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Topic: Written Law

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  Oral law - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An oral law is a code of conduct in use in a given culture, religion or other regroupement, by which a body of rules of human behaviour is transmitted by oral tradition and effectively respected, or the single rule that is verbally transmitted.
Jewish law and tradition thus is not based on a literal reading of the Tanakh, but on the combined oral and written tradition.
The written law comprises the Torah and the rest of the Tanakh.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Oral_law   (1015 words)

 Torah - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Many Jewish laws are not directly mentioned in the Torah, but are derived from textual hints, which were expanded orally, and eventually written down in the Talmud and Mishnah.
These are written using a painstakingly careful methodology by highly qualified scribes, and copies of the text that are centuries or millennia old have come down to us with almost unchanged wording as a result of this system.
Karaites, who reject the oral law, and adhere solely to the laws of the Torah, are a major exception.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Mosaic_law   (1457 words)

 Building Cathedrals   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Law is written and adminstered retribution and conflict resolution.
Law, as administered by a central authority, takes the responsibility of retribution out of the hands and puts it in the hands of the state.
Hammurabi's code of laws is almost entirely based on the principle of equal and direct retribution; it betrays the origin of law in retributive violence.
www.angelfire.com /wa2/buildingcathedrals/law.html   (521 words)

 The Book of the Law.
But a definite "book" is spoken of throughout the Old Testament as being constantly written in, with directions how it was to be added to and kept up by the prophets raised up from time to time for that purpose, among others.
Written by Moses "by the commandment of Jehovah".
Amaziah spared the children of his father's murderers according to "that which was written in the book of the law of Moses" (cp.
www.angelfire.com /nv/TheOliveBranch/append47.html   (627 words)

 News and Reports - The Rule of Law   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Law, according to liberals, finds its ultimate source in man. Hence, law is not based on fixed principles or unchanging higher law, but upon evolving man. So as man evolves and becomes more enlightened, law must reflect this and change with him.
If the rule of law requires a written law that all can consult, then this must apply to both the laws of the state and the higher law upon which these laws are to be based.
Although under the rule of law all are subject to the law, it is still the case that the ultimate power belongs to those who make the law (either directly or through elected representatives) and not to the law itself; law is not sovereign, but, rather, law is the will of the sovereign.
www.visionforumministries.org /sections/hotcon/ht/interposition/2005-03-29_einwechter.asp   (1279 words)

 SUMMA THEOLOGICA: Should judgment always be given according to the written law?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
But written laws sometimes contain injustice, according to Is. 10:1, "Woe to them that make wicked laws, and when they write, write injustice." Therefore we ought not always to judge according to the written law.
For the written law does indeed contain natural right, but it does not establish it, for the latter derives its force, not from the law but from nature: whereas the written law both contains positive right, and establishes it by giving it force of authority.
Even as unjust laws by their very nature are, either always or for the most part, contrary to the natural right, so too laws that are rightly established, fail in some cases, when if they were observed they would be contrary to the natural right.
www.newadvent.org /summa/306005.htm   (603 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
The first law system which has a direct influence on the American legal system was the codification of all classic law ordered by the Roman Emperor Justinian in 528 and completed by 534, becoming the law of the Roman empire.
The American colonies followed the English Common Law with minor variations, and the four-volume Commentaries on the Laws of England by Sir William Blackstone (completed in 1769) was the legal "bible" for all American frontier lawyers and influenced the development of state codes of law.
This is distinguished from "natural law," which is not based on statute, but on alleged common understanding of what is right and proper (often based on moral and religious precepts as well as common understanding of fairness and justice).
dictionary.law.com /definition2.asp?selected=1111&bold=||||   (485 words)

 Written and unwritten law (from Roman law) --¬† Encyclop√¶dia Britannica   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
There were various types of written law, the first of which consisted of leges (singular lex), or enactments of one of the…
European civil law has been adopted in much of Latin America as well as in parts of Asia and Africa and is to be distinguished from the common law of the Anglo-American countries.
Natural law has been recognized since the ancient world to be a general body of rules of right conduct and justice common to all mankind.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-41321?tocId=41321   (883 words)

 The Law Written on the Heart: Johnson, Phillip
From the standpoint of the practicing lawyer, Holmesian law is nothing more than "the prophecies of what the courts will do in fact." The bad man and the good man alike will guide their conduct by such prophecies, because neither wishes to come into conflict with the organized force of the state.
Of course the law written on the heart is obscured by what psychologists call "denial," and modernists far surpass the ancient pagans in inventing strategies for denial.
That is why the primary task of Christian natural law philosophy is not to prove the existence of the moral law, but to expose the devices of the heart by which we conceal the truth from ourselves.
www.arn.org /docs/johnson/jbudz.htm   (1250 words)

 JURIST - Legal Dictionaries
Contributory negligence - The rule of law under which an act or omission of plaintiff is a contributing cause of injury and a bar to recovery.
Law Clerk - In the United States, usually a law school student employed by a law firm to do research and other tasks.
Written statements of facts concerning a case which are submitted to an adverse party and which that party must admit or deny; a discovery device.
jurist.law.pitt.edu /dictionary.htm   (15575 words)

 The Oral Law
The Written Law is another name for the Torah.
Common sense suggests that some sort of oral tradition was always needed to accompany the Written Law, because the Torah alone, even with its 613 commandments, is an insufficient guide to Jewish life.
They are more apt to see the Talmud and the Oral Law as an evolving system, in which successive generations of rabbis discussed and debated how to incorporate the Torah into their lives.
www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org /jsource/Judaism/Oral_Law.html   (843 words)

 SUMMA THEOLOGICA: Is the New Law a written law or is it instilled in the heart?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Further, the law that is instilled in the heart is the natural law, according to Rm.
On the contrary, The New Law is the law of the New Testament.
No, but by the law of faith": for he calls the grace itself of faith "a law." And still more clearly it is written (Romans 8:2): "The law of the spirit of life, in Christ Jesus, hath delivered me from the law of sin and of death." Hence Augustine says (De Spir.
www.newadvent.org /summa/210601.htm   (678 words)

 Rule of Law Threats - Unpublished Nonopinions and Inherent Power Sanctions
Rule of law and due process are the bedrock upon which all American liberty and justice are based.
At that time, all court rulings always had an opinion written with it explaining the law as it applied to the decision made by the court and detailing the reasons upon which the judgment was based.
A systematic study of this topic by a law student or professor is sorely needed.
www.rule-of-law.info   (1852 words)

 WashLaw WEB -- Law Journals
Law journal resource page with hundreds of links to law journals, law reviews, law reports, law school journals, law quarterlies, law advisors, and law news for both national and international law journals.
The BYU Journal of Public Law is dedicated to publishing scholarly articles addressing topics in public law, including the relationship between governments and their citizens, the association among governments, and the effects of governmental entities upon society.
Georgian Law Review provides the possibility for specialists and other interested persons to be informed of the legal development processes running both in Georgia and foreign countries and express their ideas on the most important legal issues.
www.washlaw.edu /lawjournal   (9732 words)

 Jewish FAQs on the Oral Law and Written Law
Even when it was written down in the form of the Talmud, it was written is such a way that it retains a component which can only be learned from a teacher.
It is quite obvious from looking at the Written Law that it was intended to be accompanied by an oral component.
Most of the interpersonal laws provide us with only a basic framework (although comprehensive by secular standards) which is meant to provide a springboard from which we ought to express our own creativity and unique potential.
www.simpletoremember.com /faqs/Oral_Law_Written_Law.htm   (4708 words)

 Summa Theologica (FS_Q106_A1)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Objection 2: Further, the law that is instilled in the heart is the natural law, according to Rom.
But the law that is instilled in the heart is common to those who are in the New Testament and to those who are in the Old Testament: for it is written (Wis.
Now that which is preponderant in the law of the New Testament, and whereon all its efficacy is based, is the grace of the Holy Ghost, which is given through faith in Christ.
www.ccel.org /ccel/aquinas/summa.FS_Q106_A1.html   (779 words)

 Researching Public International Law
The ways norms are identified as international law include agreements negotiated by the affected parties, deference to a third-party decision-maker, academic persuasion and consensus, and custom (state practice and the opinion that the practice is dictated by a legal obligation).
Each article is written by an expert in that particular area of the law, and is accompanied by a basic bibliography of sources for the substance of the article.
That source of law may be important when there has not been practice by states sufficient to give the particular principle status as customary law and the principle has not been legislated by general international agreement.
www.law.columbia.edu /library/Research_Guides/internat_law/pubint   (9492 words)

 Sources of Law
In such cases, the governmental agency that administers the activity may be authorized to adopt written rules to supplement the statutes.
When a court decides a case and records its decision in a written opinion, that case becomes a "precedent." That is, the principles on which the case was decided may be used to decide future cases with similar factual situations.
The impact of a case as precedent depends mainly on the level of court in which it is decided.
www.jagcnet.army.mil /__8525689200431626.nsf/0/f5e85b7d74dfabf0852568bc005b5e74?OpenDocument&ExpandSection=4,3,2,1&Highlight=Common,Law,common,law,COMMON,LAW   (1515 words)

 Written on the Heart   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Defense of one’s own life and that of others, the recognition of the distinct difference of human life from all other animate life, the preservation of human life (including that within the womb), philanthropy, marital fidelity, one’s right to property, all of these are recognized as goods, part of the natural moral order.
True, the law written on the heart is utterly inferior to the revealed truth of the gospel, for though it tells us what sin is, it tells us nothing of how to escape it.
Natural law is a privilege of created rational beings–that includes us–because it is a finite reflection of his infinite purposes in their finite minds.
www.acton.org /publicat/randl/review.php?id=268   (1070 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
What may have slipped by the minds of most people is that the Catholic Church (and before it the Jewish Nation which the Church is the continuation of) is the first government in the history of the world to have written law.
The law of Moses, the Jewish Nation under the Judges, the Catholic Church, and the constitution of the United States were governments of written law.
The system worked perfectly under written law until in the 1950s when it changed from a constitutional government to a democracy.
www.unitypublishing.com /Government/CNcom3.htm   (469 words)

 Question 3.6: How was the Oral and Written Law passed down to us?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Answer: The traditional view is the the Written Law was given to Moses at Sinai, and has remained unchanged since that time.
Subsequent development of the Oral Law took place in the era of the Zugot ("pairs" of scholars who served as spiritual and intellectual leaders of the Jewish community under political domination of the Greeks and Hasmoneans; it was in that period that the Sadducees, who substantially rejected the authority of the Oral Torah, arose.
However, all agree that the Written and Oral Torah contain eternal truths that apply as well today as when the documents were committed to parchment, and that study of both is critical.
www.faqs.org /faqs/judaism/FAQ/03-Torah-Halacha/section-7.html   (547 words)

 Judaism 101: Torah
Written Torah is often referred to as the Tanakh, which is an acrostic of Torah, Nevi'im and Ketuvim.
This tradition was maintained in oral form only until about the 2d century C.E., when the oral law was compiled and written down in a document called the Mishnah.
Beginning in the middle ages, when local rabbis were faced with difficult issues of Jewish law, they often wrote to the most respected rabbis in the world to get answers to these questions.
www.jewfaq.org /torah.htm   (1472 words)

 Terence G. Valentine - THE WRITTEN LAW
Is to disregard the principle of the WRITTEN LAW abuse his or her discretion because a Judge wherever he or she practices law is bound by the LETTER OF THE LAW.
The law surrenders on to us various kinds of privileges and mostly, if not all can't be revoked due to a bad relationship.
The Fourteenth (14th) United States Constitutional Amendment that gives us all EQUAL PROTECTION OF THE LAWS gaurantees this, to say that the written law is faulty because a judge THINKS a defendant is going to benefit from it, is totally absurd.
www.ccadp.org /valentine-writtenlaw.htm   (1541 words)

 The Written Law (The Torah)
The Written Law consists of the books of the Hebrew Bible, the Tanakh.
The term "Bible" is more commonly used by non-Jews, as are the terms "Old Testament" and "New Testament." The appropriate term for Jews to use for the Hebrew Bible is "Tanakh." Tanakh is an acronym for Torah, Nevi'im (Prophets) and Ketuvim (Writings).
This includes the Written and the Oral Law, which includes the Mishna, the Midrash, the Talmud and even later day legal commentaries.
www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org /jsource/Judaism/The_Written_Law.html   (208 words)

 Albany Law School: Journals & Publications   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Founded more than 60 years ago, the Albany Law Review publishes critical and analytical articles written by judges, lawyers, law school professors, as well as notes and comments on legal topics written by Law Review members and other ALS students.
After completion of first-year course work, students are invited to join Law Review based on either academic standing or performance in an annual writing competition open to students who earn a grade-point average specified by the faculty.
Membership on Law Review offers students an exceptional opportunity to develop and refine skills in legal research, analysis and writing.
www.als.edu /journals/details.cfm?ID=11   (105 words)

 Brooklyn Law School: Students
The Brooklyn Law Review is a scholarly journal of analysis and commentary covering a broad range of current legal issues.
The writing, editing and content of the Law Review are the responsibility of the student members and the student Editorial Board.
Each issue contains articles written by eminent legal scholars, practitioners and judges, and notes and comments on new legislation and case law written by student members.
www.brooklaw.edu /students/journals/blr.php   (105 words)

 washingtonpost.com: Hall Testifies of Necessity 'To Go Above Written Law'
Former White House secretary Fawn Hall said yesterday that she shredded telephone records of her boss, Lt. Col.
However, she appeared to regret her comments about the "written law," which she had volunteered in response to questions from Rep. Thomas S. Foley (D-Wash.) about her alteration of documents at North's direction.
Then, apparently sensing the impact of what she had said, she went on: "I don't know -- it's just I felt -- I believed in Col. North.
www.washingtonpost.com /wp-srv/local/longterm/tours/scandal/fawnhall.htm   (1282 words)

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