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Topic: Warsaw Pact

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  The Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact military science conferences, including representatives from each NSWP general (main) staff, enabled the Soviets to check for signs that an East European ally was formulating a national strategy or developing military capabilities beyond Soviet control.
The Soviets concluded that this outcome proved that the Warsaw Pact truly embodied the "fundamental long-term interests of the fraternal countries." The decision to leave the Warsaw Pact unamended was probably the easiest alternative for the Soviet Union and its allies; the alliance was renewed for another twenty-year term with an automatic ten-year extension.
The Warsaw Pact's lack of a wartime command structure independent of the Soviet command structure is clear evidence of the subordination of the NSWP armies to the Soviet Army.
www.shsu.edu /~his_ncp/WarPact.html   (16234 words)

  > Warsaw Pact at abcworld.net   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The pact came to an end on March 31, 1991, and was officially dissolved at a meeting in Prague on July 1, 1991.
The Warsaw Pact or Warsaw Treaty, officially named the Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance, was a military alliance of the Eastern European Eastern Bloc countries, who intended to organize against the perceived threat from the NATO alliance (which had been established in 1949).
Warsaw Pact forces were utilised at times, such as during the 1968 Prague Spring, when they invaded Czechoslovakia to put down the reform movement that were being led by Alexander Dubček's government.
abcworld.net /Warsaw_Pact.html   (850 words)

 Warsaw Pact - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The creation of the Warsaw Pact was prompted by the integration of a "re-militarized" West Germany into NATO via ratification of the Paris Agreements.
Warsaw Pact forces were utilized at times, such as during the 1968 Prague Spring when they invaded Czechoslovakia to overthrow the reform movement that was being led by Alexander Dubček's government.
The Warsaw Pact was officially dissolved at a meeting in Prague on 1 July 1991.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Warsaw_Pact   (1131 words)

 Warsaw - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Warsaw remained the capital of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth until 1795, when it was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia to become the capital of the province of New East Prussia.
Warsaw is home to over 30 major theatres that are spread throughout the city, including the National Theatre (founded in 1765) and the Grand Theatre in Warsaw ([2]) (established 1778).
Warsaw is seen as the heart of Poland by foreign investors, whose financial participation in the city's development was estimated in 2002 at over 650 million euro.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Warsaw   (4929 words)

 Warsaw Pact   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Warsaw Pact or Warsaw Treaty was a military alliance of the Eastern European Soviet Bloc countries intended to organize against the perceived threat from the NATO alliance, established in 1949.
The pact came to an end on March 31, 1991 and was officially dissolved at a meeting in Prague on July 1.
Warsaw Pact forces were utilised at times, such as during the 1968 Prague Spring, when they invaded Czechoslovakia to put down the democratic reforms that were being implemented by the government there.
usapedia.com /w/warsaw-pact-1.html   (414 words)

 Warsaw Pact - a brief description
The Warsaw Pact is the name commonly given to the treaty between Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union, which was signed in Poland in 1955 and was officially called ‘The Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance’.
Nominally the Warsaw Pact was a response to a similar treaty made by the Western Allies in 1949 (the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, or NATO) as well as the re-militarization of West Germany in 1954, both of which posed a potential threat to the Eastern countries.
Although it was stressed by all that the Warsaw Treaty was based on total equality of each nation and mutual non-interference in one another’s internal affairs, the Pact quickly became a powerful political tool for the Soviet Union to hold sway over its allies and harness the powers of their combined military.
www.warsaw-life.com /warsaw-pact.php   (274 words)

 Warsaw Pact   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Warsaw Pact forces were utilised at times, such as during the 1968 Prague Spring, when they invaded Czechoslovakia to put down the reform movement that were being led by Alexander Dubcek's government.
The Romanian leader, Ceausescu denounced the invasion as a violation of both international law and of the Warsaw Pact's principle of mutual noninterference in internal affairs, saying that collective self-defense against external aggression was the only valid mission of the Warsaw Pact.
In 1980 Chinese dominated Eastern Pact was established, which removed the positions of Warsaw Pact as the sole alliance of socialist countries.
warsaw-pact.ask.dyndns.dk   (906 words)

 Warsaw Pact - dKosopedia
The Warsaw Pact was invoked in 1956 and again in 1968 to suppress reform attempts in Hungary and Czechoslovakia.
The nations of the Warsaw Pact and NATO faced each other in the so-called Cold War for 35 years, until Mikhail Gorbachev's abandonment of the Brezhnev Doctrine led to the fall of communism in Eastern Europe in 1989.
The Warsaw Pact was formally dissolved on July 1, 1991.
www.dkosopedia.com /wiki/Warsaw_Pact   (177 words)

 Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / Country Studies / Area Handbook Series / Soviet Union / Appendix C
The Soviet Union claimed that the creation of the Warsaw Pact was in direct response to the inclusion of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) in NATO in 1955.
The 1955 treaty establishing the Warsaw Pact stated that relations among the signatories were based on total equality, mutual noninterference in internal affairs, and respect for national sovereignty and independence.
The issue of an appropriate Warsaw Pact response to NATO's 1983 deployment of American Pershing II and cruise missiles, matching the Soviet SS- 20s, proved to be the most divisive one for the Soviet Union and its East European allies in the early and mid-1980s.
memory.loc.gov /frd/cs/soviet_union/su_appnc.html   (6968 words)

 Warsaw Pact - Search Results - MSN Encarta   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Warsaw Pact (formally the Warsaw Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance), military alliance of seven European Communist...
This report on the formation of the Warsaw Pact appeared in The Times on May 16, 1955.
The Warsaw Pact was a military alliance formed in response...
uk.encarta.msn.com /Warsaw_Pact.html   (127 words)

 Warsaw Pact - History Forum
Warsaw Pact was established in 1955, and according to CIA estimate by 1958 Soviet Field Divisions were down to third of their wartime strength (per division) with exception of those in East Germany retaining 60%-70% strength.
It seems like the Warsaw Pact was not meant to beat Nato in a war of agression (that is: conquering Western Europe), so it most probably would have lost had it tried to do so.
It is a fantastic scenario, but in reality the Warsaw pact saw their object as Germany, not really all of Western Europe.
www.simaqianstudio.com /forum/index.php?showtopic=2461   (1381 words)

 The Warsaw Pact   (Site not responding. Last check: )
A snapshot of Warsaw Pact troop strength in the early 1980's can be found here.
The Warsaw Pact pretended to be a response of the "peaceloving states" of the Pact to the aggressive intentions of NATO.
The text of the Warsaw Pact is reproduced here; while you read it, you can enjoy the "Warsaw Polka".
www.sitepluto.com /warsawpact.htm   (349 words)

 Modern History Sourcebook: The Warsaw Pact, 1955
For the contracting parties which will not have submitted to the government of the Polish People's Republic a statement denouncing the treaty a year before the expiration of its term, it shall remain in force throughout the following ten years.
Done in Warsaw, on May 1, 1955, in one copy each in the Russian, Polish, Czech, and German languages, all the texts being equally authentic.
Certified copies of the present treaty shall be transmitted by the government of the Polish People's Republic to all the parties to this treaty.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/mod/1955warsawpact.html   (994 words)

 Bulgaria - The Warsaw Pact   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Geographically isolated from the strategically more important northern-tier countries of the alliance, Bulgaria participated in a few joint exercises of the Warsaw Pact along the central front opposite NATO in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) and Czechoslovakia.
Shield-82, the first major Warsaw Pact exercise in Bulgaria, was not conducted until 1982.
The Warsaw Pact conducted a major command and staff exercise for its Southwestern Theater of Military Operations in Bulgaria in March 1984.
www.country-data.com /cgi-bin/query/r-2051.html   (205 words)

 Warsaw Pact
It was a document of non-aggressions and required each country to provide military and economic support to members of the Pact in case of military aggression against any of its members.
In 1985 Warsaw agreement was extended for another 20 years.
Warsaw Pact was abolished on July 1 1991 in Prague, Czechoslovakia.
www.2-russia.com /warsaw-pact.asp   (250 words)

 Poland opens secret Warsaw Pact files
Poland opened up secret files of the former Warsaw Pact which confirmed that the Soviet-led military alliance was ready to accept Europe's annihilation with nuclear strikes as part of a war with NATO.
The Warsaw Pact was dissolved and the Soviet Union fell apart.
Sikorski said the files would offer valuable knowledge about the 1968 Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, which ended the Prague Spring and wrecked hopes that communism could be reformed to allow freedom of speech and respect for human rights.
news.ninemsn.com.au /article.aspx?id=74318   (540 words)

 Warsaw Treaty Organization
Warsaw Treaty Organization or Warsaw Pact,alliance set up under a mutual defense treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland, in 1955 by Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union.
Initiated as an alliance made necessary by the remilitarization of West Germany under the Paris Pacts of 1954, the treaty was binding for 20 years but would lapse in the event of a general European collective security treaty.
A unified military command, with headquarters in Moscow, directed the united forces, which included Soviet divisions stationed in some of the member nations prior to the signing of the treaty.
www.infoplease.com /cgi-bin/id/CE054951   (259 words)

 ISN Security Watch - Poland reveals Warsaw Pact war plans   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Contemporary NATO assessments show that the Warsaw Pact was outgunned in terms of its nuclear capability at the time, but was making efforts to close the gap.
The Warsaw Pact was forced to revise its first-strike strategy against the West after NATO had diversified its nuclear delivery systems to include ground-based tactical missile and artillery platforms in addition to its tactical aircraft.
The plans published in Warsaw last week were scenarios for war games, and it is unclear to what extent these reflect actual military preparations for the alliance’s operations in wartime.
www.isn.ethz.ch /news/sw/details.cfm?id=13653   (956 words)

 Warsaw Pact   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The so-called Warsaw Pact (formal name: «Warsaw Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance») was purely a Soviet organization to create an illusion of the equality of satellite states.
The picture of the Polish poster celebrating the 20th Anniversary of the Pact is at www.theartofposter.com.
There was a badge attributed to the Warsaw Pact which can be seen at: www.shsu.edu and www.warsawpact.org.
fotw.vexillum.com /flags/qw-wpct.html   (349 words)

 1955 Map Of Warsaw Pact Europe
She concluded the Warsaw Pact with her satellites in May 1955.
Warsaw Pact,alliance set up under a mutual defense treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland, in 1955 by...
Warsaw pact, formed by countries of Eastern Europe after the World War 2, created opposition to NATO alliance.
www.gislinx.com /1955mapofwarsawpacteurope.html   (301 words)

 Military liaisons between Nato and the Warsaw Pact
h May 1987 the Warsaw Pact governments proposed to NATO that the two sides hold consultations at an authoritative expert level "with the participation of military specialists of countries of both sides" for the purpose of comparing their respective military doctrines.
The expanded observation of Warsaw Pact military maneuvers in Europe under the Stockholm Agreement and the beginning of on-site inspections to verify implementation of the INF (Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces) treaty has already taxed the U.S. military's supply of Russian linguists to the limit.
In NATO a U.S. proposal to exchange missions with the Warsaw Pact should be considered first in the North Atlantic Council and second in the Military Committee.
www.usmlm.org /home/coldwar/fpipaper.htm   (5198 words)

 Polish Generals Discuss Warsaw Pact Secrets
Bound by their oath of loyalty to the former Polish communist state, the generals still refuse to reveal the details of the Warsaw Pact operational plans, which remain classified in Poland despite its NATO membership.
In cooperation with Soviet and other Warsaw Pact armies, the Polish forces were also to participate in a thrust through northern Germany, aimed at occupying the Netherlands and Belgium within two weeks and preparing for further advance toward the English Channel.
In the course of the operations planned by the Warsaw Pact, half a million Polish troops were expected to perish, mainly because of the massive use of nuclear weapons by both sides.
www.gwu.edu /~nsarchiv/news/20020920   (573 words)

 The Avalon Project : The Warsaw Security Pact: May 14, 1955
Should a system of collective security be established in Europe, and a General European Treaty of Collective Security concluded for this purpose, for which the Contracting Parties will unswervingly strive, the present Treaty shall cease to be operative from the day the General European Treaty enters into force.
Done in Warsaw on May 14, 1955, in one copy each in the Russian, Polish, Czech and German languages, all texts being equally authentic.
65-67 (the Warsaw Pact has been registered with the United Nations Secretariat, but an official English-language text of the pact has not yet been printed in the U.N. Treaty Series).
www.yale.edu /lawweb/avalon/intdip/soviet/warsaw.htm   (883 words)

 CTV.ca | The Warsaw pact
As we land in Warsaw we all note how foggy it is, but little do we know that eventually this fog becomes our nemesis.
With the turbulence of the ride increasing after we crossed the border, the Warsaw pact, as we have named our group, slowly settles into what will most likely be a rather short sleep.
After being up for most of the night trying to acquaint ourselves with the Constitution and the rights of the Observers (things we'd missed in the training session while we were on the train), we hopped on a bus bound for Odessa.
www.ctv.ca /servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/1103982880500_8   (4504 words)

 Warsaw Pact "Military Police"
The armed forces of the Warsaw Pact-era USSR did not have military police as such as it was considered that there was no such thing as "crime" within the utopia of the Soviet Union and it was therefore totally unnecessary to have a force to police the armed forces.
The "Kommandant's Service" of the Russian Army wear a yellow letter "K" on a red patch on the sleeve to indicate their membership of this service - the "de facto" army police.
Traffic Controllers of the Warsaw Pact USSR armed forces wore the patch above on the left upper sleeve of the jacket and greatcoat.
home.mweb.co.za /re/redcap/pact-mp.htm   (376 words)

 BBC NEWS | World | Europe | Poland releases Warsaw Pact files
Poland's new defence minister has announced he is declassifying the country's Warsaw Pact files.
For 36 years the Warsaw Pact squared up against the Western military alliance, Nato.
Without going into details, he said they offer valuable knowledge about the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968.
news.bbc.co.uk /go/rss/-/1/hi/world/europe/4471186.stm   (273 words)

 Parallel History Project on NATO and the Warsaw Pact   (Site not responding. Last check: )
An outgrow of the Spitzbergen conference of 2003, this volume presents the most innovative results of the PHP research on threat perceptions, military doctrines, and the war plans of both NATO and the Warsaw Pact.
Read the conference report, based on unprecedented face-to-face discussions between former NATO and Warsaw Pact military decision-makers, which focused on each side’s perceptions of the other’s force strength and intentions, together with plans for response, and views on the role of nuclear weapons.
It provides new evidence from the archives of both NATO and former Warsaw Pact countries with critical commentaries and encourages declassification of still inaccessible documents...
www.isn.ethz.ch /php   (806 words)

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