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Topic: X86 architecture


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In the News (Mon 18 Mar 19)

  
  X86 architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The architecture is called x86 because the earliest processors in this family were identified by model numbers ending in the sequence "86": the 8086, the 80186, the 80286, the 386, and the 486.
The x86 architecture first appeared inside the Intel 8086 CPU in 1978; the 8086 was a development of the Intel 8080 processor (which itself followed the 4004 and 8008), and programs in 8080 assembler language could be mechanically translated to equivalent programs in 8086 assembler language.
An x86 system-on-a-chip is a combination of an x86 CPU core with a northbridge (memory controller) and a southbridge (input/output (I/O) controller) in a single integrated circuit (IC).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/X86   (2696 words)

  
 X86   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-05)
Intel's IA-64 architecture used in its Itanium processors is technically backward compatible with x86 processors, but its default 64-bit mode of operation bares no resemblance to the x86 architecture.
The x86 architecture first appeared inside the Intel 8086 CPU in 1978 as a follow on to the 8008 processor (which itself followed the 4004).
The basic architecture of the 386 (which is also called IA-32) became the basis of all further development in the x86 series, and no significant changes have been made to it since, thus exemplifying the elegance and scalability of the 386's design.
www.icyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/x/x8/x86.html   (1785 words)

  
 Introduction
Intel x86 is a CISC architecture which is designed to run more complex operations within a single instruction, and thus includes more different instructions and formats.
On the x86 architecture, certain instructions require their arguments to be in certain registers.
Floating-point precision toggle: On the Alpha architecture, the precision of the floating-point operation is always encoded in the instruction itself, whereas it needs to be explicitly set by an additional instruction in the x86 architecture before the instruction operates on two registers on the floating-point stack.
www.usenix.org /events/jvm02/full_papers/jacob/jacob_html/node1.html   (730 words)

  
 Explore the Linux memory model   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-05)
Intel®; architectures use a segmented address space in which memory is broken up into 64KB segments, and a segment register always points to the base of the segment that is currently being addressed.
This restriction on number of processes in the x86 architecture was a component of Linux 2.2, but since kernel 2.4, this problem has been eliminated, partly by doing away with hardware context switching (which made using TSS inevitable) and replacing it with process switching.
On x86 architectures, the pmd is not present in hardware, but is folded in to the pgd in the kernel code.
www-128.ibm.com /developerworks/linux/library/l-memmod?...   (4297 words)

  
 Guide to Adding Support for Solaris OS on x86 Platform to Existing Applications Available on SPARC Platform
In x86 systems, each time a single or double precision floating-point number is loaded or stored in the x86 system, a conversion to or from double extended precision occurs.
The main issue with the x86 booting architecture is that the standard BIOS is often not capable of booting from all possible boot devices.
One of the solutions for resolving the issue of thread-local variable on the x86 platform is to modify the source code wherever the global variables shared by multiple threads have been used.
developers.sun.com /solaris/articles/support_for_x86.html   (5852 words)

  
 25 Years of Intel Architecture   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-05)
When Intel introduced the first x86 CPU (central processing unit) some 25 years ago, a handheld was a transistor radio, computers were big immobile machines, and the Internet was used by a few of research scientists.
Intel is celebrating the 25th anniversary of a processing architecture that has spawned an industry: the Intel®; architecture (or x86).
Today, of course, Intel architecture processors — as descendants of the 8086 chip have come to be called — form the foundation of an industry remarkable for its pace of innovation.
www.intel.com /technology/computing/mi06031.htm   (2407 words)

  
 The Old New Thing : The x86 architecture is the weirdo
The x86 architecture does things that almost no other modern architecture does, but due to its overwhelming popularity, people think that the x86 way is the normal way and that everybody else is weird.
The x86 has a strict memory model, where external memory access matches the order in which memory accesses are issued by the code stream.
On the x86, because of the unreliable unwinding, SEH requires registrations (small objects allocated on the stack and chained in a single-link list) to associate frame handlers.
blogs.msdn.com /oldnewthing/archive/2004/09/14/229387.aspx   (5619 words)

  
 X86 Assembly - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks
It has been suggested that X86 assembly be merged into this book or chapter.
This book is about assembly language programming for the x86 family of microprocessors.
This book will attempt to teach how to program in x86 assembly, the history of the processor family, and the basic architecture of x86 processor systems.
en.wikibooks.org /wiki/Programming:x86_assembly   (131 words)

  
 AMD design will kill competition   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-05)
Luckily for Intel, this example of its architectural skill was supplemented by an example of its implementation skill: there was a bug in 80286 that meant you could switch the mode back in software.
The only thing that stands in the way of x86 architecture becoming truly pervasive is the needs of the mobile market.
A 64bit x86 is a long way from being the perfect processor; it's a kludged 64bit architecture built on a kludged 32bit architecture built on a kludged 16bit architecture that was designed to be compatible with the 8bit 8080.
www.theinquirer.net /?article=14038   (1466 words)

  
 Real World Technologies - AMD's 64 Bit Gamble
One of the most extraordinary announcements of last year’s Microprocessor Forum was that of AMD’s intention to extend the Intel x86 architecture from 32 to 64 bits.
The new instruction set architecture, which AMD calls x86-64, will be implemented by their future K8 processor, the heir apparent to their highly successful and widely praised K7 Athlon family.
To extend the addressing range of the x86 architecture beyond 64 Kbytes, Morse arranged it so that the contents of special 16-bit registers would be shifted left by 4 bits, then added to the 8080-like 16-bit logical address to generate a 20 bit physical address.
www.realworldtech.com /page.cfm?ArticleID=RWT071800000000   (510 words)

  
 Real World Technologies - Escape From the Planet of x86
But money talks and the run-away success of the IBM PC family and its growing set of compatible imitators meant that the 8088 and the DOS operating system that ran on it was a guaranteed meal ticket that thousands of software developers couldn’t afford to ignore out of personal preference.
The success of the PC caught even IBM by surprise and the failure of its last ditch attempt to reign in the clone market by imposing its microchannel adapter (MCA) hardware standard was a sign that the x86 based PC had outgrown the ability of even the biggest computer vendor to control it.
The painful infancy of x86 ended with the introduction of the 32 bit 80386 ("386") in late 1985.
www.realworldtech.com /page.cfm?ArticleID=RWT060503232439&p=3   (554 words)

  
 Migrating from x86 to PowerPC, Part 1: Robots and networked appliances on a shoestring   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-05)
Vast effort has been invested to modernize the CPU and overall system architecture, but even the current 64-bit architectures are constrained to some degree by legacy considerations.
One of the reasons for this is that x86 boards are generally sold as fl boxes with the intention that you design them into your system as ready-made modules.
Prior to that, he spent five years developing x86, ARM and PA-RISC-based networked multimedia appliances at Digi-Frame Inc. He has extensive experience in encryption and security software and is the author of two books on embedded systems development.
www-128.ibm.com /developerworks/library/pa-migrate   (3206 words)

  
 HardwareHell - Articles - x86 - Here to Stay? - Review
This was important to many users of software since in some cases a company stopped producing some kind of software that they were still using, and being in a state where upgrading meant losing that software would have been quite a problem for them.
The most major technological improvement of the x86 architecture was the movement from 'Real Mode' to '32-bit Protected Mode' (there was a 16-bit 'Protected Mode' between these two).
As time passed, the x86 was improved by reducing the size and cost of integrated circuits as well as programming specific commonly used operations directly into the processor.
hardware.gamershell.com /articles/x86_-_here_to_stay   (840 words)

  
 x86
Generally regarded as a bad architecture, the Intel x86 architecture is based on the now outdated CISC paradigm.
The x86 architecture came to life in 1978 in the form of the Intel 8086 CPU, a cheap microprocessor that enjoyed a relatively high success having the backing of IBM, despite having many architectural quirks that would force future generations to make certain compromises.
Overtime the x86 architecture has had a variety of new instructions bolted on to it to improve performance including MMX, 3DNow!, SSE, SSE2 and SSE3 - these included new SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instructions to increase performance in certain applications.
www.freesoft.fsnet.co.uk /x86.htm   (1075 words)

  
 Intel x86 Architecture Emulators Computers
It does this by dynamically translating the machine code of the programs to be run to machine code for the native architecture.
- Simulates a x86 processor and can be used to run Linux as a guest.
It also can be used to accelerate bochs by executing user code inside the plex86 VM, while letting bochs execute kernel code and IO functionality inside the emulator.
www.iaswww.com /ODP/Computers/Emulators/Intel_x86_Architecture   (503 words)

  
 Paul Hsieh's 6th generation x86 CPU Comparisons
In keeping with their post-RISC architecture, the P-II's have in some cases increased the latency of some of the FPU instructions over the Pentium for sake of pipelining at high clock rates and with idea that it hopefully will not matter if the code is properly scheduled.
The P-II architecture is getting long in the tooth, but Intel keeps insisting on pushing it (demonstrating an uncooled 650Mhz sample in early 1999.) Mum's the word on Intel's seventh generation x86 architecture (the Williamette or Foster) probably because that architecture is not scheduled to be ready before late 2000.
In x86 processors this ordinarily occurs whenever a fld or fxch instruction or a mov with a destination register is encountered.
www.azillionmonkeys.com /qed/cpuwar.html   (11012 words)

  
 Ars Technica: The Future of x86 and the Concept of the Instruction Set Architecture - Page 1 - (6/2000)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-05)
The idea that the x86 as an Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) is about to hit some sort of performance limit is one that gets bandied about often.
If you step back and take a look at the trends embodied by certain recent developments in processor technology and the way companies are exploiting those developments, you'll understand that asking about the performance obsolescence and eventual replacement of the x86 ISA amounts to asking the wrong type of question.
Before we look into the future of ISAs in general and the x86 ISA in specific, it'll first be necessary define exactly what an ISA is--a project that'll require us to look back into the past to the origins of the ISA as an architectural concept.
arstechnica.com /cpu/2q00/x86future/isa-future-1.html   (669 words)

  
 Debian GNU/Linux on x86 Machines
Being the architecture with the largest number of developers, and the first one supported by Debian, most of the general Debian web pages apply to this port.
If you wish to install Debian, you should look at the installation instructions whether you are installing from a CD or downloading off the Internet.
The build daemon for this architecture is operated by Ryan Murray.
www.debian.org /ports/i386   (139 words)

  
 Sun Chided Over x86 Decision
The Palo Alto, Calif.-based networking giant's January decision not to support Intel's x86 architecture in its Solaris 9 server operating environment is being met with criticism from a group of loyalists under the banner of "Save-Solaris-x86.ORG."
Save-Solaris-x86 spokesperson John Groenveld said he and others were shocked after being reassured by Sun as late as this fall that there would indeed be a Solaris 9 for x86 and after the widely publicized Solaris 9 beta for SPARC (Sun's 32-bit chip architecture) and x86.
A Sun executive said while they are sensitive to their developers, the decision to drop x86 was purely strategic.
www.serverwatch.com /news/print.php/1458931   (427 words)

  
 Gentoo Linux Projects -- Gentoo Linux x86 Architecture Development
We are responsible for the maintainance of all x86 specific meta-data and the testing of all other non-x86 specific meta-data on the x86 architecture to ensure portability.
The goal of the Gentoo Linux x86 Arhitecture Development project is to guarantee that the x86 packages build using Gentoo meta-data are up to date.
The x86 developers are responsible for building and testing packages using this meta-data.
www.gentoo.org /proj/en/base/x86   (450 words)

  
 Will x86 architecture expand into Network standard?
The microprocessor industry is in a consolidation phase and should rally around extending the x86 architecture to new market spaces, especially for network and handheld systems, said a keynoter at the Microprocessor Forum here Wednesday (Oct 15).
Weber, who disclosed AMD's plans for 64-bit extensions to the x86 at the same conference several years ago, declined to specify any new extensions AMD would like to see.
However, he did suggest the need for work making the x86 ready for networking and handhelds.
www.simmtester.com /PAGE/news/shownews.asp?num=6221   (397 words)

  
 Geek.com Geek News - The x86 architecture turns 25   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-05)
The Intel x86 architecture is now 25 years old.
At the time, Intel saw the 8086 architecture as a stopgap until the super-advanced 432 processor became widely available.
Could a x86 byte code be translated to ia64 before being sent to the processor.
www.geek.com /news/geeknews/2003Jun/bch20030617020434.htm   (2261 words)

  
 X86 / Intel IA-32 Board Support for LynxOS RTOS and BlueCat Embedded Linux (Pentium, Force, Motorola, Ampro)
X86 / Intel IA-32 Board Support for LynxOS RTOS and BlueCat Embedded Linux (Pentium, Force, Motorola, Ampro)
Solid x86 embedded systems start with BlueCat® embedded Linux®; or the LynxOS® RTOS.
Reproduction in whole or in part in any form or medium without express written permission of LynuxWorks is prohibited.
www.lynuxworks.com /board-support/x86-develop.php   (137 words)

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