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Topic: Wassenaar Arrangement


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  U. S. Bureau of Industry and Security - Wassenaar
The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies, is one of four multilateral export control regimes in which the United States participates.
The Arrangement's purpose is to contribute to regional and international security and stability by promoting transparency and greater responsibility in transfers of conventional arms and dual-use (i.e.
The agreement establishing the Wassenaar Arrangement, called the initial elements, was approved by its 33 founding countries in July 1996.
www.bis.doc.gov /Wassenaar   (297 words)

  
 U. S. Bureau of Industry and Security - Wassenaar FAQs
The Wassenaar Arrangement is also designed to deal firmly with states whose behavior is a cause for serious concern by preventing, through shared national policies of restraint, their acquisition of armaments and sensitive dual-use goods and technologies for military end-use.
The Wassenaar Arrangement is designed to complement and reinforce, without duplication, the existing regimes for weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems.
The Arrangement does not interfere with the rights of states to acquire legitimate means with which to defend themselves pursuant to Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, nor does it, as mentioned, impede bona fide civil transactions.
www.bis.doc.gov /Wassenaar/WASSFAQs.html   (1412 words)

  
 Wassenaar Arrangement - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies" is an arms control arrangement with 39 participating states.
It was established as the successor to COCOM on the 12th of May in 1996, after the end of the Cold War.
The outline of the arrangement is set out in a document entitled "Guidelines and Procedures, including the Initial Elements" [1].
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Wassenaar_Arrangement   (190 words)

  
 Arms Control Association: Arms Control Today: Wassenaar Arrangement Agrees On MANPADS Export Criteria
The Wassenaar criteria call for members to export MANPADS only to foreign governments or their authorized agents and to weigh the possibility of whether the missiles will be diverted or misused by the recipient government.
Wassenaar members agreed to five practices emphasizing that surplus weaponry should be subjected to the same controls as new weaponry.
The Wassenaar Arrangement was established in July 1996 to promote transparency and greater responsibility in the arms trade with the aim of preventing destabilizing weapons accumulations.
www.armscontrol.org /act/2001_01-02/wassenaarjanfeb01.asp   (847 words)

  
 Crypto Law Survey - Page 2
In September 1998, Wassenaar negotiations in Vienna did not lead to changes in the crypto controls, although it was apparently considered to restrict the GSN (see an article in German) and possibly also to ease controls for key-recovery crypto.
The Wassenaar Arrangement was revised in December 1998.
Export is regulated according to the EU regulation and the Wassenaar Arrangement, in the regulations as amended according to the General License Nr.
rechten.uvt.nl /koops/cryptolaw/cls2.htm   (14017 words)

  
 960123 The Wassenaar Arrangement (by Lynn E. Davis)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
The composition and the goals of The Wassenaar Arrangement are tailored to respond to the new security threats of the post-Cold War world, and will close a critical gap in the international control mechanisms, which have concentrated on preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems.
Further, The Wassenaar Arrangement calls for enhancing cooperation among the participants to prevent the acquisition of armaments and sensitive dual-use items for military end-uses, if the situation in a region or the behavior of a state is or becomes a cause for serious concern to the participating states.
Perspective on the Arrangement Although the COCOM parties were responsible for initiating development of The Wassenaar Arrangement, the successor regime differs significantly in its goals and procedures, given the changed strategic environment.
dosfan.lib.uic.edu /ERC/arms/arms_briefing/960123arms_briefing.html   (2016 words)

  
 The Wassenaar Arrangement
The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies is an international agreement designed to contribute to international security and stability, by promoting "transparency and greater responsibility" in international trade of certain products and technologies.
The Arrangement is concerned with trade in weapons and also technologies or goods which could be used to produce weapons or for military purposes.
The Arrangement provides an international framework on export rules but individual countries are free to determine their own export control policies -- it does not force policies onto countries.
www.cescomm.co.nz /about/wassenaar.html   (239 words)

  
 ITS-Security Communities   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies, is one of four multilateral export control regimes in which the United States participates.
The Wassenaar Arrangement establishes lists of items for which member countries are to apply export controls to ensure that transfers of the controlled items do not contribute to the development or enhancement of military capabilities that would undermine the goals of the Arrangement, and ensure that they are not diverted to support such capabilities.
All measures, with respect to the Arrangement, are taken in accordance with national legislation and policies and are implemented on the basis of national discretion.
www.acq.osd.mil /its/communities.htm   (2148 words)

  
 USIS Washington File: EXCERPT: REINSCH ON WASSENAAR ARRANGEMENT, CHINA CONTROLS
The Wassenaar Arrangement comprises 33 countries, including Russia and other ex-Soviet bloc countries, that cooperate in controlling exports of conventional arms and advanced technology to pariah countries and regions of instability.
Wassenaar's lack of strong central authority and its lack of explicit target countries is a reflection of the times -- the absence of a single large threat and lack of agreement over the nature and seriousness of the smaller threats.
The Wassenaar Arrangement will also be examining the strategic relevance of items relating to computers, electronics and telecommunications in the meeting later this month.
usembassy-australia.state.gov /hyper/WF990210/epf305.htm   (2140 words)

  
 The Wassenaar Arrangement
The arrangement is intended to enhance cooperation to prevent the acquisition of armaments and sensitive dual-use items for military end uses if the situation in a region or the behaviour of a state is, or becomes, a cause for concern to the participating states.
The membership of the Wassenaar Arrangement is not fixed and new countries may participate subject to the consensus agreement of existing partners.
The Arrangement does not target any group of states but concentrates on a given regional security environment that is or becomes a cause of concern to participating states.
cbw.sipri.se /cbw/101020550.html   (518 words)

  
 OPENING STATEMENT
The context for developing the Arrangement was the end of the Cold War and the increased prominence of new threats to regional stability around the globe.
The Wassenaar Arrangement has a strong record of success in bringing new parties to observe the international norms of export controls and nonproliferation and in reducing sales of arms to dangerous places.
Both the Wassenaar Arrangement and our own national export controls need to be adjusted in light of this, and this adjustment would put us in a better position to seek foreign cooperation with our national licensing decisions.
www.senate.gov /comm/governmental_affairs/general/041200_reinsch.htm   (2470 words)

  
 Arms Control Association: Fact Sheets: The Wassenaar Arrangement at a Glance
The Wassenaar Arrangement, formally established in July 1996, is a voluntary export control regime whose 39 members1 exchange information on transfers of conventional weapons and dual-use goods and technologies.
To promote transparency, Wassenaar calls on states to make a series of voluntary information exchanges and notifications on their export activities related to weapons and items appearing on the arrangement's two control lists.
Foremost among the arrangement's difficulties is that members continue to be divided over Wassenaar's scope, primarily whether the arrangement should become more than just a body for exchanging and collecting information.
www.armscontrol.org /factsheets/wassenaar.asp   (614 words)

  
 EFF:
The statement was sent to the technical expert representatives of the 33 nations who are signatories to the Wassenaar Arrangement and who are due to begin a review of the arrangement this Fall.
"Wassenaar must be updated to reflect the modern nature of electronic communications and digital commerce," said David Banisar, Policy Director of the Electronic Privacy Information Center and United States coordinator of the Campaign.
The Wassenaar Arrangement is a 1995 international regime to control trade in conventional arms and dual-use goods and technology, which have both civilian and offensive military capabilities.
www.eff.org /Privacy/Foreign_and_local?f=19980915_gilc_wassenaar.statement.txt   (393 words)

  
 Wassenaar Arrangement: Press Statement, December 13, 1996
Representatives of the 33 Participating States* of the Wassenaar Arrangement held their second Plenary Meeting in Vienna, Austria on 12 and 13 December 1996.
They reiterated that the central purpose of the Arrangement is to contribute to regional and international security and stability by promoting transparency and greater responsibility in transfers of conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies, thus preventing destabilising accumulations.
Pursuing this purpose, the Participating States of the Wassenaar Arrangement exchanged information and views on the transfer of arms and dual-use goods and technologies to several regions of the world.
www.defenselink.mil /acq/acic/treaties/wass/press_96b.htm   (362 words)

  
 International Crypto Campaign
The text of the Arrangement is available at and the Wassenaar Secretariat has its own website at .
The Wassenaar Arrangement has had a significant impact on cryptography export controls and there seems little doubt that some of the Nations represented will seek to use the next round to move towards a more repressive cryptography export control regime.
Determine which agencies are responsible for the Wassenaar Arrangement and which are responsible for e-commerce and crypto policy in your government.
www.chiark.greenend.org.uk /pipermail/ukcrypto/1998-August/002179.html   (1004 words)

  
 The Wassenaar Invasion of Privacy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
The Wassenaar Arrangement is supposed to be an intergovernmental agreement to restrict international traffic in arms.
The Wassenaar agreement says encryption software that is "weak" (less than 56 bit keys in some cases, or less than 64 bit keys in others), so that the government can unscramble and read the real message underneath the gibberish, is okay, and in fact frees up some export restrictions on this type of software.
This gives Wassenaar member governments the legal authority to license many mass market encryption software exports which were previously not covered by multilateral controls and enables governments to review the dissemination of the strongest encryption products that might fall into the hands of rogue end users.
www.aci.net /kalliste/wassenaa.htm   (1417 words)

  
 Wassenaar Arrangement
The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies (Wassenaar Arrangement) contributes to regional and international security and stability by promoting transparency and greater responsibility in transfers of conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies, thus preventing destabilizing accumulations of such items.
The Wassenaar Arrangement calls for member states to report twice annually on transfers of arms and specified dual-use items to non-members of the Arrangement.
Members of the Wassenaar Arrangement agree to meet periodically to discuss the functioning of the Arrangement and to consult on ways to improve export control efforts and other issues relevant to the regime.
www.fas.org /nuke/control/wassenaar/index.html   (368 words)

  
 New controls on conventional arms exports
The first plenary meeting of the Wassenaar Arrangement will be held in Vienna on 2-3 April 1996 and the overall structure and operations of the new Arrangement are expected to be finalised at this meeting.
The Wassenaar Arrangement is the successor regime to the Co-ordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (COCOM) established by NATO in 1949 to control the export of military equipment and dual-use technologies to Warsaw Pact states.
The basic objective of the Wassenaar Arrangement is to prevent the acquisition of conventional arms and sensitive dual-use technologies for military end-uses by States whose behaviour is, or becomes, a cause for serious international concern.
www.cypherspace.org /adam/ukexport/wass.html   (855 words)

  
 Groups condemn Wassenaar crypto pact
The revision to the Wassenaar Arrangement was signed by 33 countries in Vienna in early December and calls for restrictions on the export of "mass market" encryption software using keys greater than 64 bits, according to numerous sources who participated in the meeting.
However, several European sources that attended the Wassenaar meeting were at pains to stress that their governments had not merely given in to U.S. demands for tighter controls.
The Wassenaar arrangement actually represents a loosening of export controls, a European diplomatic source, who declined to be identified, told IDG last week, because it also lifts controls on mass market software under 64 bits.
www.networkworld.com /news/1215crypto.html   (953 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
The official name of the regime is "The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies"-Wassenaar being the town outside The Hague where five rounds of negotiations took place over the past two years.
Further, The Wassenaar Arrangement calls for enhancing cooperation among the participants to prevent the acquisition of armaments and sensitive dual-use items for military enduses if the situation in a region or the behavior of a state is or becomes a cause for serious concern to the participating states.
Although the COCOM parties were responsible for initiating development of The Wassenaar Arrangement, the successor regime differs significantly in its goals and procedures, given the changed strategic environment.
dosfan.lib.uic.edu /acda/wmeat95/davis95.htm   (2037 words)

  
 WA - INITIAL ELEMENTS
This arrangement is also intended to enhance co-operation to prevent the acquisition of armaments and sensitive dual-use items for military end-uses, if the situation in a region or the behaviour of a state is, or becomes, a cause for serious concern to the Participating States.
Participating States will meet periodically to take decisions regarding this arrangement, its purposes and its further elaboration, to review the lists of controlled items, to consider ways of co-ordinating efforts to promote the development of effective export control systems, and to discuss other relevant matters of mutual interest, including information to be made public.
The new arrangement will be open, on a global and non-discriminatory basis, to prospective adherents that comply with the agreed criteria in Appendix 4.
www.wassenaar.org /docs/IE96.html   (2294 words)

  
 China
Representatives of 33 major conventional arms supplier states met in Vienna, Austria on 11-12 July 1996 and established the Wassenaar Arrangement, the successor to the Coordinating Committee on Export Controls (COCOM), the Cold War-era organization designed to prevent the transfer of arms and technology to communist countries.
The arrangement is intended to enhance cooperation to prevent the acquisition of armaments and sensitive dual-use items for military end-uses.
China is not a participant in the Wassenaar Arrangement and did not participate in the negotiations on establishing the Arrangement.
www.nti.org /db/china/wasnorg.htm   (762 words)

  
 Story: Wassenaar Agreement Restricts Encryption, 12/4/98.
The "Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies" is intended to restrain transfers of weapons such as "Man Portable Air Defense Systems." However, at the insistence of the United States representatives, the non-binding arrangement also covers export of strong encryption products.
A statement contained in the Wassenaar Arrangement website describes the purpose as follows: "The WA was designed to promote transparency, exchange of views and information and greater responsibility in transfers of conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies, thus preventing destabilising accumulations.
This gives Wassenaar member governments the legal authority to license many mass market encryption software exports which were previously not covered by multilateral controls and enables governments to review the dissemination of the strongest encryption products that otherwise might fall into the hands of rogue end users.
www.techlawjournal.com /encrypt/19981204.htm   (1641 words)

  
 The Wassenaar Arrangement and Controls on Cryptographic Products
This part of the arrangement is significant because many dual use goods can be used to construct either commercial or military capabilities and it is practically impossible for the vendor to know to which purpose they will be put.
A careful study of the Wassenaar Arrangement shows that it is does not provide a basis for export controls that harm or impede civil activities but this is exactly what existing controls on cryptography do.
Contrary to the provisions of the Wassenaar Arrangement, export controls on cryptographic products now have a detrimental impact on ‘bona fide civil transactions’ and this alone means that they can no longer be justified by this agreement.
www.cyber-rights.org /crypto/wassenaar.htm   (3401 words)

  
 - The Wassenaar Arrangement - The eighth Plenary meeting 2002
Participating States again confirmed that the Wassenaar Arrangement is open, on a global and non-discriminatory basis, to prospective adherents that comply with established criteria for participation, and agreed to develop further contacts with the UN and other relevant international organisations and other non-proliferation regimes to avoid duplication of work and to facilitate complementarity.
(1) The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies was established in July 1996 by 33 Participating States on the basis of the Initial Elements.
The Participating States of the Wassenaar Arrangement are: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom and the United States.
www.sipri.org /contents/expcon/wass02.html   (998 words)

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