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Topic: Wisconsinan glaciation

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In the News (Tue 16 Jul 19)

  Glaciations of Southern Indiana   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The last two glaciations severe enough to reach this part of the state were the Illinoian and the Wisconsinan.
Glacial sediments buried much of the karst present in the older limestones north of these glacial boundaries.
The glaciers also blocked the Teays, diverting its waters to the south to define the present-day course of the Ohio River.
www.caves.org /conservancy/ikc/slideshow/slide_6.htm   (258 words)

Today glaciers are found only in the polar regions and in high mountainous areas, but in the past, they covered vast areas of the Earth’s surface, and shaped much of the landscape that we see today.
Glacial cycles are composed of both glacial periods, in which the climate cools and glaciers grow, and interglacial periods, in which a warming climate causes the ice bodies to recede.
During the Late Wisconsinan glacial stage, most of Canada and parts of the northern United States were covered by two massive ice sheets: the Cordilleran which lay to the west of the Rocky Mountains and the Laurentide to the east.
www.sfu.museum /journey/en/04secondary/glaciation.php   (246 words)

 Wisconsin glaciation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[1] This glaciation was somewhat distinct from the main Wisconsin glaciation as it was unrelated to the giant ice sheets and was instead composed of mountain glaciers.
In the region of Bern it merged with the Aar glacier.
Montane and piedmont glaciers formed the land by grinding away virtually all traces of the older Günz and Mindel glaciation, by depositing base moraines and terminal moraines of different retraction phases and loess deposits, and by the pro-glacial rivers' shifting and redepositing gravels.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Wisconsin_glaciation   (1290 words)

A glacier is defined as a body of ice that flows under its own mass due to gravity.
Glaciers are powerful enough to transport vast quantities of sediment of all sizes, though there is differential erosion and sedimentation through the glacier profile.
Evidence from the Illinoian and Wisconsinan glacial periods are easier to interpret than older ones because sediment deposits are directly accessible on the glacially shaped landscape.
jove.geol.niu.edu /faculty/fischer/429_info/429trips/NIF/Glaciers.htm   (3107 words)

 Surficial Geology of Maine - Maine Geological Survey
The slow-moving glacial ice changed the landscape as it scraped across mountains and valleys (Figure 1), eroding rock debris and carrying it for miles (Figure 2).
Some of these materials were deposited directly from glacial ice as an uneven blanket of stony till; others washed into the sea or accumulated in meltwater streams and glacial lakes as the ice receded.
Most glacial activity in Maine involved large continental ice sheets, but the erosional effects of alpine glaciers are clearly evident in two of the highest groups of mountains: Mt. Katahdin and neighboring peaks in Baxter State Park, and Sugarloaf Mountain and other nearby peaks in western Maine.
www.state.me.us /doc/nrimc/mgs/explore/surficial/facts/surficial.htm   (1366 words)

 TREC: Glaciation
Glaciation is responsible for much of the landscape in the northern mid-latitudes and is the result of periodic worldwide climate changes.
Stratigraphy, texture, and composition of glacial deposits can be used to define individual glacial advances and changes in source area of the ice.
Students from the glacial geology class are describing and sampling core for a class project.
www.uakron.edu /colleges/artsci/depts/geology/TREC/trecglaciation.php   (317 words)

 General Geology of Plymouth County
The last glacial period was called the Wisconsinan glaciation, named for the State of Wisconsin where evidence of the glacial event is recorded in the till.
Soils developed in glacial till have a high percentage of surface and subsurface rock fragments (gravel to boulder size), the upland soils are capped with an eolian mantle of sand to silty soil textures.
The largest glacial lake in southeastern Massachusetts developed in the Taunton River valley and is commonly refereed to as Glacial Lake Taunton; it covers the west-central part of Plymouth County and extends into Bristol County.
nesoil.com /plymouth/geology.htm   (3365 words)

 Wisconsinan glaciation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The Wisconsinian was the last major advance of continental glaciers in North America.
This glaciation is made of three glacial maximums (commonly called ice ages) separated by inter-glacial periods (such as the one we are living in).
The Tioga was the least severe and last of the Wisconsinan group and reached its greatest advance 20,000 years ago and ended about 10,000 years before present (it started 30,000 years ago).
bopedia.com /en/wikipedia/w/wi/wisconsinan_glaciation.html   (133 words)

 Quaternary History and Paleoclimate
Although glaciation did not encroach on Vuntut National Park, the extent and timing of the Laurentide Ice Sheet to the west and the northern portion of the Cordillerian Ice Sheet to the south did influence the inhabitants of the refugium during the ice age.
Glacial Lake Old Crow formed when the Late Wisconsinan Laurentide Ice Sheet stood along the eastern slopes of [the] Richardson Mountains and Bonnet Plume Depression, blocking drainage of the Porcupine and Peel rivers and diverting all drainage from the Mackenzie region across the continental divide, causing inundation of [the] Bell-Bluefish-Old Crow basins (ca.
This stage is thought to be correlative (occurring at the same time as) with the Reid glaciation in the central Yukon, the Thompson glaciation on Banks Island, the Intermediate glaciation for the Ogilvie Mountains, the Mirror Creek glaciation in for SW Yukon, and the Mountain River glaciation for the Mackenzie Mountains (Figure 4.2b).
yukon.taiga.net /vuntutrda/geomorph/quatern.htm   (5587 words)

 State Historical Society of Iowa
Early Wisconsinan glaciation is evident in northwestern Iowa under a blanket of loess.
During Wisconsinan glaciation, so much water was locked up in ice that the sea level was about 300 feet lower than today.
Many scientists believe that during Wisconsinan glaciation, an ice-free corridor existed from Beringia down the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains into the middle of the continent, making migration far easier than over glaciers.
www.iowahistory.org /museum/exhibits/mammoth/print/learn.htm   (1800 words)

 Geology and Mineral Resources
The stones in the brook bed to the left of the mattock head are glacially transported pebbles and cobbles which are actually part of the glacial till.
Glacial striations are caused by the larger stones, which gouge out grooves as they are scraped over the rock by the moving ice.
After the retreat of the glacier, this particular surface was protected by a covering of glacial till, which was removed when the highway was constructed.
www.anr.state.vt.us /dec/geo/stjedu2.htm   (2126 words)

 IDNR Division of Natural Heritage Home Page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Loess and glacial drift hill prairies were present along the south-facing bluffs of the major rivers, especially the Mississippi and the Illinois River systems.
It is this glaciation that was responsible for the system of moraines in the east central and northeastern Illinois (Figure 4).
After the glaciers were gone, the climate cooled and a boreal forest, similar to that found in northern climates today, covered much of the state.
dnr.state.il.us /conservation/naturalheritage/florafauna/document.htm   (3466 words)

 Urban Geology of the National Capital Area - Quaternary
During the early stages of glaciation, a major ice stream flowed in the Gatineau and adjacent north-south trending valleys but eventually the entire area was covered by an ice sheet that could have been thousands of metres thick (Gadd, 1987).
Unconsolidated sediments older than the Upper Wisconsinan glaciation and the upper layers of bedrock were eroded by the Laurentide Ice Sheet and transported along the path of ice flow over distances up to hundreds of kilometres.
The abundant meltwater from the decaying glaciers transported an enormous amount of debris beyond the ice margin, depositing it on flood plains in valleys, in glacial lakes, and sea.
gsc.nrcan.gc.ca /urbgeo/natcap/his_quaternary_e.php   (647 words)

 Géographie physique et quaternaire : PRE-LATE WISCONSINAN AGE FOR PART OF THE GLACIOLACUSTRINE STRATIGRAPHY, ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Thus, the Upper Till is related to the Late Wisconsinan glacial maximum and the glaciolacustrine, diamict, and till deposits beneath are most likely deposits emplaced during the advance or retreat of earlier Illinoian glaciation.
This shows that the retreating Late Wisconsinan ice sheet did not send tongues of locally or regionally readvancing ice up the Peabody Valley following its recession and that depositional sequence proposals by previous workers relying on the activities of such readvances are incorrect (Gerath, 1978; Bradley, 1981; Gerath and Fowler, 1982; Haselton and Fowler, 1991).
The Late Wisconsinan is represented by only the Upper Till which was deposited by the Late Wisconsinan ice sheet, and the local streamlining and fluting of the surface of the Upper Till most likely occurred during the Wisconsinan glacial maximum when the ice was at its thickest over the region.
www.erudit.org /revue/gpq/1999/v53/n1/004817ar.html   (4952 words)

 KGS--Johnson County Geohydrology--Quaternary System
A lobe of one of the Kansan glaciers extended south of the Kansas River valley for nearly 10 miles in northwestern Johnson County and northeastern Douglas County, and meltwater from the ice front deposited sand and gravel that locally is preserved in low areas of the pre-glacial topography.
During the Illinoisan Stage, continental glaciers approached no closer to northeastern Kansas than eastern Iowa and western Illinois, and the volume of Illinoisan deposits is much less than the volume of deposits of the preceding Kansan glaciation or the succeeding Wisconsinan glaciation.
In the Kansas River valley the surface of the alluvium is marked by meander scroll patterns and irregularities commonly having a relief of 5 to 10 feet.
www.kgs.ku.edu /General/Geology/Johnson/05_outcr5.html   (4277 words)

 Glaciation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
A prerequisite to glaciation is an increase in high altitude land mass.
The Younger Dryas briefly interrupted this warming between 11,000 and 10,200 radiocarbon ya and is characterised by a rapid and intense drop in temperature (Mathewes et al, 1993).
During the Pleistocene, glaciation peaked 18,000 ya and 1/3 of the land was covered by glaciers compared to 1/9 of the land currently covered by glaciations.
hoopermuseum.earthsci.carleton.ca /beringia/glaciation.html   (487 words)

 C:\MYDOCU~1\WEBSIT~1\LIG\CONFER~1\ABSTRA~4\SIRKIN\SIRKINMS.HTM   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The late Wisconsinan, Hudson-Champlain Lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet was defined in 1973 by Connally and Sirkin (1: GSA Memoir 136).
This study was one of the first to integrate glacial geomorphology with pollen stratigraphy and radiocarbon dating in a synthesis of data that brought forth several important revelations or conclusions, as summarized here.
Similarly, data from full and late glacial age sites in the unglaciated terrain south of the late Wisconsinan ice margin are consistent in age and pollen stratigraphy with those of the Hudson-Champlain Lobe (5).
pbisotopes.ess.sunysb.edu /lig/Conferences/Conf_99/Sirkin/SirkinMS.htm   (1215 words)

 Géographie physique et quaternaire : HISTORY OF RESEARCH ON GLACIATION IN THE WHITE MOUNTAINS, NEW HAMPSHIRE ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Goldthwait argued that the Wisconsinan continental ice sheet dissipated by irregular downwasting in the White Mountains, because meltwater deposits are concentrated in the bottoms of the valleys and northeast-trending morainal belts were thought to be absent.
This system of valley glaciers was said to have formed the morainic deposits described by previous workers in the lower Peabody River valley (south of Gorham), as well as recessional « lateral moraines » in the lower Moose River valley (Bradley, 1981).
Early investigators of glacial landforms took advantage of cleared farmland in small parts of the region, such as the Littleton-Bethlehem area, but they were hampered by the scarcity of borrow pits that would reveal the stratigraphy of glacial deposits.
www.erudit.org /revue/gpq/1999/v53/n1/004879ar.html   (12510 words)

 Virtual Field Trip, Stop 18: Sugar Camp Section
Overlying this is a hard grey glacial till (mixture of boulders and clay deposited directly by a glacier), then wood and peat layers which record the last interglacial period, a time of warm climates between 125,000 and 75,000 years ago.
Above the organic layers a gradual cooling is recorded, starting with glacial lake sediments called varved clays (regular layers of silt, sand and clay deposited in a glacial lake during summer melting and winter freezing periods).
This is assuming that the wood and organics near the base of the section are interglacial in age, equivalent to the buried organics at the East Milford Quarry.
www.gov.ns.ca /natr/meb/field/stop18.htm   (1194 words)

 GLACIATION IN THE GREAT BASIN OF THE WESTERN UNITED STATES   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
These deposits have been numerically assigned to late Wisconsinan glaciation in the Wasatch Range, White Mountains, Boulder Mountain, and Sierra Nevada on the basis of radiocarbon and surface-exposure ages, and have been assigned to late Wisconsinan time in several other ranges on the basis of relative-age studies.
The thicknesses of the moraines (often 60+ m) can be explained by heavy debris loads, and/or glacial advance, retreat, and readvance to the same positions a number of times, which is consistent with recent evidence that multiple late Wisconsinan advances, possibly related to Heinrich and Dansgaard-Oeschger events, occurred in the Sierra Nevada.
Mapped pre-Angel Lake glaciers were longer than their Angel Lake counterparts, but the length differences do not translate into large differences in ELA depression.
gsa.confex.com /gsa/inqu/finalprogram/abstract_55850.htm   (472 words)

 Untitled Document   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
This region has experienced several glacial episodes, specifcially the Kansan, Illinoian, and Wisconsinan (Figure 2), consisting of materials from glacial drift, loess, and clayey lacustrine deposits.
Much of the glacial deposits studied in the Cincinnati area are tills and glaciofluvial deposits from this recent glaciation.
Prior to any glacial advance, the area was drained by the Teays River (Teays Age Licking River) and its tributaries, flowing north around the present Cincinnati, forming a large bend (Durrell 1977).
tvl1.geo.uc.edu /ice/projects/lab96/Final96/Annette/geolset.html   (554 words)

 Quaternary Geologic History of Minnesota - Outline of Topic
The surface of glacial deposits such as outwash, or till recently exposed by retreating ice, is subject to considerable wind erosion, because vegetation is not present to stabilize the material.
Even where glacial ice was not primarily responsible for development of the landscape, such as in southeastern Minnesota, climate change and effects of the nearby ice, such as meltwater from the ice sheet, profoundly affected the topography.
Wisconsinan advances and retreats of lobes of ice from the advancing and retreating edge of the Laurentide ice sheet resulted in the glacial sediment and glacial landforms present today at the surface across the state of Minnesota
www.winona.edu /geology/MRW/Quaternary.htm   (4996 words)

 Crawford County Conservation District   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
When the glacier retreated, it left the area covered with a mantle of glacial till, which is the parent material for most of the area’s soils.
After the glaciers retreated a new drainage divide was established in the Tryonville area of Crawford County.
A glacial lake, formed 17,000-22,000 years ago during the Wisconsinan glaciation, Canadohta is the second largest natural lake (168 acres) in Crawford County, and one of the few kettle bottom spring fed lakes in Northwestern Pennsylvania.
www.crawfordconservation.com /watersheds.htm   (2829 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The upper terrace surfaces clearly predate the Wisconsinan glaciation period and are probably older than the Illinoian glaciation based on the soil and clast weathering characteristics.
Pedogenesis of soils indicates that some of these deposits predate the Wisconsinan glacial period and may be nearly as old as the river terraces.
Slope wash deposition was probably continuous even as climate cooled during the height of the late Wisconsinan glaciation, since there is no observable evidence of pedogenesis, ice wedging, or variations in weathering of pebbles in the deposits.
csmres.jmu.edu /geollab/Eaton/Misc/Eaton/landscape_10-05-text.doc   (3975 words)

 Holman Esker   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
An esker is a glacial formation that is formed within a "river" or channel in a glacier.
When ice from the glacier melts it easily travels to the base of the glacier and accumulates forming a river at the base of the glacier to carry away the meltwater.
Wisconsinan Glaciation Period with the Wadena Lobe occurring first followed later by the St. Louis Sublobe
www.angelfire.com /mn2/MrD/page2.html   (733 words)

 Untitled Document   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
For instance, the "Andean forest’’ zone was found from 1,000-2,000 m during parts of the Wisconsinan glaciation and is now found at an elevation range of 2,000-3,500 m.
The latter exchange was facilitated by sea level drops during glacial maxima and associated changes in much of the terrestrial habitats from tropical rainforest to savanna-like habitats.
The major consequence of glaciation in an evolutionary sense is that it has provided abundant opportunities for isolation of once continuous population and their subsequent genetic divergence through genetic drift, novel selection pressures, and their interaction.
www.zoology.ubc.ca /~etaylor/413www/glaciation2.html   (2890 words)

 Quaternary Geologic History of Minnesota - Lecture Notes and Text Outline
Modern studies of glacial strata suggest that even this calendar must be revised, as more complicated vertical sequences of interbedded glacial and non-glacial deposits are being discovered and integrated into the framework of glacial history and climate change.
Wisconsinan advances and retreats of ice resulted in the glacial sediment and glacial landforms present today at the surface across the state of Minnesota
Intervals between glacial advances are represented by ancient soils (paleosols) or lacustrine sediments or concentrations of stony material at the top of a till sheet (stone lines).
www.winona.edu /Geology/MRW/text/text96-121.html   (4352 words)

 Paleo-environments   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Glaciation and de-glaciation of Wisconsinan ice masses in the Coastal Mountain Range was complete by 10,000 years B.P. (Armstrong 1981).
In addition to glacial processes, the development of the Mount Garibaldi strato- volcano and surround area can be attributed to a series of unique events.
Large amounts of volcanic sediments from the western flank of the volcano are reworked into till and delta deposits on the lower Squamish and Cheakamus river valley floors.
www.sfu.ca /archaeology/museum/survey/paleoenv.html   (506 words)

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