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Topic: Xiongnu

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  The Xiongnu Culture - Third Century BCE
During Emperor Mo-tun reign (208-175 BCE), the Xiongnu were at the zenith of their might and occupied a huge territory from Lake Baikal on the north to the Ordos plateau on the south and the Liao River on the east.
The basis of the Xiongnus' economy was herding, mostly pastoral nomads who lived in felt-cobbled tents, using bow and arrow from horseback.
With the turn of the Christian Era these Xiongnu extended their power west into Dzungaria and reasserted their independence from China, although some tribes along the borderlands remained vassals of the Chinese and served as buffers against their independent kinsmen.
www.silk-road.com /artl/xiongnu1.shtml   (536 words)

Although in the course of history other peoples displaced, or became intermingled with, the Yuezhi and the Xiongnu, their activities, conflicts, and internal and external relations established a pattern, with four principal themes, that continued almost unchanged--except for the conquest of Eurasia in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries--until the eighteenth century.
The Xiongnu, once more turning their attention to the west and the southwest, raided deep into the Oxus Valley between 73 and 44 B.C. The descendants of the Yuezhi and their Chinese rulers, however, formed a common front against the Xiongnu and repelled them.
Although the Xiongnu finally had been driven back into their homeland by the Chinese in A.D. 48, within ten years the Xianbei (or Hsien-pei in Wade-Giles) had moved (apparently from the north or northwest) into the region vacated by the Xiongnu.
www.shsu.edu /~his_ncp/Mongolia.html   (9631 words)

  Wu Hu
Wu Hu were composed of five nomadic tribes: Xiongnu (匈奴 xiong1 nu2, sometimes identified with the Huns), Xianbei (鮮卑; xian1 bei1), Di (氐; di1), Qiang (羌; qiang1), and Jie (羯 jie2) although different groups of historians and historiographers have their own definitions.
Even fragments of the Northern Xiongnu migrated well within the border to the Xi He plain (literally means the plain on the west of Huang he, south of the Ordos Desert[?]).
Accession of Jin Huidi[?] as the Jin Emperor in 290 began the crumbling of Jin Dyansty.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/wu/Wu_Hu_barbarians.html   (3059 words)

 The Division and Destruction of the Xiongnu Confederacy, Rafe de Crespigny, Publications, Faculty of Asian Studies, ANU
The Chinese term "Xiongnu" presumably reflects the sound of the foreign tongue; though identification has often been suggested the name need not be related to that of the later Huns who afflicted Europe centuries later.
By the end of autumn the Xiongnu rebels had driven south to the Wei valley, defeating local Chinese levies and killing their commanders, and their success was confirmed by imperial edicts ordering that the administrative headquarters of Shang, Xihe, Beidi, Anding and Shuofang commanderies be withdrawn.
Ultimately, despite the ravages and disruption, the fall of the Xiongnu state was a political matter: one clan failed and was driven away, but was replaced on the steppe by another, initially far less structured but later producing a new warlord grouping to face the frontier of China.
www.anu.edu.au /asianstudies/decrespigny/han_xiongnu.html   (6090 words)

 Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Xiongnu Kingdom of Han-Former Zhao captured and executed the last two Jin emperors as the Western Jin Dynasty collapsed in 317.
Xiongnu was in fact the most powerful non-Chinese ethnic group neighboring the Chinese Han Dynasty therefore the Han simply referred to them as the Hu (the non-Chinese or the barbarian).
As the Northern Xiongnu, the masters of the Mongolian steppes and mortal enemy of the dynasty, was still potent enough during the reigns of Emperor Ming, Emperor Zhang and Emperor He (58–105) to keep the volatile alliance intact, the Eastern Han dynasty enjoyed the most prosperous years of its almost 200 years of existence.
www.goupstate.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=Wu_Hu   (2983 words)

 TSARAM Archaeological Project
The Xiongnu, otherwise known as the Asiatic Huns, headed a powerful alliance of cattle-breeding tribes in the late 3rd to early 2nd century B.C., and dominated the eastern part of Central Asia for two centuries.
The objective of the Tsaram Archaeological Project is to conduct a systematic archaeological excavation of a Xiongnu elite burial complex in the Tsaram valley.
The Tsaram tombs are presumed to date to the Xiongnu period based upon their structural similarity to Noin Ula burials to the south.
hsiungnu.chat.ru /tsaram.htm   (747 words)

 Chinese History - The Xiongnu (www.chinaknowledge.org)
The Xiongnu Tribes or the Xiongnu People (old: Hsiung-nu) are often identified with the Huns that invaded Europe in the 4th century and with the White Huns (Hephthalites) that invaded northeastern India.
The territory that was inhabited or roamed by the Xiongnu tribes stretched from the Ili Basin in the far west of modern China to the pastures of modern Mongolia.
While the northern part of the Xiongnu federation roamed the grasslands north of the fortification walls, the southern Xiongnu became sedentate and settled down in the area of modern Shaanxi and Shanxi provinces, side by side with Chinese inhabitants.
www.chinaknowledge.de /History/Altera/xiongnu.html   (882 words)

 Origin of the Xiongnu (Hsiungnu)
Another major problem of Xiongnu (Hsiungnu) history is the origin of the Xiongnu (Hsiungnu) themselves and the early stages of their history, which remain obscure to this day.
The Xiongnu (Hsiungnu) burials are, as a rule, individual, supine, with the limbs extended and, in the 90 percent of cases, oriented toward the north.
These texts tell, that in the period of the Qin dynasty the Xiongnu (Hsiungnu) were banished from their homeland to the north and that after the downfall of Qin the Xiongnu (Hsiungnu) returned to the region "south of the river" (Ordos plateau).
iimk.nw.ru /eng/themes/xiongnu/origin.htm   (932 words)

 Xiongnu   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Very ancient (perhaps legendary) historic Chinese records say that the Xiongnu descended from a son of the final ruler of China's first dynasty (Xia Dynasty), the remnants of which were believed by the Chinese of the Spring and Autumn Period to be the people of the state of (杞).
According to Sima Qian, the Xiongnu were descendants of Chunwei (淳維), possibly a son of Jie, the final ruler of the Xia Dynasty.
Eventually, the Xiongnu aristocracy in Shanxi changed their surname from Luanti to Liu for prestige reasons, claiming that they were related to the Han imperial clan through the old intermarriage policy.
www.tocatch.info /en/Xiong_Nu.htm   (4126 words)

 Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Xiongnu
An entry in a Chinese dictionary says Xiongnu (xiong1 nu2), (匈奴) n., The Huns, Mongolian tribes in northeastern China and Mongolia, historically under various names (玁狁 xian3 yun3, 匈奴 xiong1 nu2, and 胡 hu2) 1000 B.C. to 6th cen.
A.D. In the 4th, 5th and 6th centuries, five northern tribes, including Tartars, Mongols, Turkics invaded and occupied North China.
Any group of herdsmen that had resided on modern Mongolian steppes were referrred as Mongolian, regardless to when they appeared in history.
www.kids.net.au /encyclopedia-wiki/xi/Xiongnu   (379 words)

 Buried XiongNu City Discovered
The Xiongnu was a northern nomadic ethnic group that was influential in northern China for 10 centuries in ancient times.
The Xiongnu threat was a constant problem for the Han rulers.
The discovery of the city gives vital information to the study of Xiongnu tribesmen, who have remained a mystery to Chinese and foreign archaeologists because of a lack of adequate material and evidence on this ethnic tribe, Xing said.
www.chinapage.com /archeology/xiongnu.html   (441 words)

 Sergey Miniaev List of publications
Alcov’s burial of Central Asia during Xiongnu period// Bulletin of International association for the study of the culture of Central Asia, UNESCO.
On the origin of the Xiongnu// Materials of international conference for the study of the cultures of North China.
Decorative bronzes of Xiongnu: the problem of formation of style and images // Materials of the conference “Problem of genesis of culture and culture heritage”.
hsiungnu.chat.ru /biblio.htm   (657 words)

 Su Wu, Lonely Shepherd of the North
He was from a military family which had distinguished itself I fighting the Xiongnu, and the History of the Han Dynasty, which tells his story, ascribes the origin of his indomitable will to his early strict education.
Then the Xiongnu went to work on Zhang Sheng, who was a spineless person and admitted to guilt even though in fact he had not had anything directly to do with the plot.
The lack of food and water was beginning to weaken him, so he ate snow to quench his thirst and chewed on a piece of his felt blanket to appease his hunger.
www.shme.com /culture/legend/suwu.htm   (909 words)

 The Xiongnu - China History Forum, chinese history forum
Traditionally, Chinese historians believed the Xiongnu left no record in Chinese histories after 91 A.D. By 91 the northern Xiongnu were driven from the Ordos and fled west, their leadership dissipated.
There were Xiongnu rebellions in 271, 294, and most significantly in 304 - this last one succeeded in toppling the Western Jin dynasty, conquering north China, and ruling it as a state named the Han (later renamed Zhao) until 329.
However, the surviving Xiongnu remained prominent in the Ordos region, as rivals of the Tuoba Xianbei.
www.chinahistoryforum.com /index.php?showtopic=1605   (1532 words)

 Silk Road - Introduction
As Yuezhi tribe, Xiongnu was also a nomadic group who attempted to invade the Kansu province of Han Dynasty.
Because the Xiongnu could not be restrained with any lasting effects, Emperor Wu decided to look for an alliance with Yuezhi who had been defeated by their enemies Xiongnu and driven to the Ili valley, the western fringes of the Taklamakan Desert.
He was once captured by Tibetan tribes allied with Xiongnu for a year and escaped in 125 BC in returning his way back to China.
gallery.sjsu.edu /silkroad/history.htm   (717 words)

 Horse Stepping on a Xiongnu Soldier and Horse Stepping on a Swallow - China Style
The commander of the emperor's troops, Huo Qubing, was a young man, who defeated the Xiongnu army six times in the Qilian Mountain area and made brilliant military achievements.
The stone carvings in Huo Qubing's Tomb, Such as the Horse Stepping on a Xiongnu Soldier' are fine examples of the simple and bold artistic style of the Han Dynasty.
There is another famous representative sculpture of the Han Dynasty, the bronze statue of a Horse Stepping on a Swallow(Fig.3-6) It was unearthed in an Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220) tomb in Wuwei County, Gansu Province, in 1969.
library.thinkquest.org /05aug/01780/chinese-carving/horse.htm   (627 words)

 AllRefer.com - Mongolia - Xiongnu and Yuezhi | Mongolian Information Resource
The Xiongnu temporarily abandoned their interest in China and turned their attention westward to the region of the Altai Mountains and Lake Balkash, inhabited by the Yuezhi (Yüeh-chih in Wade-Giles), an Indo-European-speaking nomadic people who had relocated from China's present-day Gansu Province as a result of their earlier defeat by the Xiongnu.
Between 130 and 121 B.C., Chinese armies drove the Xiongnu back across the Great Wall, weakened their hold on Gansu Province as well as on what is now Nei Monggol Autonomous Region (Inner Mongolia--see Glossary), and finally pushed them north of the Gobi into central Mongolia.
The Xiongnu, once more turning their attention to the west and the southwest, raided deep into the Oxus Valley between 73 and 44 B.C. The descendants of the Yuezhi and their Chinese rulers, however, formed a common front against the Xiongnu and repelled them.
reference.allrefer.com /country-guide-study/mongolia/mongolia14.html   (715 words)

 -:| CHINA TODAY |:-
Those in the north were under the control of the Xiongnu (Huns), a nomadic ethnic group that had lived in China's northern grasslands since the Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.).
The Xiongnu were a constant hazard to traders traveling through the Western Regions, and Han troops were stationed along the Silk Road in order to guarantee safe passage.
Ban Chao was commander in charge of troops whose purpose was to recover territory north and south of the Tianshan Mountains from the Xiongnu.
www.chinatoday.com.cn /English/e2004/e200410/p10.htm   (1976 words)

 Selection from the Han Narrative Histories
Tangyi Fu was formerly a Hu [Tartar; Xiongnu?].
The Xiongnu would from time to time come there to waylay travelers, but such visitations were of rare occurrence indeed, and two years later the Chinese forced their khan to retreat into the north of the desert.
The Xiongnu chief, however, sent one of his nobles to China, and desired him to say that unless China sent an envoy of equal rank he would not discuss the question in earnest with him.
artemis.austincollege.edu /acad/history/jmoore/HanNarrativeHistories.htm   (8241 words)

 China and Korea, 300 to 500 CE
In 316, Xiongnu cavalry passed through the city of Chang'an, and amid the ruins that they left in Chang'an another prince of the Jin family declared himself emperor.
They found trustworthy men among Buddhist and Taoist intellectuals, and Xiongnu chieftains were inclined to trust Buddhist monks because they were unmarried, without loyalty to a family or clan and, therefore, more dependent upon the chieftain for favors.
The dominant Xiongnu chieftain in northern China, Liu Cong, died, and his family was overthrown by one of his former lieutenants, Shi Liu Shi - who was illiterate but enjoyed having Chinese classics explained to him.
www.fsmitha.com /h1/ch28ch.htm   (3413 words)

 Emperor Wu of Han Summary   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Emperor Wu successfully repelled the nomadic Xiongnu from systematically raiding northern China and dispatched his envoy Zhang Qian in 139 BC to seek an alliance with the Yuezhi of modern Uzbekistan.
The peace with Xiongnu would not last, however, because Emperor Wu was not satisfied with what he saw as appeasement of the Xiongnu.
Zhang was immediately captured by Xiongnu once he ventured into the desert, but was able to escape around 129 BC and eventually made it to Yuezhi, which by then had relocated to Samarkand.
www.bookrags.com /Emperor_Wu_of_Han   (6449 words)

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