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Topic: Weak forces

  Fundamental Forces
The electromagnetic force is a force of infinite range which obeys the inverse square law, and is of the same form as the gravity force.
The discovery of the W and Z particles in 1983 was hailed as a confirmation of the theories which connect the weak force to the electromagnetic force in electroweak unification.
This suggests the weak interaction mechanism for the decay of the pion, which is observed to happen by the muon pathway.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/forces/funfor.html   (1168 words)

 Weak Force
In contrast to electromagnetic and strong forces, the strength of the weak force is different for particles and anti-particles (Charge Violation), for a scattering process and its mirror image (Parity Violation), and for a scattering process and the time reversal of that scattering process (Time Violation).
The weak interaction finds practical application in the radioactive elements used in medicine and technology, which are in general beta-radioactive, and in the beta-decay of a carbon isotope into nitrogen, which is the basis for the carbon-14 method for dating of organic archaeological remains.
The weak charges of quarks and leptons are comparable to their electromagnetic charges, a manifestation of how electromagnetism and the weak force are components of a unified electroweak force.
www-project.slac.stanford.edu /e158/weakforce.html   (572 words)

  Weak nuclear force
The weak nuclear force or weak interaction is one of the four fundamental forces of nature.
Although the weak nuclear force used to be described by Fermi's theory of a contact four-fermion interaction, today we know that it is mediated by the W and Z bosons.
The Standard Model of particle physics describes the electromagnetic force and the weak nuclear force as two different aspects of a single electroweak force, the theory of which was developed around 1968 by Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam and Steven Weinberg (more at W and Z bosons).
www.brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/w/we/weak_nuclear_force.html   (520 words)

 Theory: Weak Interactions (SLAC VVC)
Fundamental weak interactions occur for all fundamental particles except gluons and photons.
Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer were awarded the 1984 Nobel Prize for their development of the facility at CERN which first produced and detected W and Z bosons, and for their leadership of the discovery experiment.
The weak interaction was first recognized in cataloging the types of nuclear radioactive decay chains, as alpha, beta, and gamma.
www2.slac.stanford.edu /vvc/theory/weakinteract.html   (539 words)

 Binding Forces
The force is repulsive when the molecules are brought close enough together that the outer charge clouds of the molecules touch, and this causes the molecules to repel each other.
The weak forces of attraction are: Van der Waals forces, Ion-dipole forces, and Hydrogen bonds.
The Debeye forces are the attractive forces between a permanent dipole molecule and an induced dipole molecule.
www.utmem.edu /physpharm/.001a.html   (442 words)

The force that holds the nucleus together is due to "leakage" from gluon exchange that results in an exchange of pion particles between protons and neutrons.
The weak nuclear force is mediated by the massive W-bosons (mass of a Bromine atom) and Z-boson (mass of a Zirconium atom).
Weak W-boson nuclear force is responsible for the fact that all the more massive quarks and leptons rapidly decay into the lightest (and most stable) quarks and leptons.
www.benbest.com /science/standard.html   (1979 words)

 The Fundamental Forces of Nature
The four fundamental forces all play central roles in making the Universe what it is today, but with respect to the large-scale issues that are of interest to cosmology it is gravitation that is most important.
Thus, although gravitation is extremely weak, it always wins over cosmological distances and therefore is the most important force for the understanding of the large scale structure and evolution of the Universe.
Only when the temperature dropped did these forces separate from each other, with the strong force separating first and then at a still lower temperature the electromagnetic and weak forces separating to leave us with the 4 distinct forces that we see in our present Universe.
csep10.phys.utk.edu /astr162/lect/cosmology/forces.html   (630 words)

 Chemical & Engineering News: Latest News - Weak Forces
At the cellular level, weak forces are far more biologically relevant than strong forces, says Taekjip Ha, a biophysicist at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, and leader of the team that did the study.
The researchers use optical tweezers to apply a small force to a fluorescence-labeled object and detect the effect of the applied force on the object's shape by way of fluorescence signals.
Ha and coworkers used the technique to study the effects of small forces on the four-armed DNA structure known as a Holliday junction, which is involved in DNA recombination.
pubs.acs.org /cen/news/85/i42/8542notw6.html   (341 words)

 Straight Dope Staff Report: Is it possible to create a science fiction-type force field?
There are four known forces (or five or three or one, depending on how you count)--gravity, electromagnetism, weak, and strong.
In the olden days, electricity and magnetism were counted as two separate forces (for a total of five), until it was discovered they were two aspects of the same thing (still charges and moving charges), and could be described mathematically in one theory, namely Maxwell's equations.
The strong and weak forces keep the quarks tightly bound inside protons and neutrons, and keep the protons and neutrons from disintegrating.
www.straightdope.com /mailbag/mforcefield.html   (873 words)

 First Republic Bank - Financial Markets - Forces Driving Interest Rates Rates
As expected, the Fed meeting at the end of the month concluded with no action taken but the easing bias remained intact as the policy committee concluded that weakness was still posed the greatest threat to the economy.
The policy committee refrained from making any change to rates but it shifted its perspective on the economy from one in which weakness was perceived as a greater risk than inflation to one in which the risks are seen as balanced.
The prospects for the near-term future were also weak with the rate of building permit issuance also falling to its lowest level since June of 1995.
www.firstrepublic.com /finmkts/forces.asp   (2471 words)

 Gravity: Strength in Weakness | csmonitor.com
Named the strong and weak forces, these forces act to hold tiny particles called quarks together to form the protons and neutrons in atomic nuclei.
Appropriately named, the strong force is in fact the strongest natural force we know of, and is responsible for protons (all of which have positive charges and should repel each other) sticking together in the nucleus.
The weak force is really only weak compared to the strong force (it's the second strongest natural force), and creates an interaction that allows neutrons to turn into protons under some conditions.
www.csmonitor.com /2003/0924/p25s01-stss.html   (1775 words)

 UM Chemistry
Even ordinary chemical reactions in solvents are often intimately affected by the weak forces which influence the solute-solvent interaction.
Our research is directed at understanding these weak forces, which are commonly referred to as van der Waals forces.
This technique makes it possible to study the structures, dipole moments, internal dynamics and interaction forces for a variety of dimers, trimers, and small clusters held together by very weak forces.
www.umich.edu /%7emichchem/faculty/kuczkowski   (437 words)

Strong interactions are the ones responsible for nuclear forces between protons and neutrons (the constituents of atomic nuclei), and we will come back to them when we look at the evolution of a star (Sect.
The remaining type, the weak forces, are experienced by all types of matter, but they are usually overwhelmed by the electromagnetic and strong forces because the weak interactions are, well, weak!
and experience only the weak interactions and it is because of this that they are rarely affected by other types of matter.
phyun5.ucr.edu /~wudka/Physics7/Notes_www/node122.html   (482 words)

 Porter's Five Forces
The intensity of rivalry commonly is referred to as being cutthroat, intense, moderate, or weak, based on the firms' aggressiveness in attempting to gain an advantage.
As the firm restructured, divesting from the shipbuilding plant was not feasible since such a large and highly specialized investment could not be sold easily, and Litton was forced to stay in a declining shipbuilding market.
In this classic work, Michael Porter presents his five forces and generic strategies, then discusses how to recognize and act on market signals and how to forecast the evolution of industry structure.
www.quickmba.com /strategy/porter.shtml   (3195 words)

 Photonic Bandgap Fiber Forces a Weak Line to Lase   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The cladding of the all-solid photonic bandgap fiber comprised high-index rods in a triangular lattice, so the effective refractive index of the cladding was greater than that of the core.
Recently, researchers at the University of Bath in the UK used a length of photonic bandgap fiber as a spectral filter to force a neodymium-doped fiber laser to lase on the weaker
They spliced the 10-cm length into a fiber laser resonator, using a short length of standard single-mode fiber between the 2.5-m-long Nd-doped fiber and the photonic bandgap fiber to minimize mode mismatch between the two (Figure 3a).
www.photonics.com /content/spectra/2006/July/research/83443.aspx   (691 words)

 May The Forces Be With You   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The gluon for the Electromagnetic force is the photon.
The strong force is the energy released in a nuclear explosion.
Earth scientists also speculate that all the forces of the universe are manifestations of a single force that split up during the big bang.
www.galactic-guide.com /articles/2S72.html   (380 words)

 Four Fundamental Interaction
The strong force, which we generally call the nuclear force, is actually the force that binds quarks together to form baryons (3 quarks) and mesons (a quark and an anti-quark).
The range of the gravitational and electromagnetic forces is infinite, while that of the strong and weak forces is very short.
On the other hand, because the exchange particles for the strong and weak forces have a large mass, the force associated with them is zero outside of a short range.
www.lbl.gov /abc/wallchart/chapters/04/0.html   (764 words)

 Global and Local Gauge Symmetries
The weak force IVBs are "metric" particles, catalytic particles composed entirely of a densely compressed and (perhaps) convoluted metric, probably similar to the densely energetic and compressed primordial metric of the early "Big Bang".
In the case of the weak force, the local gauge current is expressed through the massive "Intermediate Vector Bosons", the "IVBs" (W+, W-, Z), which function to distribute charge (derived from the vacuum particle-antiparticle "zoo") among the elementary particles, the quarks and leptons.
The role of alternative forces and charge carriers is thoroughgoing and essential (although not by itself sufficient) to breaking the initial symmetric energy state of the universe, which begins with light, the metric, and particle-antiparticle pairs.
home.earthlink.net /~johngowan/gauge5.html   (5567 words)

 The Four Fundamental Forces of Nature
The electromagnetic force controls the behavior of charged particles and plasmas (a plasma is a mixture of equal numbers of positive ions and negative electrons) as, for example, in solar prominences, coronal loops, flares, and other kinds of solar activity.
The weak force is responsible for synthesizing different chemical elements in stars and in supernova explosions, through processes involving the capture and decay of neutrons.
However, because the nuclear forces have such microscopically short ranges, and matter on the large scale tends to be electrically neutral, gravitation is the force that governs the motion of massive bodies such as planets, stars and galaxies.
www.geocities.com /angolano/Astronomy/FundamentalForces.html   (1255 words)

 The Short-Range or "Particle" Forces   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The field vectors of the forces are bosons - photons, gravitons, gluons, IVBs - and are massless except for the IVBs; the particles are fermions - leptons, quarks, neutrinos - and are massive (apparently neutrinos have a tiny mass).
The strong force has exactly the character one would expect if an elementary particle were fractured into 3 parts, but nevertheless required to remain a "virtual" elementary entity in terms of whole quantum (leptonic) units of charge, as seen by the outside world (via the long-range electromagnetic force).
If their decays require electric charge conservation, then a lepton or a charged meson must be extracted from the virtual particle "sea" by the weak force W; flavor transformations among the quarks of a baryon likewise require the services of the W to produce flavor charges from the mesons of the virtual sea.
home.earthlink.net /~johngowan/quarks.html   (5915 words)

 Forces within the Atom
Forces, such as gravity and magnetism, pull falling objects (pine cones and leaves) towards the earth and push the like poles of magnets apart.
Electrons are kept in the orbit around the nucleus by the electromagnetic force, because the nucleus in the center of the atom is positively charged and attracts the negatively charged electrons.
The strong forces oppose the electromagnetic force of repulsion between protons.
www.ric.edu /ptiskus/Atomic_Force/index.htm   (396 words)

 Gravity: strength in weakness
Named the strong and weak forces, these forces act to hold tiny particles called quarks together to form the protons and neutrons in atomic nuclei.
Appropriately named, the strong force is in fact the strongest natural force we know of, and is responsible for protons (all of which have positive charges and should repel each other) sticking together in the nucleus.
The weak force is really only weak compared to the strong force (it's the second strongest natural force), and creates an interaction that allows neutrons to turn into protons under some conditions.
www.meta-religion.com /Physics/Gravity/gravity_strength_in_weakness.htm   (1620 words)

 What are the universal forces?
Each force has a force carrying particle: the gluon (strong nuclear), the photon (electromagnetic), the boson (weak nuclear), and the graviton (gravitational).
The weak nuclear force is responsible for emission of beta particles in radioactive decay.
The gravitational force also holds matter together, but it is so weak that its effect is only noticible when large masses are involved (e.g., the Earth's gravity holding you on the ground).
www.windows.ucar.edu /tour/link=/kids_space/forces.html&frp=/w&edu=high   (202 words)

 Forces   (Site not responding. Last check: )
There are for example, the forces that keep the cells together to build up the human body, and there is the gravitational force that keeps us on the ground and the moon in orbit around the earth.
Since there were only two basic forces known in the beginning of the 20th century, gravitation and electromagnetism, and it was seen that electromagnetism is responsible for the forces in the atom, it was natural to believe that it was also responsible for the forces keeping the nucleus together.
The Strong Nuclear Force is an attractive force between protons and neutrons that keep the nucleus together and the Weak Nuclear Force is responsible for the radioactive decay of certain nuclei.
nobelprize.org /nobel_prizes/physics/articles/brink/index.html   (4635 words)

 Forces - Science Articles
In recent years it has been shown that the magnetic, strong, and weak forces are all variations of the electric force now called the electro-weak force.
When a golf club hits a ball, the force of the club on the ball is the same amount of force the ball exerts on the club.
When a big senior runs into a small freshman in the hall the force of the senior on the freshman is the same as the force of the freshman on the senior.
www.physicspost.com /articles.php?articleId=182   (1161 words)

 Linné on line - How many different forces are there?
In addition there are the so called strong and weak forces which are important at the subatomic level.
The reason that the weak force is much weaker than the electromagnetic one is that the W and Z bosons are so heavy.
In fact the electromagnetic and weak forces can be described in a unified theory called the electroweak theory.
www.linnaeus.uu.se /online/phy/microcosmos/different_forces.html   (432 words)

 Foundations of Scientific Knowledge - Fundamental Forces
These are known as gravity, electromagnetism, the strong force, and the weak force.
The strong and weak forces work at only very small distances of less than a trillionth of a centimeter, and typically play their role inside the nucleus of an atom.
By comparing the two force values that we calculated from the two protons, the electromagnetic repulsion is 1,235,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (1.235e36) times greater than the gravitational attraction.
mike.gamerack.com /science/forces1.php   (673 words)

 Fundamental Particles and Forces
Newton's theory was a unification of terrestrial forces with extraterrestrial forces, a recognition that the same force governs both the laws of heaven and the laws of earth.
When it was recognized in the 1930's that the nucleus of the atom consisted of protons and neutrons, physicists hypothesized a strong force in the nucleus that acts to bind protons and neutrons together in spite of the great electromagnetic repulsion between the positively charged protons.
Finally the weak force was unified with the electromagnetic force, yielding the electroweak theory, and the strong force was explained by quantum chromodynamics, or QCD.
www.integralscience.org /particles.html   (973 words)

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