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Topic: Wolfram

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  A New Kind of Science - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wolfram describes himself as introducing a third major tradition, which is the systematic, empirical investigation of computational systems for their own sake.
Wolfram believes that one of his achievements is not just exclaiming, "computation is important!", but in providing a coherent system of ideas that justifies computation as an organizing principle of science.
Wolfram's claim that natural selection is not the fundamental cause of complexity in biology has caused some to state that Wolfram does not understand the theory of evolution.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/A_New_Kind_of_Science_(book)   (2869 words)

 Wolfram von Eschenbach - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wolfram von Eschenbach (died around 1220) was a German knight and poet, regarded as one of the greatest epic poets of his time.
Wolfram is best known today for his Parzival, sometimes regarded as the greatest of all German epics from that time.
In the poem, Wolfram expresses disdain for Chretien's (unfinished) version of the tale, and states that his source was a poet from Provence called Kyot.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Wolfram_von_Eschenbach   (286 words)

 The New York Review of Books: Is the Universe a Computer?
Wolfram proposes that the complexity of such systems is not built up gradually in a complicated evolutionary history, but is rather a consequence of some unknown simple rules, more or less in the way that the complex behavior of the pattern produced by cellular automaton 110 is a consequence of its simple rules.
Wolfram makes it seem that physicists choose simple rather than complex phenomena to study because of long habit or mathematical flabbiness, but in seeking the laws of nature it is the essence of the art of science to avoid complexity.
Wolfram's classification of the patterns produced by cellular automata dates from the early 1980s, and the discovery that the rule 110 elementary cellular automaton is a universal computer was made in the early 1990s.
www.nybooks.com /articles/15762   (5042 words)

 Wired 10.06: The Man Who Cracked The Code to Everything ...
Wolfram himself considers it the logical next step from earlier scientific revolutions, each of which disabused humanity of the notion that there is something "special" about our species and its place in the scheme of things.
Wolfram also began to build a case that the same mechanisms that determined the outcome of cellular-automata experiments were omnipresent in nature itself.
Wolfram's theory that there is a single rule at the heart of everything - a single simple algorithm that, in effect, generates all the rules of physics and everything else - is bound to be one of his most controversial claims, a theory that even some of his close friends in physics aren't buying.
www.wired.com /wired/archive/10.06/wolfram_pr.html   (5998 words)

 Stephen Wolfram: Programs run the universe
Wolfram elevates the seemingly mechanistic computing tasks to the central role in the origin and functioning of the cosmos.
Wolfram believes his small programs should get equal or better billing than mathematical equations as a way to explain and understand the world.
Wolfram acknowledged that his computer-derived ideas are to an extent a product of his time, just as people began to believe that Mars had canals around the same time that canals were being built all over the world.
radio.weblogs.com /0105910/2002/11/22.html   (427 words)

 Stephen Wolfram -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Wolfram's father was a novelist and his mother a professor of philosophy.
Wolfram left for the (Click link for more info and facts about University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and started to develop the computer algebra system (Click link for more info and facts about Mathematica) Mathematica in 1986, to be released in 1988.
Wolfram Research also pays (Click link for more info and facts about Eric W. Weisstein) Eric W. Weisstein to work on his math encyclopedia (Click link for more info and facts about MathWorld) MathWorld, which is hosted at the company's web site.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/s/st/stephen_wolfram.htm   (392 words)

 About Stephen Wolfram
Born in London in 1959, Wolfram was educated at Eton, Oxford, and Caltech.
Wolfram himself used his ideas to develop a new randomness generation system and a new approach to computational fluid dynamics--both of which are now in widespread use.
Wolfram is also increasingly active in defining new directions for education, especially in the science he has created.
www.stephenwolfram.com /about-sw   (728 words)

 Forbes.com - Magazine Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
At the center of Wolfram's research was a quest for a new level of simplicity, beyond even that of the Life game—a simplicity that, in a strange irony, could produce infinite amounts of complexity.
Wolfram's genius was not only in making this intellectual leap, from two dimensions to one, but also in knowing where to look for the answers.
And that's important to Wolfram because, as much as he wants his to be one of those great books on the shelf, he doesn't want it to share their fate of being respectfully unread.
www.forbes.com /asap/2000/1127/162_print.html   (6862 words)

 Encyclopedia: Wolfram von Richthofen
Wolfram von Richthofen was a distant cousin of the late Manfred von Richthofen and one of only a few select officers in the Luftwaffe to have attained the highest rank of Generalfeldmarschall.
Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen (10 October 1895 - 12 July 1945) was a German General and Field Marshal during World War II.
Wolfram von Richthofen, a cousin of the famous World War I flying ace, Manfred von Richthofen (also known as the Red Baron, was one of only a select few Luftwaffe officers to be promoted to the rank of Generalfeldmarschall in the Luftwaffe of World War II, but he retired in...
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Wolfram-von-Richthofen   (2405 words)

 Valley of the Geeks - Wolfram's Law
Wolfram, long considered the enfant terrible of the science community, began his career by publishing his first paper on particle physics at the age of 15 ("Why I'm Smarter than Einstein").
At the age of 20, Wolfram received a PhD in Theoretical Physics from Caltech ("Why I Theoretically Can't Get a Date") and at the age of 21 became the youngest person to receive a MacArthur Fellowship "genius award" for arrogance.
Finally, Wolfram had the financial resources to conquer his biggest challenge; at the age of 29, he had his first date.
www.valleyofthegeeks.com /News/Wolfram.html   (510 words)

 Wolfram speaking here on claim to have discovered new kind of science
The London-born Wolfram, who earned his doctorate in theoretical physics at Caltech at age 20 and, a year later in 1981, became the youngest recipient of the MacArthur Foundation "genius" award, began dabbling in cellular automata in the 1980s and publishing research papers on them as he worked to develop a theory of complexity.
Unlike most computer scientists, however, Wolfram is not concerned with the input and outputs of a computation, but rather with the "trajectory" of the computation, Lenore Blum said.
He was troubled that Wolfram didn't provide direct citations to previous research and that he peppered the work with phrases such as "My guess is...," "I suspect that...," and "I believe that..." rather than providing evidence.
www.post-gazette.com /healthscience/20020930wolfram0930p2.asp   (1629 words)

 BW Online | May 17, 2002 | Kurzweil on Wolfram
Wolfram regards all patterns that combine some recognizable features and unpredictable elements to be effectively equivalent to one another, but he does not show how such an automaton can ever increase its complexity, let alone become a pattern as complex as a human being.
Wolfram hypothesizes that there is a digital basis to the apparently analog phenomena and formulas in physics, and that we can model our understanding of physics as the simple transformations of a cellular automaton.
Wolfram has added to our knowledge of how patterns of information create the world we experience, and I look forward to a period of collaboration among Wolfram and his colleagues, so we can build a more robust vision of the ubiquitous role of algorithms in the world.
www.businessweek.com /technology/content/may2002/tc20020517_7613.htm   (1795 words)

 Wolfram von Eschenbach: Parzival [1-127]
Although Wolfram adds a long prologue about the double marrriage of Gahmuret, Parzival’s father, which is of great importance for the later development of the story and for which there is not even the remotest basis in Chrétien’s poem, the ensuing incidents described are those of the French work.
Wolfram, in a scene nine times as long, describes in detail how Parzival, still proud and unrepentant even though he knows he is in a state of sin, is told by the brother of the Fisher King Anfortas of the dangers of pride and the need for humility and submission to God’s will.
Wolfram’s style, as already remarked, is often tortured and obscure, and he has a penchant for digressing, even in the middle of a serious scene, solely to produce humorous effects.
www.nd.edu /~gantho/anth164-353/Wolfram164-175.html   (2822 words)

 William Wolfram
Wolfram caught the attention and imagination of his audience in the piece's first bars, and kept them to the end with a commanding performance.
Wolfram was also hailed for his February 1999 recital in Lincoln Center's Alice Tully Hall in New York by Faubion Bowers, writing for the American Record Guide.
Wolfram as guest soloist with the Richmond (VA) Symphony, the Valdosta (GA) Symphony, the Jupiter Symphony in New York City, the Milwaukee Symphony, and the Omaha Symphony.
www.concordiaplayers.org /wolfram.htm   (672 words)

 Wolfram syndrome definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms
Wolfram syndrome: A genetic neurodegenerative disease that leads to many different abnormalities including diabetes insipidus (inability to concentrate the urine), diabetes mellitus (the usual type of diabetes), blindness (due to optic atrophy, degeneration of the nerve to the eye), and deafness.
Wolfram syndrome is sometimes referred to as "DIDMOAD" (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness).
There is, for example, a type of Wolfram syndrome with additional atypical features such as profound upper gastrointestinal ulceration and bleeding as well as an absence of diabetes insipidus.
www.medterms.com /script/main/art.asp?articlekey=12484   (341 words)

 Amazon.com: A New Kind of Science: Books   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Wolfram went on to discover that the same vastly complex images could be produced by even very simple sets of rules and argues here that dynamic and complex systems throughout nature are triggered by simple programs.
Wolfram proves repeatedly that systems that might not at first seem universal are universal, and their universality is tied to their intrinsic complexity.
However, the practical value of Wolfram's "obvious" conclusion is not so much in the conclusion itself as in Wolfram's explanation of how he came to this conclusion as well as the framework built around it that should enable scientists to use his rather unique techniques in the emerging era of grid computing.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/1579550088?v=glance   (3728 words)

 Physics Today July 2002
Wolfram particularly studied the class of automata in which all the bits are arranged in a line, and each bit is updated using the very same functional dependence on its value and that of its two nearest neighbors.
Wolfram made it his business to conduct a systematic study of all those different automata using extensive computer simulations, and to think about and generalize from what he thereby uncovered.
In it Wolfram tells the reader again and again how he discovered some new fact about automata, or used the automata to construct a new illustration of old ideas, or used his knowledge of these systems to construct the beginning of new hypotheses about mathematics or science.
www.aip.org /pt/vol-55/iss-7/p55.html   (1553 words)

 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Wolfram von Eschenbach
Wolfram lead a wandering life, and after 1203 stayed repeatedly at Eisenach at the Court of the landgrave Hermann of Thuringia.
Wolfram mentions this work, but cites as his source the work of a Provencal poet, Kyot (Guiot), to whom he gives the preference over Chrestien.
But in Wolfram's work, as before him in Chrestien's, the story appears as part of the romances belonging to the Arthurian cycle; it is also connected with the legend of the Holy Grail.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/15683a.htm   (795 words)

 Radical physicist flatters computer fans | Tech News on ZDNet   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Wolfram's ideas got their start when he was trying to solve puzzles such as why asymmetry and structure should emerge in the universe.
Wolfram's breakthrough came from thinking about "cellular automata," simple interactions between fl or white cells and their neighbors in a grid.
Wolfram also has been criticized because his book was self-published without using the formal peer-review process in which colleagues formally screen scientific works.
news.zdnet.com /2100-9584_22-966663.html   (986 words)

 Salon.com Books | The next Newton?
Wolfram is a maestro of this new world, a Moby of a scientist who has looked deep into the standard way of doing science and who sees the sparkling of a new dawn.
Wolfram initially developed Mathematica to evaluate complex equations in particle physics called Feynman diagrams, then turned the usual academic tables by founding a corporation to sell the product to his fellow academics.
Wolfram began his work, and begins his book, by analyzing cellular automata, a conceptual device invented by the Hungarian physicist John von Neumann for representing a complex system using an array of simple elements, such as squares on graph paper that can be colored either fl or white.
www.salon.com /books/feature/2002/05/15/wolfram   (794 words)

 Wired 10.06: The Man Who Cracked The Code to Everything ...
Word had been out that Stephen Wolfram, the onetime enfant terrible of the science world, was working on a book that would Say It All, a paradigm-busting tome that would not only be the definitive account on complexity theory but also the opening gambit in a new way to view the universe.
That is, until Stephen Wolfram came along and uncovered what a few millennia's worth of scientists had somehow failed to comprehend.
He's in a self-made isolation center." To maximize his concentration, Wolfram became nocturnal: He worked at night, when the world was asleep, and retired at 8 in the morning.
www.wired.com /wired/archive/10.06/wolfram.html   (980 words)

 IT Conversations: Stephen Wolfram - A New Kind of Science
Wolfram lets the world see his work in A New Kind of Science, a gorgeous, 1,280-page tome more than a decade in the making.
On the frontier of complexity science since he was a boy, Wolfram is a champion of cellular automata--256 "programs" governed by simple nonmathematical rules.
Wolfram wrote the book in a distinct style meant to make it easy to read, even for nontechies; a basic familiarity with logic is helpful but not essential.
www.itconversations.com /shows/detail202.html   (667 words)

 Stephen Wolfram on Natural Selection   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Evolutionists, and here Wolfram, are fond of speaking as though "natural selection" were some sort of motive intelligence driving perceived evolution toward some unknown end, even while admitting that nature, inclusive of the creatures populating it, can compose little more than a passive context and therefore must be largely undirective.
Wolfram also easily adopts the notion that mutation is or can be an effective mechanism of positive change or growth in complexity.
Wolfram acknowledges that he “believes that every feature of our universe does indeed come from an ultimate discrete model.” He is as aware as any of us, however, that he himself has not yet found it, and that it may not even be possible for it to be found with empirical methods.
www.freerepublic.com /focus/news/744536/posts   (5763 words)

 wolfram on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Wolfram Research Announces Plug-in for Mac OS X 10.4 Spotlight.
Pioneering scientist Stephen Wolfram to speak at Yale School of Architecture.
Instructor Stephen "Skip" Wolfram leads a yoga class at Birkram's Yoga College of India in Longwood, Florida, on Friday, August 29, 2003.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/X/X-wolfram.asp   (295 words)

 Company Background: Wolfram Research, Inc.
The Wolfram Group is characterized by an individualist approach, a "no compromises" attitude to design, the welcoming of innovation, a deep respect for the Mathematica user base and users' suggestions, and the constant search for good general approaches rather than quick fixes or purely cosmetic solutions.
Wolfram Research sponsors both the academic and the corporate communities with direct contributions to education-related programs and scientific research.
Stephen Wolfram, the founder of Wolfram Research, is widely regarded as the most important innovator in technical computing today.
media.wolfram.com /presskit/companybackground.html   (632 words)

 BW Online | May 17, 2002 | Stephen Wolfram's Simple Science
Wolfram also foresees a day, perhaps in his lifetime, when his name will be enshrined alongside those of Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, and Albert Einstein.
Wolfram makes his claims in such a matter-of-fact way, as if he were passing on the weather forecast, that it takes me a moment to grasp just how audacious they are.
For Wolfram, the old science ended in 1984 when he was doing particle-physics research at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, N.J. Fiddling around with cellular automata, he decided to write new rules for producing the successive lines of squares, or cells.
www.businessweek.com /technology/content/may2002/tc20020516_7010.htm   (2201 words)

 Blinded by Science - Explaining the media's obsession with Stephen Wolfram's A New Kind of Science. By Jordan Ellenberg
Wolfram, for instance, claims to have overturned the basic beliefs of mainstream biology.
Wolfram is selling not just a theory, but a story—the story of a genius who retreats from the misunderstanding and jealousy of smaller minds.
Wolfram mentions Darwin a lot but is less apt to bring up other people who decided, after years of observation, that whole arenas of human experience could be gathered up into new kinds of science.
www.slate.com /?id=2067547   (1633 words)

 American Scientist Online - The World According to Wolfram   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
And yet the author of A New Kind of Science is not an outsider, and he is not a crank or a crackpot.
Wolfram published his first paper in particle physics at age 15 and earned a Ph.D. at 20.
He was a precocious professor at Caltech, then moved to the Institute for Advanced Study and later the University of Illinois before leaving the academic world to create the software called Mathematica.
americanscientist.org /Issues/Comsci02/02-07Hayes.html   (392 words)

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