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Topic: Western Federation of Miners

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In the News (Tue 23 Jul 19)

  Utah History Encyclopedia
The Western Federation of Miners was organized in the Couer d' Alene district of Idaho following the areas successful miners' strike in 1893.
The Western Federation of Miners was a strong proponent for industrial unionism, which held that all workers were equally important in the work process and should be treated fairly.
Although organizers from both the Western Federation of Miners/International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers and the Industrial Workers of the World continued their attempts to entice Utah's workers back into the "one big union," the mines and smelters were not again effectively organized until after World War II.
www.media.utah.edu /UHE/w/WESTERNFEDERATION.html   (1136 words)

 Western Federation of Miners - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (via CobWeb/3.1 planetlab2.cs.unc.edu)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The Western Federation of Miners (WFM) was a radical labor union that gained a reputation for militancy in the mine fields of the western United States.
The WFM was created in 1893 by the merger of several miners' unions representing copper miners from Butte, Montana, silver and lead miners from Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, gold miners from Colorado and hard rock miners from South Dakota, and Utah.
The miners who formed the union had already experienced a number of hard-fought battles with mine owners and governmental authorities: in the Coeur d'Alene strike in 1892, after company guards shot five strikers to death, the miners disarmed the guards and marched more than a hundred strikebreakers out of town.
en.wikipedia.org.cob-web.org:8888 /wiki/Western_Federation_of_Miners   (2192 words)

 Bisbee Deportation: Newspaper Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Members of the Western Federation of Miners offered his provisions but he refused to accept them as he knew he would be compelled to join the union.
He was told that if he did not join the Western Federation of Miners he would have to leave the town.
He states that while the Western Federation of Miners was parading though the streets the men made insulting remarks to all who did not belong to the union and that the non-union men, their wives and children were compelled to listen to profane language by union men.
digital.library.arizona.edu /bisbee/docs2/pj1021we.php   (1313 words)

 Guide to the Vernon H. Jensen (Collector) Files on the Western Federation of Miners and the International Union of ...
The Western Federation of Miners (WFM) and its successor, the International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers (IUMMSW) were historically considered the radical wing of the non-ferrous metals miners' unions.
The Western Federation of Miners (WFM) was founded in 1893 by the Butte, Montana Miners' Union (WFM No. 1) and other Western hard rock miners' unions in Utah, Colorado, Montana, Idaho, Nevada, and South Dakota, in response to two decades of violent opposition by various mining corporations, and the federal, state and local governments.
The WFM and its successor, the International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers (IUMMSW) were historically considered the radical wing of the non-ferrous metals miners' unions.
rmc.library.cornell.edu /EAD/htmldocs/KCL05268.html   (1325 words)

 JURIST – William "Big Bill" Haywood
Federal troops were called to Idaho three separate times to combat union-sponsored terrorism that had resulted in many deaths and extensive property damage to mining company property, the last time being an eighteen-month occupation from May, 1898 to November, 1899 undertaken at the urging of Governor Frank Steunenberg.
Federal troops responded by arresting every male-- even doctors and preachers-- in union-controlled towns, loading them into boxcars, and herding them into an old barn where the over 1,000 men were held captive without trial.
WFM Secretary-Treasurer William Haywood, President Charles Moyer, and close advisor George Pettibone were all specifically accused of ordering the Steunenberg assassination.
jurist.law.pitt.edu /famoustrials/haywood.php   (5035 words)

 One Big Union: The Philosophy of Industrial Unionism - By Joyce Kornbluh
Suspended by his archbishop for urging Telluride miners to revolt during his tour of Colorado mining camps in 1903, his formal association with the church ended at this time, although he insisted that be was still a priest in good standing.
At their 1907 convention, the Western Federation of Miners voted overwhelmingly to withdraw from the I.W.W., whose revolutionary views had tinged the national newspaper publicity of the Idaho trials.
In turn, the Westerners joined Trautmann and St. John in ousting De Leon from the convention on the parliamentary technicality that he was a delegate to the convention from a union other than his own.
www.lucyparsonsproject.org /iww/kornbluh_one_big_union.html   (2602 words)

 Digital History
The federation, he said, saw Steunenberg as a traitor who had betrayed the union movement by declaring martial law and calling in federal troops to quell violence in the Coeur d'Alenes region of Idaho, an area rich in gold, lead, and silver deposits, in 1899.
The miners' federation, which had been organized during the bitter labor violence of the 1890s, was convinced that it was engaged in class warfare.
The miners were convinced that the mine operators would stoop to virtually anything--including the use of spies and kidnapping--to suppress unions.
www.digitalhistory.uh.edu /database/article_display.cfm?HHID=232   (843 words)

 Faces of Protest: "Big" Bill Haywood
Because of the WFM efforts, Utah became the first state in the nation to enact an eight hour work day for miners.
On the stand Orchard recounted in detail his arrangement with the Western Federation of Miners, and repeatedly identified Haywood as the force behind the violence.
In 1918 Haywood was convicted of violating federal espionage and sedition laws when he called for a strike during wartime.
www.kued.org /joehill/faces/bill_haywood.html   (1669 words)

 Ideas in Conflict: Opposing Views of the Cripple Creek Strike
The cause of the strike of the Western Federation of Miners in Colorado is one of long standing, and involves the failure on the part of the mine managers in various parts of the State to live up to their own written agreements.
McKinney stated, under cross-examination during the trial of the union miners who were accused of the attempted train wrecking, that he and other detectives did tamper with the rails, and that for a money consideration he would pull spikes and wreck a train.
Their fortitude under the circumstances is the marvel of the age, and shows that the Western Federation of Miners is composed of the highest type of American citizenship.
historymatters.gmu.edu /d/5653   (1468 words)

 Searching - Upper Peninsula Regional Digitization Center - Making of Modern Michigan
Federal investigation of strike made at instigation of Western Federation of Labor, message sent to Secretary Wilson of the department of Labor.
Western Federation of Miners has filed amended bill in application for injunction to restrain Sheriff Cruse from employing Waddell-Mahon men as special police officers in Houghton county, will be considered by Judge O'Brien.
Lansing - Clarence Darrow acting as chief counsel for the Western Federation of Miners proposed a settlement of the strike to Governor Ferris, and said the claims against the Citizens' Alliance were unjustified.
slc2.uproc.lib.mi.us /CFDOCS/digit/DrillDownINST.Cfm?OrgID=AH   (16384 words)

 Telluride Miners' Memorial   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Because Telluride owed her existence to miners, yet had a dark time in her history when several mine owners, her leading citizens, and their hired gunmen illegally and brutally drove union miners, their families, and supporters from the town, Goodtimes believes such a memorial will heal the shadows of 100 years ago.
Richard Arnold's challenge is to recreate in bronze Vincent St. John holding the limp body of a fellow miner who has succumbed in the Bullion fire, illustrating both the difficult and dangerous profession of the miner as well as capturing the miners' absolute dependence on one another and their instinctual protection of their fellow worker.
The demonstration of community cohesiveness, once represented by the construction of the Miner's Union Hospital (still one of Telluride's finest buildings), was pushed aside, as the mine owners association, popular Bulkeley Wells, and the town and county governments stripped the union miners of their rights as citizens and deported them to Ridgway and Montrose.
www.tellurideminersmemorial.coyotekiva.org   (2018 words)

 Images of the Comstock Miners' Unions
The union miners discovered, following their initial setbacks, that the means to power in a locality dominated by one industry was to influence or control essential elements of local government through the ballot and volunteerism -- especially in law enforcement, fire protection, and the militia.
While the treatment is sympathetic, Smith calling the miners "the lords of labor" and "men among men," most of the narrative is dependent on Lord and Shinn as sources, with only passing reference made to the miners' unions and their activities.
Indeed, the tradition of militant industrial unionism, fostered by the early miners' unions, reached its fullest expression in the Western Federation of Miners, and ultimately sparked the radical socialism of the Industrial Workers of the World.
www.nevadalabor.com /rocha.html   (5317 words)

 Journal of Arizona History Article - Bisbee Deportation
Less common are descriptions of the working hard-rock miner who daily left the boarding houses and shanties of mining camps throughout the West to disappear into the bowels of the earth.
The WFM barely survived the next three years, but with the election of Edward Boyce as president and the appointment of James Maher to be secretary-treasurer in 1896, the WFM began a period of rapid growth.
The stated reason was the “need for repair work and a shortage of fuel,” but the opinion in Bisbee was that the entrance of the WFM was the real reason.32 By February 14th, 800 miners had been laid off¾500 by Copper Queen, 200 by the Calumet and Arizona, and 100 by the Shattuck and Arizona.
www.library.arizona.edu /exhibits/bisbee/docs/jahmcbr.html   (5710 words)

 Bisbee Deportation: Journal of Arizona History Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Financial support was provided by an annual per capita payment of one dollar by members of the local unions into a general fund which was used to pay the fund was also used to support local strikes and to provide relief funds.
                The WFM barely survived the next three years, but with the election of Edward Boyce as president and the appointment of James Maher to be secretary-treasurer in 1896, the WFM began a period of rapid growth.
Miners’ Magazine, said that the “Bisbee Miners’ Union is an established fact… The Western Federation has gained a foothold in the paradise of capitalism.” After praising the work of Cannon, “Mother” Jones, Crough, and others, Rawlings concluded that article with the declaration, “We are here to stay.”
digital.library.arizona.edu /bisbee/docs2/jahmcbr.htm   (5837 words)

 Alva Adams
As a result of the 1893 depression and the abandonment of the silver standard, there was an agreement between the Western Federation of Miners and the mine managers that wages would be reduced in order to keep the mines open.
The miners' union, fresh from a victory against Cripple Creek mine owners in Teller County, demanded that they be offered a uniform wage of three dollars.
Since the federal government did not finance the troops, and the legislature was out of session, Adams raised $26,000 in private money to finance "the splendid little war." Governor Adams went so far as to personally purchase each soldier's identification tags.
www.colorado.gov /dpa/doit/archives/govs/adams.html   (2075 words)

 Industrial Workers of the World (I.W.W.)
The Industrial Workers of the World was established in Chicago, in 1905, by members of the socialist-led Western Federation of Miners and other groups opposed to what they saw as "class collaboration" by the American Federation of Labor (A.F.L.).
The driving force behind the I.W.W. was William D. Haywood, the leader of the Western Federation of Miners, which had established a reputation for work stoppages in Colorado mines.
Also present were Mother Jones, the "angel of the miners," and Lucy Parsons, whose husband had been executed in the Haymarket affair.
www.u-s-history.com /pages/h1050.html   (1002 words)

 Cripple Creek District Labor Strike of 1903 - 1904
In 1902, the W.F.M started organizing the men and by 1903 the union thought it was strong enough to make demands for higher wages and shorter hours.
As a counter move the federation went to Cripple Creek and served notice upon the mine owners who were shipping ore to Colorado City that the mills were "unfair" and that such shipments must be discontinued.
This was followed by martial law enforced by the state militia, the absolute rule of a military dictator, imprisonment, the exile of guilty as well as innocent men by force, and the crushing of organized labor, then at last, came peace.
members.tripod.com /~mr_sedivy/colorado21.html   (1018 words)

 Mining history of the Sandon area   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Some miners married and had settled lives in town, but most remained single and lived either in one of the many hotels or in lonely little mining camps high on the mountainsides.
The WFM was one of the most militant unions in the United States, and its president was a socialist.
The WFM was supported in its struggle by sympathetic newspapers and editors, such as The Paystreak in Sandon, under "Colonel" Robert Lowery, who argued with wit and skill on behalf of the miners.
www.slocanlake.com /sandon/mining/mining.html   (4914 words)

 The Making of Modern Michigan: DIGITAL COLLECTIONS
Newspaper clippings (Jan. 15 to Feb. 9, 1914) regarding the 1913 Copper Miners' Strike by the employees of the Calumet & Hecla Mining Company in the Calumet, Michigan area.
Indianapolis, Ind. - Charles Moyer attending a meeting of the American Federation of Labor declared if the Michigan copper strike was lost it was the fault of the American Federation of Labor.
The Governor declares the Western Federation of Miners is the only bone of contention.
mmm.lib.msu.edu /search/record.cfm?i=AH01a021   (644 words)

 The Chicana/Chicano Experience in Arizona - Mining
The Western Federation of Miners (WFM,) a radically oriented labor union for the unskilled laborer, was founded in 1893.
In 1903, Mexican and Mexican American miners staged one of the earliest copper strikes that failed due to a lack of support by Euro-American miners and major floods that occurred in Clifton.
In the early twentieth century, miners and their families built sturdy tent houses in which to live until they used lumber or adobe to build their homes.
www.asu.edu /lib/archives/website/mining.htm   (1743 words)

 Western Federation of Miners
Shown above is the banner of the publication initiated by the WFM to keep it's members informed of the daily news (or propaganda) of the strike.
Represented by the Western Federation of Miners, the strikers were seeking shorter work days, improved wages for both miners and trammers, better working conditions, primarily the elimination of the one-man drill, and improved respect through the recognition of their union.
Most of the photographs in this section deal with the great number of parades that took place by the miners and their families, and offer a view into some of the events of the summer of 1913.
www.pasty.com /reflections/id225.htm   (253 words)

 Cripple Creek Labor Strikes - Western Federation of Miners
The new comers on the scene, the union organizers, were determined to change the "accident" of prior ownership, as they saw fit.
Placer miners equipped with pans and sluices at gold-laced Cripple Creek, Colorado in 1892.
Scottish-born John Calderwood, a former coal miner, established a W.F.M. local and organized two-thirds of the mine workers in the district (a total of around eight hundred men).
members.tripod.com /~mr_sedivy/colorado19.html   (704 words)

It was founded in 1893 as the Western Federation of Miners -- out of the hard fought and sanguinary labor wars in North Idaho's Coeur d'Alene district, where, as elsewhere, the mine owners and managers met every unionization effort with a brutal force and ruthlessness.
Across the Mountain West, company gunmen shot down WFM pickets, union halls were burned, WFM members and their families were deported by company-directed "vigilantes," Federal troops and state militias imprisoned hundreds of miners in "bull pen" concentration camps, there were massive legal frameups directed against union militants and leadership.
Against this backdrop of hideous, bloody repression, the Western Federation of Miners not only persevered -- but it grew -- rapidly -- and it became extremely effective as a major, visionary social justice force.
www.hunterbear.org /iummsw.htm   (623 words)

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