in terms of temporal structures (i.e., vowel-vowel sequences) may have incorrectly been rejected because of the emphasis on static phonology.
V represents one of the short vowels; /j,w/ are up-glides to the front and back, respectively (I will use /y/ for /j/, below); /h/ is a centralizing off-glide, which can also represent length; /r/ is the rhotic semi-vowel or its non-rhotic reflex in ``r-less'' dialects.
Many of the possible combinations of the short vowels with the glides, constituting different sub-systems, are exemplified by large classes of words; others are exemplified by small word classes with as few members as one; yet others are entirely empty.
tomveatch.com /Veatch1991/node18.html   (762 words)

 The Duration of the Long Vowels as a Perceptual Cue in Lithuanian - Marc L. Schnitzer
The question then arose as to whether duration was a necessary cue for the identification of a vowel in Lithuanian, or whether a native speaker could identify whether a given vowel was phonemically "long" or "short" without the cue of duration.
Then, the (initial and terminal) ends were cut from each piece of tape containing a long vowel thereby modifying the lengths such that the length of tape containing each long vowel was then the same as the length of tape containing the corresponding short vowel (± 0.5 mm).
If he were able to transcribe the vowels successfully, strong evidence would be provided that vowel length (duration) is not a necessary cue for the identification of the "long" and "short" Lithuanian vowels.
www.lituanus.org /1972/72_1_05.htm   (933 words)

Moreover, there is a dependency between whether a language has distinctive vowel length or distinctive con- sonant weight, and the type of strategy employed.
In some cases, vowel length is determined by the weight of the following consonant, and in others, the weight of a consonant is determined by vowel length.
Some vowels have distinctive length, others only surface as long (non-dis- tinctive length), and still others either have distinctive vowel length or are long depending on the context.
roa.rutgers.edu /view.php3?roa=248   (425 words)

 Phonemic Length in Latin   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Sometimes length does make a difference in meaning, this is what Linguists call a "phonematic difference", but in many cases length does not make a distinction of meaning, which is to say that it is not phonematic.
When you search for a word in the dictionary, you hear the spoken word, pronounced in an authentic manner, which shows by the lengths of the vowels as pronounced, which are long and which are short.
Actually, the only way we know which vowels are long and which are short, is by carefully examining the occurrences of each word in lines of poetry which come from the best authors of the Augustan period.
community.middlebury.edu /~harris/LatinBackground/PhonemicLength.html   (432 words)

 Vowel length - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
There are very few languages that distinguish three vowel lengths, for instance Mixe.
One of the very few languages to have three lengths, independent of vowel quality or syllable structure, is Mixe.
Traditionally, the vowels /ei iː ai oʊ juː/ (as in bait beet bite boat beauty) are said to be the "long" counterparts of the vowels /æ ɛ ɪ ɒ ʊ/ (as in bat bet bit bot put) which are said to be "short".
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Vowel_length   (1515 words)

 Hausa Vowels
Vowel length and the rhythm of spoken Hausa
The distinction between long and short vowels at the end of a word is subtle, having to do with the way the vowel is cut off.
One of the most common cases of adding a consonant arises in "possessive" or "genitive" phrases, which add -n to masculine or plural nouns and -r to feminine nouns to mean "of".
www.humnet.ucla.edu /aflang/Hausa/Pronunciation/vowels.html   (1312 words)

 A Survey of some Vowel Systems
The sound of a vowel is governed by many factors, of which the position of the tongue and rounding of the lips are the most important.
Vowel length is ignored for individual vowels, but complete systems of long vowels are sometimes considered separately where they differ from short vowels (e.g.
Note the convention that vowel represented by an uppercase letter is lower (or "opener") than the vowel with the corresponding lowercase letter, with the exception of /a A/.
www.cix.co.uk /~morven/lang/vowels.html   (1904 words)

 Hausa Writing
Hausa has five vowel qualities, which the Romanized orthography represents by the normal five vowel symbols of the Roman alphabet.
Because vowel length and tone are crucial to the Hausa sound system, pedagogical works, reference works, and scientific works on Hausa usually mark tone and vowel length.
Vowels and vowel length in ajami: The Arabic writing system (ajami) has one advantage over the standard Roman orthography.
www.humnet.ucla.edu /humnet/aflang/Hausa/Pronunciation/writing.html   (1167 words)

 First Pan-American/Iberian Meeting on Acoustics Learning the sounds of a new language: Adults can do it too!
These vowels were distributed along a matrix, which is represented by the square in the figure.
In the figures, the line across the squares represents how the listeners identified the vowels: a horizontal line means a high vs. low distinction (quality alone), a vertical line means a short vs. long distinction (length alone), and a diagonal line means a quality and length distinction.
Native listeners identify the vowels by focusing on both quality and length, despite the greater difference in length in their variety.
www.acoustics.org /press/144th/Escudero.htm   (1169 words)

 Vowel length   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Similarly, not all phonemically long vowels in Tamil are actually twice the length of their short analogs.
As a speaker progresses through the pronunciation of a word, tonic vowels or vowels near the beginning of a sentence may be long, but towards the end of the word, short vowels get deleted and long vowels shortened.
Otherwise long vowels are not deleted; they may be shortened by certain, albeit rare, morphophonemic processes, but that is all.
ccat.sas.upenn.edu /plc/tamilweb/book/chapter1/node19.html   (147 words)

 Ancient Greek Accents
by vowel length (but not syllable length, although syllable length is also partially affected by vowel length) both of the accented syllable and of the final syllable in the word,
Possible positions of acute accent are restricted by the length of the accented vowel or diphthong and the length of the vowel or diphthong in the final syllable.
If the persistent accent is on the antepenult, but some forms of the word change the ending from short to long vowels, the accent must comply with the constraints of the possible position restrictions; these forms then show an acute penultimate accent (paroxytone).
www.his.com /~wigtil/greekaccent.htm   (1454 words)

 The Alignment of IPA in Learner's Dictionarys | Antimoon Forum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
One reason why vowel length is no longer phonemic in standard English is that there are so few useful occasions for it to form minimal pairs.
Some dialects of English may develop phonemic vowel length to some length to compensate for their non-rhotic character and the loss of diphthongs that mark the 'r' in words.
Things get more complicated here with allophonic vowel length, as not only does such not correlate to vowel quality in many dialects, in particular North American English dialects, but furthermore the allophonic vowel length can be critical for word recognition *completely separately* from vowel quality alone.
www.antimoon.com /forum/t477-15.htm   (1441 words)

 Bruce Morén's Thesis Abstract
vowel length is determined by the weight of the following consonant,
and in others, the weight of a consonant is determined by vowel length.
length or are long depending on the context.
www.bu.edu /linguistics/UG/moren/papers/thesisabs.html   (414 words)

 Lesson Plans: Speaking
Tarzan of the Apes song using vowel sounds -use song to refresh students memories as to what vowels are.
Make sure students fully understand that a long vowel sound is followed by a voiced syllable and a short vowel sound by an unvoiced syllable.
Check to see that students clearly associate verbs with longer vowel sounds and nouns with shorter vowel sounds when comparing two words from the same root.
linguistics.byu.edu /resources/lp/lps2.html   (759 words)

 English Vowel Length
In General American English (GenAm), vowel length is not as distinctive as in RP.
This is because there is a basic difference between vowel length in Icelandic and English.
So the Icelandic and English rules for vowel length are different, and Icelanders unconsciously use Icelandic rules in English.
www.hi.is /~peturk/KENNSLA/02/TOP/VowelLength0.html   (521 words)

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