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Topic: Washington Naval Conference

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  Washington Naval Conference
The major naval powers of Britain, France, Italy, Japan and the United States were in attendance as well as other nations with concerns about territories in the Pacific — Belgium, the Netherlands, Portugal and China — who were not parties to the disarmament discussions.
The major Allied naval powers agreed on a series of rules for the use of submarines in future warfare and also outlawed the use of poisonous gases as a military weapon.
COnferences till to be covered in this series are those at Washington in 1943 and Quebec in 1943 and 1944.
www.u-s-history.com /pages/h1354.html   (794 words)

 MSN Encarta - Arms Control
The First Hague Conference was convened at the initiative of Nicholas II of Russia to control arms development and improve the conditions of warfare.
In 1930 a naval conference was held in London to amend the Washington Conference treaties.
The keystone of the conference was the so-called Hoover Plan, which consisted of proposals put forth by the United States based on the concept of qualitative disarmament—that is, the progressive elimination of offensive weapons.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761553064_2/Arms_Control.html   (884 words)

 Paris Peace Conference, 1919 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 was an international conference, organized by the victors of the World War I for negotiating the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and the defeated Central Powers.
The Paris peace treaties, together with the accords of the Washington Naval Conference of 1921-1922, laid the foundations for the so-called Versailles-Washington system of international relations.
Germany and its former allies were allowed to attend the conference only after the details of all the peace treaties had been elaborated and agreed upon.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Paris_Peace_Conference,_1919   (457 words)

 Weir   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Naval building competition, as had occurred between Britain and Imperial Germany before the Great War, was perceived by the voting public as well as by many in the Congress as destabilizing, a waste of resources, and a threat to national security.
The conference opened at the Navy Department on 1 July 1924 under the able direction of the Hydrographer of the Navy, Captain Bassett, in the capacity of "Secretary General." Harvey Hayes attended, as a representative of the Navy's Bureau of Engineering.
Although the conference placed the greatest emphasis on geology and geophysics, the problems given priority as the major concerns for the near future represented all of the major disciplines within oceanography.
www.nwc.navy.mil /press/Review/1997/autumn/art6-a97.htm   (7164 words)

 Peace-Disarmament Book Review, NWC Review, Autumn 1996   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Fanning is a historian, so his study follows the arms control process chronologically, from the Washington Naval Conference of 1921-1922 to a brief treatment of the failed London Naval Conference of 1935-1936.
He is most interested in the period from 1927-1930, and especially the failure of the Geneva Conference of 1927, because it was this failure, he argues, that mobilized peace groups to action on behalf of disarmament.
The Geneva conference is important for Fanning because its failure created a window of opportunity for peace groups in the United States to motivate elites and educate the public.
www.nwc.navy.mil /press/Review/1996/autumn/p-d-a96.htm   (815 words)

 Ideas and War at Sea   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Thus, the naval arms control of the twenties and thirties provides about the only example of successful limitation that is far enough in the past to provide reliable data.
In the first period, 1914-1915, although the naval arms race continued, the leaders of the three nations were conscious not only of differences in the reasons why they needed naval power for national security but also that they could upset domestic political equilibrium with exorbitant military spending demands.
Until World War II, the Washington treaties provided about the only real example of arms control, and even here there was the lingering skepticism that the diplomacy was only the codification of the constraints that were put on the statesmen by the economic and political realities of the day.
www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil /airchronicles/aureview/1979/may-jun/coletta.html   (2190 words)

 Text: On The 75th Anniversary Of Washington Naval Conference   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Washington -- The State Department says the 75th anniversary of the Washington Naval Conference November 12 is significant in that agreements negotiated at that 1921 conference here in Washington confirmed that the United States "was not hopelessly isolationist" and "wanted to play a major role in world affairs."
Yesterday was the 75th anniversary of the opening of the Washington Naval Conference.
The agreements negotiated at the Washington Conference worked well for a time but ultimately proved to be inadequate in themselves to ward off World War II.
www.usembassy-israel.org.il /publish/press/state/archive/november/sd41115.htm   (430 words)

 Chronology 1930
The naval parity between the United States and Japan in capital ships proved to be unsatisfactory for the Japanese government.
The British government restored the treaty port of Weihaiwei to Chinese rule in accordance with the British declaration during the Washington Naval Conference of 1922.
Conference on the Unification of Coastal Buoys and Lighthouses
www.indiana.edu /~league/1930.htm   (2968 words)

 Disarmament Efforts
Despite its lack of participation in the League of Nations, the United States was at the forefront of extensive efforts at disarmament during the 1920s and 1930s especially to restrict the growth of naval tonnage, considered to be a key measure of military strength.
Organized and hosted by Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes, the first naval disarmament conference was held in Washington the winter of 1921-1922 with eight nations in attendance.
The major naval powers attempted to rectify the situation at the London Conference of 1930, where Japanese parity in the other vessel classes of ships was recognized.
www.state.gov /r/pa/ho/time/id/16325.htm   (436 words)

The Washington Conference was also knows as the WASHINGTON NAVAL CONFERENCE and was held from November 12th, 1921 to February 6th, 1922.
It was an interntaional confernece called by the U.S.A. to limit the naval race and work out security agreements in the Pacific area.
On February 6th, 1922 the Five-Power Naval Limitation treaty was signed by the U.S., Great Britain, Japan, France and Italy, which agreed to maintain a status quo to their naval bases and ships.
www.geocities.com /causesofww2/Washington_Conference.html   (190 words)

 Washington Naval Conference (Nine Powers Pact, Five Powers Pact), Axis Powers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Held in Washington, D.C., the conference resulted in the drafting and signing of several major and minor treaty agreements.
The Five-Power Naval Limitation Treaty, which was signed by the United States, Great Britain, Japan, France, and Italy on Feb. 6, 1922, grew out of the opening proposal at the conference by U.S. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes to scrap almost 1,900,000 tons of warships belonging to the Great Powers.
The Five-Power Naval Limitation Treaty halted the post-World War I race in building warships and even reversed the trend; it necessitated the scrapping of 26 American, 24 British, and 16 Japanese warships that were either already built or under construction.
www.owlnet.rice.edu /~mwfriedm/terms/anna25.html   (620 words)

Those Powers shall thereupon confer as to the acceptance of the report and the course to be followed to secure the consideration of its recommendations by the other civilized Powers.
The Special Conference provided for in Article II of the Treaty to be signed at Washington on February 6th, 1922, with reference to the Chinese Customs Tariff, [4]shall formulate for the approval of the Powers concerned a detailed plan for the constitution of the Board.
That this Conference express to China the earnest hope that immediate and effective steps may be taken by the Chinese Government to reduce the aforesaid military forces and expenditures.
astro.temple.edu /~rimmerma/washington_naval_conf.htm   (2138 words)

 USNI Conferences & Events - U.S. Naval Institute
U.S. Naval Institute Conferences bring to life topical discussion from the pages of our flagship magazines, Proceedings and Naval History, as well as highly respected books published by the Naval Institute Press.
Hailing from around the world, conference attendees are active participants who enjoy lively exchanges that fuel and sustain USNI's prestigious and unfettered independent forum.
We invite you to join naval strategists, operational commanders, political leaders, defense industry analysts, and journalists in advancing ideas that illuminate missions, define capabilities, and help to shape the roles of current and future war fighters.
www.usni.org /conferences   (205 words)

 PBS VIDEOdatabase of America's History and Culture -- Chapters   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Hughes opened the Washington Naval Conference by declaring that competition and armaments must stop immediately.
Following the conference, 70 battleships were destroyed, scuttled, or shelved, in what some called "the bloodless surrender of the world's greatest empire."
Enthusiasts believed the wars of the future would be fought in the air and stressed the need for an adequate and up to date air force, however, early planes were flimsy and awkward and did not come into their own until World War II.
pbsvideodb.pbs.org /programs/all_chapters.asp?item_id=7771   (549 words)

 Washington Conference --  Encyclopædia Britannica   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
The First International Conference of American States (1889–90), which was held largely as the result of...
The Treaty of Washington, signed on May 8, 1871, dealt with the Alabama claims issue between the...
In a dramatization, George Washington recalls crossing the Delaware, spending the winter at Valley Forge and defeating the British at the Battle of Yorktown.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9076190?tocId=9076190   (801 words)

 article_hone1_doctrine.doc   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
In the nineteen years between the Washington Naval Conference of 1922 and the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, the United States Navy honed its skills in numerous Fleet Problems, and tactical exercises conducted both at sea and at the Naval War College.
The Washington Treaty prevented the construction of the new battle cruisers; “treaty cruisers” of up to 10,000 tons were allowed, and a naval race erupted in ships of this category.
In the Naval War College’s Tactical Problem IV of 1935 a coordinated attack by Orange patrol planes and torpedo bombers damaged several Blue battleships while they were in the process of deploying into their battle formation.
www.ijnhonline.org /volume1_number2_Oct02/articles/article_hone1_doctrine.doc.htm   (8944 words)

 John Moser, The Man Who Wrecked the Conference   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Shearer, a self-proclaimed “naval expert” who had served as an advisor both to the Navy Department and to the Naval Affairs Committee, had attended the conference as an observer, albeit one with a clear axe to grind.
A coalition of naval officers, publicists, journalists and industrialists, which by the late 1920s had come to be known as the “Big Navy” party, had been denouncing disarmament since the Washington Conference of 1921-22, which, they claimed, had guaranteed British supremacy on the high seas.
Dominated as it was by naval officers, practically all of whom were convinced that the United States had gotten a raw deal at the Washington Conference, the American delegation was determined to drive a hard bargain.
personal.ashland.edu /~jmoser1/shearer.html   (7337 words)

 R_0145_2096_026   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
British peace groups preferred such “realist” options as the Washington Naval Conference of 1921–22, the Locarno treaties of 1925, and the abortive of Coolidge (Geneva) Naval Conference of 1927.
By 1934, in the wake of the World Disarmament Conference, few in the peace movement believed that demilitarization was attainable.
For example, in 1963 bilateral conferences between Soviet and American scientists, originally a U.S. proposal, had already received full Russian support two years before the United States was financially or politically able to make concrete arrangements for a first meeting.
www.politicalreviewnet.com /polrev/reviews/DIPH/R_0145_2096_026_19333.asp   (1878 words)

 American Naval Preparation For Pacific War: 1931-1941   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Hughes organized and led the Washington Naval Conference of 1920-22.
naval officers were consulted only before the start of the talks and then on only the most
Washington Naval Conference of 1920 as well as the tiny size of the U.S. Army during the
www.globalsecurity.org /military/library/report/1995/KMS.htm   (2934 words)

 American President
The United States convenes the Washington Naval Armament Conference.
Along with major naval powers England, France, Italy, and Japan, the United States signs a treaty limiting capital ship tonnage.
The conference will also produce a larger agreement that also includes China, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Portugal which recognizes America's Open Door Policy toward China as international policy.
www.americanpresident.org /history/warrenharding/keyevents/washingtonnavalarmament/email.html   (57 words)

 Trafford Publishing: The Treaty Navy: The Story of the US Naval Service Between the World Wars
Good breakdown of the Washington Naval Treaty of 1921, and its subsequent modifications - not to be found elsewhere outside of scholarly doctoral-type theses.
In 1921, the Naval Academy Class of 1881 were guests of their Classmate, Adm. Uriu Baron Sotokichi, in Japan.
Smedley D. Butler (son of the Chairman of the House Naval Affairs Committee) court-martialing his host, a colonel for drinking (not illegal) during Prohibition is an example.
www.trafford.com /robots/01-0278.html   (4328 words)

 London Conference of 1930   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Each naval combatant vessel shall be rated at its displacement tonnage when in the standard condition.
The rules as to replacement contained in Annex I to this Part II are applicable to vessels of war not exceeding 10,000 tons (10,160 metric tons) standard displacement, with the exception of aircraft carriers, whose replacement is governed by the provisions of the Washington Treaty.
Subject to the provisions of Article 2 of the present Treaty, the rules for disposal contained in Annex II to this Part II shall be applied to all vessels of war to be disposed of under the said Treaty, and to aircraft carriers as defined in Article 3.
www.navweaps.com /index_inro/INRO_London_Treaty_1930.htm   (4900 words)

 Paris Peace Conference, 1919   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 was an international conference, organized by the victors of the World War I for negotiating the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and their former enemies.
The 'Big Three': David Lloyd George of Britain, Georges Clemenceau of France and Woodrow Wilson of the United States of America played a predominant role at the conference and pretty much predetermined its outcome in the course of their secret negotiations.
Uruguay The last four were not participants in the war but had severed their diplomatic relations with the Central Powers.
www.worldhistory.com /wiki/P/Paris-Peace-Conference,-1919.htm   (441 words)

 Tretij Internacional
The other great naval Powers weren't worried about her ever achieving that, with her backward industry as disarrayed as it was.
Future German Luftwaffe pilots were being trained to fly at secret Soviet facilities, and in turn German naval architects and skilled laborers were used by Russia to begin rebuilding her fleet from the disasters of the Revolution.
His naval designers, however, had learned a lot during their Soviet apprenticeship and kept their hands in naval matters, discussing hull lines instead of bread lines.
www.combinedfleet.com /furashita/tretij_f.htm   (516 words)

 Nikon History   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Washington Naval Conference of 1921 placed restrictions on capital ship tonnage thus depressing Japanese shipbuilding industry and therefore, adversely affecting affiliated munitions suppliers like Nikon in their finances.
However, the Great Kanto earthquake of 1923, that had destroyed Nippon Kogaku's facilities, had also destroyed military and navy facilities, forcing vast resources to be assigned to new plant of Nippon, thus enhancing its relationship with the Imperial Japanese Navy as both a military supplier and as a research and design arm.
Terms of the London Naval Treaty resulted in acceleration of Japan's military research and development during the 1930s.
www.mitsubishisucks.com /nikon/history.html   (392 words)

 Wilson and the League of Nations by Sanderson Beck
The first Hague Conference that began on May 18, 1899 included 26 states and is considered the first international assembly that met in peace time in order to preserve peace instead of to conclude a war.
As in 1899, the 1907 Conference failed to limit armaments, and many nations pushed ahead with their naval construction of large battleships despite the efforts of the London Naval Conference, though the Declaration of London in January 1909 did clarify issues of international law.
However, a naval arms race between Britain and the United States occurred and was dealt with independently of the League at the Washington naval conference of 1922.
www.san.beck.org /GPJ21-LeagueofNations.html   (11742 words)

 magic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
The U.S. had called the Conference mainly to prevent the British and French from doing the same thing, to break the long-standing treaty of British-Japanese alliance, and to hopefully advance a desire among nations to limit armaments by mutual agreement.
It was during this conference that Yardley first penetrated the Japanese code system on a large scale, and even before the Conference opened, he and the Black Chamber were already breaking the codes used for Japan's diplomatic signals.
Joseph Rochefort had made his way up from the ranks of the Naval Reserve, and had been serving in the intelligence office of a battleship when he was posted to the Safford section in October of 1925.
history.acusd.edu /gen/WW2Timeline/magic.html   (1854 words)

(The London Naval Conference of 1930 brought the numbers into the precise ratio, with Britain and the United States left with 15 ships, and Japan with 9.) The United States and Japan could also take a couple of their battlecruiser hulls and finish the ships as aircraft carriers.
The term "Treaty Cruisers" refers to the cruisers built under the treaty restrictions of the Washington Naval Treaty of 1921 and the London Naval Treaty of 1930.
The Washington Naval Treaty of 1921 saw the cancellation of a number of battleships that had been ordered.
www.friesian.com /dreadnot.htm   (8601 words)

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