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Topic: Xianbei


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In the News (Mon 24 Jun 19)

  
  Xianbei - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Xianbei (鮮卑, written Xiānbēi in pinyin or Hsien-pei in Wade-Giles) were a significant nomadic people residing in modern Manchuria and eastern Mongolia, or Xianbei Shan, a historic term for Greater Khingan, before migrating into areas of the modern Chinese provinces of Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Hebei, Inner Mongolia, and Liaoning.
Both the founders of the Sui dynasty, Yang Jian, and of the Tang dynasty, Li Yuan, were born of Tuoba princesses, and were thus, by definition, half-Xianbei in ethnicity.
A Chinese ruler of Xianbei origin was recorded as having had fair hair as were later some Tatars from the same area.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Xianbei   (283 words)

  
 Wu Hu
Wuhuan was a frequent ally with the Han court against Xianbei and the Southern Xiongnu (hereafter abbreviated as Xiongnu) although it sometimes allied with Xiongnu to fend off joint attacks by the Han and Xianbei.
However they were the best available option to suppress the insurgents and consequently legions were poorly treated such as deploying them far away from their homeland, at the most dangerous position on the field or starving them from provision and weapon.
Xianbei tribes each led by a chieftain were grouped under the confederacy into three smaller federations, the Western, the Central and the Eastern, according to their residing areas.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/wu/Wu_Hu.html   (3059 words)

  
 Xianbei - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The Xianbei (鮮卑, written xian1 bei1 in pinyin or Hsien-Pi in Wade-Giles) is a significant nomadic people residing in modern Manchuria and eastern Mongolia before migrating into areas of the modern provinces of Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Hebei, Inner Mongolia and Liaoning.
After the fall of the Han dynasty, the Xianbei formed a number of empires of their own, including the Yan dynasty (燕;), Western Qin (Xiqin, 西秦), Southern Liang (Nanliang, 南涼) and most significantly, the Northern Wei (北魏;).
Both the founders of the Sui dynasty, Yang Jian, and of the Tang dynasty, Li Yuan, were born of Tuoban princesses, and were thus, by definition, half-Xianbei in ethnicity.
www.encyclopedia-online.info /Xianpi   (231 words)

  
 Wu Hu - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Wuhuan were a frequent ally with the Han court against Xianbei and the Southern Xiongnu (hereafter abbreviated as Xiongnu), although they also sometimes allied with the Xiongnu to fend off joint attacks by the Han and Xianbei.
However they were the best available option for suppressing the insurgents and consequently these solders were poorly treated by being deployed far away from their homeland, or in the most dangerous positions on the battlefield or by starving them of provisions and weapons.
Each Xianbei tribe was led by a chieftain and were grouped under the confederacy into three smaller federations, the Western, the Central and the Eastern.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Wu_Hu   (3119 words)

  
 Turfan_Mummies
Toba Xianbei was recorded to have dwelled to the northeatern-most of all Xianbei, in a place called 'Ga Xian Dong', somewhere near the north segment of the Greater Xing'an Ridge.
The Xianbei (Syanbiy) were the northern branch of the Donghu (or Tung Hu, the Eastern Hu), a proto-Tunguz group mentioned in Chinese histories.
It was the Xianbei nomads who are frequently mentioned as mercenaries of Jin Chinese in fighting the Huns and Jiehus on behalf of the Chinese emperor.
www.findthelinks.com /history/Huns_Turks/Turfan_Mummies.htm   (5636 words)

  
 WORLD ENCYCLOPAEDIA - Mongolia - Donghu, Toba, and Ruruan   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The Xianbei were the northern branch of the Donghu (or Tung Hu, the Eastern Hu), a proto-Tunguz group mentioned in Chinese histories as existing as early as the fourth century B.C. The language of the Donghu, like that of the Xiongnu, is unknown to modern scholars.
The Xianbei, who by the second century A.D. were attacking Chinese farms south of the Great Wall, established an empire, which, although short-lived, gave rise to numerous tribal states along the Chinese frontier.
The Xianbei were able to make forays into a China beset with internal unrest and political disintegration.
encyclopaedic.net /world/mongolia/6.php   (670 words)

  
 Wu Hu
Wu Hu were composed of five nomadic tribes: Xiongnu (匈奴; xiong1 nu2, sometimes identified with the Huns), Xianbei (鮮卑 xian1 bei1), Di (氐; di1), Qiang (羌; qiang1), and Jie (羯 jie2) although different groups of historians and historiographers have their own definitions.
Traditionally (but still in use to some extent) it only included Xiongnu, Xianbei, Di[?], Qiang[?] and Jie.
Despite his low social status among Xianbei herdsmen, he managed to unify all Xianbei tribes under a military and commercial confederacy against the Han's court.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/wu/Wu_Hu_barbarians.html   (3059 words)

  
 Chinese History - The Xianbei (www.chinaknowledge.org)
Only from the Later Han Dynasty on the Xianbei set up a regular relationship with the Han court and became their allies after the Xiongnu and the Wuhuan 烏桓 were finally defeated.
In the course of the 1st and 2nd century the Xianbei occupied the whole northern steppe area that was before roamed by the Xiongnu.
The first ruler of the Xianbei federation was Tang Shihuai 檀石槐 around 150 AD who represented a real danger for the Chinese empire and his neighboring peoples, the Southern Xiongnu 南匈奴, Wuhuan, Di 氐, and Qiang 羌.
www.chinaknowledge.de /History/Altera/xianbei.html   (425 words)

  
 Period of Disunion (220-589) - Imperial China - History - China - Asia
The potential of the south for agriculture was greater than that of the north because of its temperate climate and ample water supply.
During the second half of the 5th century, the Xianbei adopted a series of policies designed to strengthen the state.
Recognizing this, the Xianbei rulers employed Chinese officials, adopted Chinese-style clothing and customs at court, and made Chinese the official language.
www.countriesquest.com /asia/china/history/imperial_china/period_of_disunion_220-589.htm   (576 words)

  
 The stirrup and its effect on chinese military history
But as the Xianbei rulers had begun to accept Chinese and other ethnic groups into their forces, it must soon have become apparent to them that they were in danger of being swamped by this new influx of recruits.
In this case the Xianbei revived a pattern of dan confederation that frequently served as the organizing principle of nomad empires on the steppes.
The bestowal of Xianbei surnames upon eminent Chinese, so common at this time, was intended to produce the same result, that of tribalization or "Xianbei-ization." The effect of these policies was to make the enlistment of Chinese into the military forces acceptable to and controllable by the Xianbei rulers.
www.silk-road.com /artl/stirrup.shtml   (6088 words)

  
 The Yungang Buddhist Grotto Art   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
By the mid-third century CE, Tuoba Xianbei (also known as the Toba Wei and the Tabgatch) controlled much of northern China, from Hebei and Shanxi to the Daqing Mountains in Inner Mongolia.
In 258 a Xianbei confederation was formed, and a few decades later came to the aid of the Western Jin dynasty, who were under attack from an army led by a Liu Yuan, a man of Xiongnu descent who made an unsuccessful bid to reestablish the Xiongnu empire.
The Former Qin court forcibly removed the Xianbei to Shandong province, removed their leader to their capital Changan as hostage, took away their herds and stationed troops that forced them to engage in agriculture.
www.bonus.com /contour/wordartres/http@@/www.bergerfoundation.ch/Yungang/historical.html   (1799 words)

  
 16 Nations -- Political, Social, Cultural, Historical Analysis Of China
The Xianbei were the northern branch of the Donghu (or Tung Hu, the Eastern Hu), a proto-Tunguz group mentioned in Chinese histories.
Xianbei and Wuhuan would be those people who fled to the two mountains, by the names of Xianbei and Wuhuan, when their ancestors accused Hunnic founder Modu of patricide and got defeated by Modu.
The Xianbei and Toba nomads were once allies of those city-states in fighting against the Huns, Hehu and the Di-Qiang nomads who ravaged the Central China of Henan Province as well as the Western Province of Shaanxi.
www.uglychinese.org /16nations.htm   (6253 words)

  
 Pair of Belt Buckles [North China] (24.176.6,7) | Object Page | Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Originally part of the Xiongnu empire, the Xianbei broke away and resumed control of their lands in the mid-first century B.C. From that time until the sixth century A.D., they played a complicated role in Central Asian and Chinese history.
The Xianbei ruled many of the small states that vied for control of North China from the third to the mid-fifth century.
The Tuoba, a subsidiary branch of the eastern Xianbei, established the powerful Northern Wei dynasty that ruled North China from the mid-fourth to the mid-sixth century.
www.metmuseum.org /toah/ho/05/nc/hod_24.176.6,7.htm   (302 words)

  
 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei China
He forced the Xianbei and others to adopt Chinese surnames, and changed his family surname from Tuoba to Yuan (元;).
His reforms were met with resistance by the Xianbei elite.
In 496, Xianbei nobles and generals in the north rebelled, intending to place his son on the throne.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Hsiao-Wen_Ti   (275 words)

  
 China Lyrical 'Living Fossils'
During the Qin and Han dynasties (221BC-AD220), this unique musical genre was introduced to the Central Plains, and merged with the folk music of the Han nationality to form a performing style called "blowing vertically" and "drum blowing," which was prevalent in the Western Han Dynasty (206BC-AD24).
As an ethnic group belonging to the Turki Austronesian of Altai Phylum, the Xianbei (a predecessor of the Uygur ethnic minority) originated from the Donghu (Eastern Tatars) tribe and originally lived in the Great Hinggan Mountain Range.
The Xianbei people had many folk songs rich in content and style, including pastoral songs, nostalgic songs, narrative songs, war songs, etc, most of which featured strong and fresh styles, and were wild and unrestrained, with a rich flavor of life in the grasslands.
www.chinaculture.org /gb/en_artqa/2004-06/14/content_47408_2.htm   (387 words)

  
 Were the Xianbei partially Turkic? - China History Forum, online chinese history forum
The Xianbei were ancestors of Mongols and Khitans, and occupied areas formly owned by the Huns, who were Turkic.
However, it is clear that the Xianbei had been living together and intermarrying with the Xiongnu for a long time before the Age of Fragmentation.
The Tuoba and Tufa Xianbei have also been theorized by Wang Zhongluo to be descended from a Xianbei father and a Xiongnu mother.
www.chinahistoryforum.com /index.php?showtopic=7365&st=0&   (1620 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The Tuoba Xianbei and the Northern Wei Dynasty
It is believed that the Tuoba Xianbei (also known as the Toba Wei and the Tabgatch) developed an independent cultural identity separating them from the larger cultural milieu of Eastern Hu peoples of northern China sometime in the first century BCE.
The Xianbei creation myth has their earliest ancestors emerging from a sacred cave, the location of which was lost to the Tuoba Xianbei themselves.
depts.washington.edu /uwch/silkroad/exhibit/nwei/essay.html   (897 words)

  
 China History Forum, online chinese history forum > Sui Wendi and Tang Taizong
We must understand that during the northern Wei dynasty, Xianbei was the dominant language and culture in north China until the sinification policy by Xiao Wendi.
The speaking of Xianbei language was banned in the imperial court.
Li Yuan's wife (nee) Dou 窦, the mother of Taizong, was the daughter of the Xianbei Hedouling Yi 纥豆陵懿 [the surname Hedouling was 'sinicised' to Dou under the Northern Wei reforms of Emperor Xiaowen].
www.chinahistoryforum.com /lofiversion/index.php/t1614.html   (5670 words)

  
 Alternative views on non-Mongoloid elements in ancient China - Pet Sins Webzine September 2003
Once he went to inspect his troops without notice, and his warriors all thought he was Xianbei and chased him as an enemy.
Xianbei is described with "yellow head" and it is quite possible that "yellow head" referred to their yellow hair and beard.
Xianbei is an alliance of tribes; there might also be some Mongoliod tribes in it, but the Caucasian elements were more obvious, since all Hans paid attention to it.
www.colorq.org /PetSins/article.asp?y=2003&m=9&x=9_1   (1562 words)

  
 Is this true about the Manchurian People? - Asia Finest Discussion Forum
An anecdote in the Shih-shuo hsin-yu, compiled by Liu Yi-ch'ing in the first half of the fifth century, shows that the Xianbei, who are supposed to have spoken a Mongolian language, were racially anything but Mongoloid.
When in 324 Emperor Ming whose mother, nee Hsun, came from the xianbei kingdom of Yen, heard about the rebillion of Wang Tun, he rode into the camp of the rebels to find out their strength.
Seeing that the Xianbei lived around the Manchus, it is very plausable to assume that both of these people were probably eurasian hybrids back in the day.
www.asiafinest.com /forum/index.php?act=findpost&pid=810076   (892 words)

  
 Asian Games: The Art of Contest
It seems likely that it was introduced by the Xianbei tribes that controlled northern China from the fourth to sixth century.
The Xianbei, because of their nomadic origins, had a great fondness for horses, a trait that (like many aspects of their culture) was inherited by the Chinese of the Tang dynasty.
It is also notable that the Xianbei accorded higher status and more physical freedom to women than the Chinese dynasties, and women became avid polo players under the Tang dynasty.
www.asiasociety.org /arts/asiangames/power02.html   (466 words)

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