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# Topic: Wheatstone bridge

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 WHEATSTONE'S BRIDGE - LoveToKnow Article on WHEATSTONE'S BRIDGE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18) The resistance forming the four arms of the bridge can be so adjusted that if these resistances have values denoted by P, Q, R, and S, then when P: Q :: R: S, the current in the galvanometer circuit will be zero when an electromotive force is applied in the battery circuit. The operation of determining the value of the resistance R therefore consists in altering the ratio of the three resistances P, Q, and S, until the galvanometer indicates no current through it when the battery circuit is completed or closed by the key. In one form of Wheatstone's Bridge, known as the series pattern plug-resistance bridge, or Post Office pattern, the two ratio arms, P and Q, each consist of a series of coils of wire, viz. 37.1911encyclopedia.org /W/WH/WHEATSTONE_S_BRIDGE.htm   (684 words)

 Wheatstone Bridge   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18) The Wheatstone bridge is an electrical circuit for the precise comparison of resistances. The Wheatstone bridge is an electrical bridge circuit used to measure resistance. The Wheatstone bridge is well suited also for the measurement of small changes of a resistance and, therefore, is also suitable to measure the resistance change in a strain gauge. www.geocities.com /CapeCanaveral/8341/bridge.htm   (218 words)

 Wheatstone Bridge The Wheatstone bridge was invented by Samuel Hunter Christine a British scientist. A Wheatstone bridge is used to determine an unknown resistance. Wheatstone bridges may also be formed by utilizing two legs of the bridge with potentiometers and this is called a half bridge. www.hvacmechanic.com /whetstone_bridge.htm   (1180 words)

 The Application and Concepts of the Wheatstone Bridge   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18) The Wheatstone bridge is made up of a slide wire circuit with a galvanometer in between two resistors in series and the slide wire. The galvanometer is represented in the circuit by a circle with a large G in the middle. The second part of the experiment the Wheatstone bridge was used to study the concepts of resistors in parallel and series. www.warren-wilson.edu /~cwilburn/formal/WheatstoneBridge.html   (646 words)

 Wheatstone   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18) Wheatstone's device of the revolving mirror was afterwards employed by Foucault and Fizeau to measure the velocity of light. Wheatstone's next great invention was the automatic transmitter, in which the signals of the message are first punched out on a strip of paper, which is then passed through the sending-key, and controls the signal currents. In 1859 Wheatstone was appointed by the Board of Trade to report on the subject of the Atlantic cables, and in 1864 he was one of the experts who advised the Atlantic Telegraph Company on the construction of the successful lines of 1865 and 1866. chem.ch.huji.ac.il /~eugeniik/history/wheatstone.html   (6523 words)

 Wheatstone Bridge   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18) The Wheatstone bridge basically splits a voltage, and instead of reading the resistance of the strain gage, the DMM is used to read the difference of the voltage after it is split. The wheatstone bridge was constructed using these components, and also a breadboard that was used to connect all of the components. In order to construct the Wheatstone bridge, a diagram of what the breadboard should look like was drawn by using the sample breadboard, and the schematic of the Wheatstone bridge, on p. www.ecsel.psu.edu /~rriggle/whbridge.htm   (245 words)

 Wheatstone Bridge The units used in calibrating the galvanometer are unimportant to the accuracy of the bridge, since a 0 indication is desired at the balanced condition. The Schering bridge, shown in figure 3-1, is a commonly used type of bridge for the measurement of capacitors and dielectric losses. The Hay bridge, shown in figure 3-1, is used for the measurement of inductance and the Q of the inductor. www.tpub.com /neets/book21/88a.htm   (1996 words)

 Wheatstone Bridge Circuit   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18) Due to their outstanding sensitivity, Wheatstone Bridge Circuits are very advantageous for the measurement of resistance, inductance, and capacitance. One or more of the legs of the bridge may be a resistive transducer, such as a strain gage. This induced voltage may be measured with a voltmeter or the resistor in the opposite leg may be adjusted to rebalance the bridge. civil.colorado.edu /courseware/struct_labs/wheatstone.html   (210 words)

 Resistive Bridge Basics: Part One - Maxim/Dallas The Wheatstone bridge was developed in the early days of electronics as a way to accurately measure the value of resistors without needing an accurate voltage reference or a high-impedance meter. As expected, the sensitivity is twice that of the bridge with a single active element, and half that of the bridge with four active elements. One drawback of the bridge is that the output is a differential signal with a common-mode voltage equal to half the supply voltage. www.maxim-ic.com /appnotes.cfm/appnote_number/3426   (3710 words)

 [No title] The classical Wheatstone bridge arrangement has been used for many years for the accurate measurement of a single unknown resistance; and, in such instruments, the bridge is balanced at the time of measurement by adjusting the resistances of the other arms. The bridge circuit found in most strain indicators, on the other hand, is unbalanced by the varying gage resistance(s) at the time of making the measurement, and is therefore commonly referred to as the "unbalanced" Wheatstone bridge. The output voltage obtained from the "unbalanced" Wheatstone bridge is a function of the amount of unbalance, and is therefore directly related to the strain applied to the strain gage. www.eng.vt.edu /me5724/homework/wheatnonlin.doc   (2525 words)

 Bridge circuits - Chapter 8: DC METERING CIRCUITS - Volume I - DC Wheatstone bridges are considered a superior means of resistance measurement to the series battery-movement-resistor meter circuit discussed in the last section. This oddly-configured bridge is perhaps best understood by beginning with a standard Wheatstone bridge set up for measuring low resistance, and evolving it step-by-step into its final form in an effort to overcome certain problems encountered in the standard Wheatstone configuration. A Wheatstone bridge can be used to measure resistance by comparing unknown resistor against precision resistors of known value, much like a laboratory scale measures an unknown weight by comparing it against known standard weights. www.allaboutcircuits.com /vol_1/chpt_8/10.html   (1319 words)

 Wheatstone Bridge However, Wheatstone was responsible for popularizing the arrangement of four resistors, a battery and a galvanometer, and gave Christie full credit in his 1843 Bakerian Lecture. The bridge is by James W. Queen of Philadelphia, and is listed in the 1888 catalogue as "Set of Resistance coils, with bridge, battery ken and Galvanometer key, old Post-office pattern, the wire of platinum alloy... It has the appearance of being a Wheatstone Bridge, with one fixed resistance arm in the center, and a long slide wire that may be tapped off at various points to obtain the resistance of two other arms. physics.kenyon.edu /EarlyApparatus/Electrical_Measurements/Wheatstone_Bridge/Wheatstone_Bridge.html   (996 words)

 Wheatstone Bridges When the bridge is balanced a voltmeter connected between the two midpoints will therefore show a potential difference of 0 V. Adjust the variable resistor in Fig.2 to balance the Wheatstone bridge. Wheatstone bridge circuits such as that shown in Fig.2 were first developed to allow very precise measurement of the resistances of samples of materials. Wheatstone bridges can be used in circuits to measure environmental properties such as temperature or light level. www.crocodile-clips.com /absorb/AP5/sample/020202.html   (2253 words)

 Wheatstone Bridge Wheatstone bridge with DC amplifier and meter assembly in place of Galvonometer. Though this is not a troubleshooting exercise, it is a practicle excercise in the use of bridges. Impedance bridges are more prevalent in electronics laboratories than pure resistance bridges are. www.science-ebooks.com /wheatsto.htm   (299 words)

 eFunda: Introduction to Wheatstone Bridges Bridge circuits are widely used for the measurement of resistance, capacitance, and inductance. The resistive bridge, also known as Wheatstone bridge, is discussed in this section. A basic Wheatstone bridge circuit contains four resistances, a constant voltage input, and a voltage gage, as illustrated below. www.efunda.com /designstandards/sensors/methods/wheatstone_bridge.cfm   (220 words)

 Wheatstone bridge - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia If the bridge is balanced the equivalent resistance of the circuit between the source voltage terminals is: Variations on the Wheatstone bridge can be used to measure capacitance, inductance, impedance and other quantities, such as the amount of combustible gases in a sample, with an explosimeter. The Kelvin bridge was one specially adapted for measuring very low resistances. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Wheatstone_bridge   (368 words)

 The Strain Gage A Wheatstone bridge is a divided bridge circuit used for the measurement of static or dynamic electrical resistance. The output voltage of the Wheatstone bridge is expressed in millivolts output per volt input. In a four-element Wheatstone bridge, usually two gages are wired in compression and two in tension. www.omega.com /literature/transactions/volume3/strain2.html   (1967 words)

 Secrets of Scientology: The E-Meter Page The main problem with this type of passive Wheatstone Bridge is that it is not suitable for measuring high values of resistance as the current drawn by a simple moving coil meter would swamp the bridge, thus the bridge has to be buffered by an op-amp. The Wheatstone Bridge is a means of measuring an unknown resistance precisely, by way of a voltage difference across a set of 3 known resistances, plus the unknown one, set up as pair of voltage dividers. Since the individual is in fact, the "unknown resistance" being measured, you would appear to be confirming the use of a wheatstone bridge. www.cs.cmu.edu /~dst/Secrets/E-Meter/wheatstone.html   (550 words)

 Circuit Theory #6 The Wheatstone bridge was first described by Samuel Hunter Christie (1784-1865) in his paper Experimental Determination of the Laws of Magneto-electric Induction (1833). The bridge was (and is) used chiefly to measure resistance. Substituting resistances and reactances for the reference resistance in the bridge, and driving the bridge with AC, allows it to be used to measure impedance. www.broadcast.net /hallikainen/theory6.html   (1377 words)

 Encyclopedia: Wheatstone bridge Sir Charles Wheatstone (February 6, 1802 - October 19, 1875) was the British inventor of many innovations including the English concertina the Stereoscope an early form of microphone the Playfair cipher (named for Lord Playfair, the person who publicized it) and the Wheatstone bridge. A bridge circuit is a type of electrical circuit in which the current in a conductor splits into two parallel paths and then recombines into a single conductor, thereby enclosing a loop. A strain gauge (alternatively: strain gage) is a device used to measure deformation (strain) of an object. www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Wheatstone-bridge   (906 words)

 Physics Laboratory 7 A power supply with a switch is connected across points C and D, and a digital voltmeter is connected across points A and B. The Wheatstone bridge uses a null measurement to determine the unknown resistance. The momentary contact switch is placed between the power supply and the Wheatstone bridge circuit so that the power supply only supplies power to the circuit when the switch is closed. When measurements are made with the Wheatstone bridge, the measurements will be more accurate if the sliding contact is close to the midway point of the potentiometer. electron9.phys.utk.edu /136/laboratories/lab7.htm   (1589 words)

 [No title] Using the new Hardwired Bridge and revised procedure, student who had background knowledge of the Wheatstone Bridge were able to assemble and run the system in less than 30 minutes. This bridge consists of four resistors that form a “loop.” Figure 1: Common Wheatstone bridge EMBED PBrush Rm represents the unknown resistance that is to be measured. Given the new bridge along with a revised procedure that gives step by step instructions on assembly, these students were able to put the bridge together ready for use in less than 30 minutes. www.seas.upenn.edu /courses/belab/LabProjects/1997/BE309F97T3R01.doc   (3594 words)

 [No title] Initially, when the bridge is not yet balanced, the current may be large enough to overload the galvanometer, risking damage to it. In fact, the Wheatstone bridge is unsuitable for measuring very small resistances, of a few ohms or less. Leave the 100 ohm resistor in place, as R. Now balance the bridge with resistance box Z and determine the uncertainty in Z (by varying Z) when the sliding tap is set for values of 50, 40, 30, 20, and 10 cm. www.lhup.edu /~dsimanek/scenario/labman4/wheats.htm   (2280 words)

 Assembly and Configuration of the Wheatstone bridge A simple circuit, commonly known as a Wheatstone (half-bridge) bridge assembled on vector board will be used to measure the strain of the beam. The Wheatstone (half-bridge) bridge only develops a voltage when the resistance of the strain gage is different from that of its zeroed value. Figure 2.5.1: This is an illustration of the Wheatstone bridge (half-bridge) circuit. www2.hawaii.edu /~jichimur/assembly.htm   (402 words)

 Lab E3: The Wheatstone Bridge The Wheatstone bridge is a circuit used to compare an unknown resistance with a known resistance. In practice, the Wheatstone bridge is seldom used merely to determine the value of a resistor in the manner just described. For this bridge measurement, we must replace the galvanometer in the bridge circuit with the DMM, set to DC volts with the most sensitive range(400mV). www.colorado.edu /physics/phys1140/phys1140_sm98/Experiments/E3/E3bridge.html   (1544 words)

 BBC - h2g2 - The Wheatstone Bridge The Wheatstone Bridge was invented by British mathematician Samuel Christie and popularized by Sir Charles Wheatstone (b. The Bridge is a very sensitive electrical circuit used to accurately measure resistance. The bridge consists of four resistors arranged in a diamont shape. www.bbc.co.uk /dna/ww2/A461206   (234 words)

 Sensors Magazine Online - September 2002 - Balanced Constant-Current Excitation for Dynamic Strain Measurements   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18) The Wheatstone bridge is the most common circuit used to measure strain gauges. The commonly used 2-wire Wheatstone bridge connection has measurement uncertainty caused by extension wire lead resistance and is susceptible to electrostatic noise pickup. As with the 2-wire Wheatstone bridge topology, the single-ended constant-current circuit is unbalanced. www.sensorsmag.com /articles/0902/62/main.shtml   (2802 words)

 Strain Gauge Configuration Types - Tutorial - Development Library - National Instruments The Wheatstone bridge is the electrical equivalent of two parallel voltage divider circuits. The output of a Wheatstone bridge is measured between the middle nodes of the two voltage dividers. The Wheatstone bridge configuration is used to help measure the small variations in resistance that the sensing elements produce corresponding to a physical change in the specimen. zone.ni.com /devzone/conceptd.nsf/webmain/C18F65CE920C115086256D720058325B   (1829 words)

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