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Topic: Whitebark Pine

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In the News (Wed 17 Jul 19)

  Whitebark Pine
Because whitebark pine cones form in the top third of the tree and blister rust tends to kill trees from the top down, a tree's ability to produce seed is eliminated by the rust long before the tree dies (Fig.
Whitebark pine is a major component of high-elevation forests in the Cascades of southern Oregon and northern California.
Whitebark pine possesses some ability to defend itself from white pine blister rust (Arno and Hoff 1989), and there is evidence that natural selection has already started to enhance that ability.
biology.usgs.gov /s+t/SNT/noframe/wm147.htm   (1886 words)

 Management of Whitebark Pine in North American Forests and National Parks
Whitebark pine, Pinus albicaulis, is a five-needled species which is found in alpine areas of the northern Rocky and Sierra Nevada Mountains.
Whitebark pine is not shade tolerant, but is a natural climax species because of its hardiness to cold, windy conditions and fire-resistance.
Mortality of whitebark pine seemed to be higher than white pine, and one study reported only one in 10,000 whitebark pines were resistant to the rust (Bingham, 1983).
lamar.colostate.edu /~samcox/Whitebark.html   (2031 words)

 Whitebark Pine: Ecosystem in Peril
Whitebark pine seeds are unusually large, highly nutritious, and are a preferred food for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and many other animals (Kendall and Arno 1990).
Whitebark pine is threatened by an introduced disease and fire suppression.
The alarming loss of whitebark pine has broad repercussions: mast for wildlife is diminished and the number of animals the habitat can support is reduced.
biology.usgs.gov /s+t/noframe/m1087.htm   (602 words)

 Whitebark Pine   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Whitebark pine grows in the quadrant of Wyoming west and north of Lander, in the Wind River Mountains, Absarokas, Tetons, and the Yellowstone region.
Whitebark pine is similar to Limber Pine both in size, appearance, and in its role in the forest.
Whitebark cones are less than 3 inches long and dark purple, whereas Limber pine cones are longer than 3 inches and light or pale brown.
home.earthlink.net /~swier/WhitebarkPine.html   (229 words)

 Tree Book - Whitebark pine
Whitebark pine prefers to grow on dry to moderately moist sites in subalpine areas.
Grizzly bear are known to feed on whitebark pine seed caches.
The scientific name albicaulis literally means the "pine with white stems" in reference to the white bark that is especially noticeable on younger trees.
www.for.gov.bc.ca /hfd/library/documents/treebook/whitebarkpine.htm   (326 words)

Pines are native to most of North America, ranging from the Arctic to Mexico and Nicaragua and the West Indies.
Pines are commercially among the most important of species used for timber in temperate and tropical regions of the world.
Pine plantations can be at risk for fire damage because pine resin is flammable to the point of a tree being explosive under some conditions.
www.backyardagora.com /glossary/pine.htm   (405 words)

 Crater Lake National Park: Nature Notes (1993)
Whitebark pine is generally encountered as a pioneer tree, as there are several places around the caldera rim where old mothertrees provided a favorable microclimate for the establishment beneath their canopy of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) or mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana).
Whitebark pine is arranged in ribbons or bands along the contours of Cloudcap and other habitats along the caldera's edge.
Genetic variability in the park's whitebark pine may not be as great as in the ponderosa forests, but the loss of a population as small as the one on Wizard Island may imperil a distinct local seed source.
www.nps.gov /crla/notes/vol24e.htm   (1187 words)

 Whitebark pine communities
Research demonstrating the importance of red squirrels and whitebark pine seeds to bears in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem (GYE) and documenting the critical role of over-wintered nut caches to bear behavior and nutrition is reported in Kendall (1983) and Kendall and Arno (1990).
Decline of Whitebark Pine Communities in the United States and Canada: In 1995, a three-year project was begun to document the current status of whitebark pine in national parks in the Rocky Mountains from Wyoming to Alberta and to determine the historical distribution of whitebark pine in Glacier National Park, Montana.
In the northern portion of the sample area, approximately 30% of the whitebark pine trees were dead, and of the remaining live trees, about 70% were infected with rust and had an average of 25% crown kill.
www.nrmsc.usgs.gov /research/whitebar.htm   (1319 words)

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Pine nuts also keep the bears content to stay at elevations between 7,500 and 11,000 feet where whitebark pines thrive.
Unfortunately, many of the whitebark pine trees high in the northwestern Wyoming mountains are infested with blister rust.
Whitebark pine cones are one of the bears' four favorite foods, along with cutthroat trout, winter-killed carrion and the army cutworm moth.
www.billingsgazette.com /wyoming/20000325_y2pines.html   (782 words)

 whitebark pine seed value
Whitebark pine cone maturation occurs from August to October, during which time the seeds are heavily harvested by red squirrels and cached, or stored, for later use.
Unfortunately, whitebark pine populations in the inter-mountain west are seriously threatened by white pine blister rust.
Studies have found that during years of whitebark pine crop failure, grizzly bears tended to utilize areas for foraging that were much closer to human habitation, and were therefore more likely to be killed by humans.
www.cnr.uidaho.edu /range556/Appl_BEHAVE/projects/whitebark_pine.html   (1311 words)

 Trees of Idaho Forest: Whitebark Pine
Whitebark pine occurs in high-elevation cold conditions in both the northern and southern parts of the state.
Whitebark pine, like western white pine, is a five-needle, white pine that is very susceptible to the introduced white pine blister rust disease.
The rust is still expanding in the south, however, and significant future damage is expected, although the rate of infection is slower because the environment for the spread of the rust is not as conducive as in the north.
www.idahoforests.org /whitebark.htm   (208 words)

 Earth & Sky : Observing Earth   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Now, whitebark pine is important, and a source of concern for many managers and biologists because it provides a number of services to us, for example it provides very large, nutritious seed that are desired by a number of birds and small mammals.
The other services that whitebark pine provides is, because it is a high-elevation species, and it grows pretty much at the upper limits of forests, it is the last species that can tolerate the stressful environment, it does a really good job of preventing soil erosion, it's roots hold down the soil.
Whitebark pine tends to be fairly tolerant as a mature tree.
www.earthsky.org /shows/observingearth.php?date=20031120   (9184 words)

 Plant Data Sheet
Whitebark pine grows in a cold, windy, snowy, and generally moist climatic zone.
Whitebark pine can grow on rocky ridges and bluffs but grows largest at lower elevations in protected ravines and canyons.
The whitebark pine cones ripen in August and September; collect them when they turn from dark purple to a dull purple to brown by hand picking.
depts.washington.edu /propplnt/Plants/Whitebark_pine.htm   (355 words)

 Nearctica - Native Conifers of North America - Pinus albicaulis
Identifying Characters: Whitebark Pine may be identified by the bundles of five needles, the deciduous bundle sheaths, the globular cones, and the distinctive bark in older trees.
Whitebark Pine is abundant and vigorous on the dry, inland slope of the Coast and Cascade Ranges.
A small outlying population of Whitebark Pine is found atop the Sweetgrass Hills in north-central Montana 145 km (90 mi) east of the nearest stands in the Rocky Mountains across the Great Plains grassland.
www.nearctica.com /trees/conifer/pinus/Palbica.htm   (497 words)

 Prioritizing Whitebark Pine Habitat for Prescribed Fire
The location of most whitebark pine stands in remote subalpine environments also means that bears feeding on pine seeds are removed from human activity, reducing the potential for bear-human conflict.
Currently, Kendall is using her whitebark pine vegetation plot data and ARC/INFO to create a map of the distribution and status of whitebark pine and other subalpine forest communities.
Whitebark pine habitat of greater stand age (reflecting a greater time since last fire) is prioritized higher.
www.nrmsc.usgs.gov /research/whitebark_fire.htm   (1831 words)

 American Forests: Stalwart species: tenacious and rugged, the fire-dependent whitebark pine endures where most other ...
Under natural circumstances, whitebark is the premiere pine high up in the subalpine and alpine regions of our northern forests, where spruce and fir tend to dominate until only alpine tundra can survive the wind and cold.
Whitebark pine tends to be tenacious even at these lofty, frigid extremes--but only as long as an exacting ecological regimen remains in place.
Not all the seeds are recovered, allowing a new generation of whitebark pine seedlings to spring to life in the raw, wet, high mountain environment it relishes.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m1016/is_2_108/ai_89023208   (1392 words)

 What Do Bears Eat?
The whitebark pine trees produce large pine nuts, like the pine nuts you use in cooking, and are a great source of protein for the grizzly bear.
Whitebark pine nuts have a distinct sulfur-isotope signature, different from the other foods grizzlies eat.
Clearly, the whitebark pine nuts are an important food source for the grizzly bears in the park.
bsi.montana.edu /web/web/template/ViewArticle.vm/articleid/17551   (790 words)

 Whitebark Ecosystem Foundation -Whitebark Pine an article by Diana Tomback Foundation Director   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Whitebark pine is a hardy subalpine conifer that tolerates poor soils, steep slopes, windy exposures, and tree-line environments.
For all Cembrae pines, seed dispersal depends primarily on the seed harvesting and caching behavior of birds of the genus Nucifraga, the "nutcrackers" (Family Corvidae).
Whitebark pine seeds are an important seasonal food source for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and fl bears (Ursus americanus) particularly in the Greater Yellowstone Area, the East Front of the Montana Rocky Mountains, and, until recent declines, the Greater Bob Marshall ecosystem.
www.whitebarkfound.org /tomback.htm   (731 words)

 Whitebark Pine Ecosystem Foundation -Welcome   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Whitebark Pine is a keystone species of high-mountain ecosystems in western North America.
Its populations are declining rapidly in many areas.
WPEF is a Science based nonprofit group dedicated to counteracting the decline of Whitebark Pine and enhancing knowledge of its ecosystems.
www.whitebarkfound.org   (59 words)

 Western Pine Species Loses Ground to Neglect   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Whitebark pine, which grows along the Rocky Mountains spine from Banff in Canada to the Wind River in Wyoming, as well as the Pacific Cascade Range and parts of the Sierra Nevadas, is disappearing rapidly.
Some surviving whitebark pines that stand only about five feet tall and measure an inch in diameter are 200 years old.
Whitebark pine thrives in the subalpine regions of the western U.S. and Canada.
home.earthlink.net /~mjohnsen/Environment/western_pine.html   (820 words)

 Whitebark pine - Species at Risk - Lewis and Clark - Sierra Club
Unlike other species that are stressed by a complex web of factors, the whitebark pine's shrinking numbers have a clear culprit: blister rust.
Blister rust attacks whitebark pines through the needles, working its way to the trunks where it causes cankers or blisters to erupt.
Overall, whitebark pine has declined 45 to 50 percent since 1900, and experts estimate these stands will take 500 to 700 years to grow back, if they recover at all.
www.sierraclub.org /lewisandclark/species/pine2.asp   (289 words)

 High Country News -- Printable -- December 4, 2000: Last chance for the whitebark pine
Years ago, the pine with the cones that point skyward provided tons of big nutritious seeds that at least 110 different animal species, ranging from small birds and mice to grizzly bears, loved to eat.
Under regular circumstances, whitebark pine would resist the beetles by clogging the egg chambers and entry holes with pitch.
Whitebark pine cones develop facing skyward and hold onto their seeds so that they never fall to the ground.
www.hcn.org /servlets/hcn.PrintableArticle?article_id=10133   (1168 words)

 Mail Tribune Online Edition - Letters to the Editor - October 12, 2005
The recent article regarding the threat to Crater Lake’s whitebark pine by blister rust disease was somewhat misleading.
In Southern Oregon, the Forest Service has the lead in white pine research while the BLM is responsible for sugar pine.
Whitebark pine could likely be saved using the same technique.
www.mailtribune.com /archive/2005/1012/edit/let.htm   (632 words)

 1999 Progress Report - CONE AND SEED INSECTS OF WHITEBARK PINE (PINUS ALBICAULIS ENGELM)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Whitebark pine is a keystone species of high altitude environments in the northern Rockies, Cascades, and Sierras, with intimate ties to wildlife such as the Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), the red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), and the grizzly bear (Ursos arctos horribilis), which use its nutrient-rich seeds as a vital food source.
Given the uncertainty of whitebark pine's future, cone and seed insects are worth investigating since they could adversely affect the seed crop and the wildlife that depends on it.
Whitebark pine should prove more dependable, and I expect to complete my thesis by the beginning of 2000.
es.epa.gov /ncer/fellow/progress/97/andertonla99.html   (343 words)

 Lack of pine cones may be causing bear problems - billingsgazette.com
CODY (AP) - A poor crop of whitebark pine cones appears to be causing more encounters between bears and humans, Shoshone National Forest wildlife biologists said.
"The results of the whitebark pine cone survey are pretty grim this year," wildlife biologist Lynette Otto said.
Nuts in whitebark pine cones are one of the major foods for bears.
www.billingsgazette.com /index.php?id=1&display=rednews/2004/10/05/build/wyoming/60-pine-cones.inc   (275 words)

 Earth & Sky : Radio Shows
And so the bird is the primary dispenser of whitebark pine.
The distribution of whitebark pine is western North America.
Now, elevationally, whitebark pine is a species of the upper sub-alpine.
www.earthsky.org /shows/show.php?date=20031120   (9184 words)

 Pine Furniture UK from Pine Solutions - Solid Oak and Pine Furniture UK
The pine ranges are shown in the green pages and the oak ranges shown on the blue pages.
Pine has long been one of the most value for money materials in the furniture industry.
Pinesolutions for an extensive range of quality pine and oak furniture for every room of the house.
www.pinesolutions.co.uk   (224 words)

 whitebark Pine Photos   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Open whitebark pine woodland in the Beaverhead Mountains on the Idaho-Montana border.
Turn of the century whitebark pine mining cabins at 11,000 feet in the Sweetwater Mountains of California.
Pure (Climax) whitebark pine forest on Railroad Ridge in the Whitecloud Mountains of Idaho.
oak.ucc.nau.edu /jps7/whitebark.htm   (43 words)

CODY — Grizzly bears are blessed with a good crop of whitebark pine cones — their favored pre-hibernation food — this fall, but suffered seven human-caused mortalities and moderately lower cub production in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem this year, reports the Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team.
Although hunter/grizzly bear conflicts are usually lower in years of good whitebark pine cone production, Mark Haroldson, biologist for the study team, cautions hunters to still be vigilant in grizzly country.
Surveys conducted by the study team revealed whitebark pine trees were averaging 17 cones per tree in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.
gf.state.wy.us /services/news/pressreleases/05/09/30/050930_3.asp   (351 words)

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