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Topic: Zooplankton

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  Lower Food Web - Plankton
Zooplankton are useful indicators of future fisheries health because they are a food source for organisms at higher trophic levels, such as finfish.
Zooplankton are planktonic animals that range in size from microscopic rotifers to macroscopic jellyfish.
Zooplankton, like phytoplankton, make excellent indicators of environmental conditions within the Bay, because they are sensitive to changes in water quality.
www.chesapeakebay.net /info/plankton.cfm   (683 words)

  Vertical Migration of Zooplankton
An accurate model of the feeding ecology of zooplankton is critical to understanding the marine nutrient cycle, but explanations for the extensive diel vertical migration of zooplankton have failed to completely account for the observed behavior (1, 2, 3, 4, 5).
Zooplankton typically descend hundreds of meters at dawn and rise toward the surface at dusk.
Zooplankton may also find an advantageous decline in viscosity of water at depth, if conditions are encountered where the viscosity increase induced by lowered temperature is outweighed by the viscosity decrease associated with increasing pressure.
www.fisherycrisis.com /copepods.htm   (3442 words)

 Zooplankton Fact Sheet   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Zooplankton are microscopic invertebrate animals that swim or drift in water.
Most zooplankton are filter feeders, using their appendages to strain bacteria and algae and other fine particles in the water.
In contrast, zooplankton that live in ponds without fish, such as temporary ponds, often are much larger (up to 3 to 4 millimeters).
www.uga.edu /srel/zoo.htm   (1103 words)

 Zooplankton survey plumbs the depths - life - 04 May 2006 - New Scientist   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The goal of the project is to create a comprehensive genetic "encyclopaedia" of all the zooplankton species that live in the open ocean by 2010.
Zooplankton are a broad range of protozoans, tiny crustaceans and other animals.
By collecting a comprehensive sample of zooplankton and sequencing all the species' genomes, scientists are creating a database of unique genetic "barcodes" that allows microscopic ocean life to be identified much more quickly.
www.newscientist.com /article/dn9108-zooplankton-survey-plumbs-the-depths.html   (595 words)

 5.1. Wild zooplankton
Phytoplankton and zooplankton populations are therefore intimately linked in a continuous cycle of bloom and decline that has evolved and persisted throughout millions of years of evolution.
Collecting zooplankton with hand nets is rather unefficient: one person can catch about 0.1 to 1.0 kg of plankton per hour, depending on the amount of zooplankton biomass in the reservoir.
The transport of the zooplankton can be carried out in water in a 50 l reservoir and must be carried out very quickly, since the viability of the harvested plankton is low (1h after harvesting already 5% mortality is observed).
www.fao.org /DOCREP/003/W3732E/w3732e0s.htm   (2657 words)

 Zooplankton   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Zooplankton include crustaceans like copepods or shrimps, as well as worms, medusae or even smaller animals only being seen under the microscope like single-celled protozoans.
Up to 17% of the total coral metabolic requirements may be covered by predation on zooplankton compared to about 71% from primary production by the symbiotic algae within the coral and 12% from absorption of dissolved organic matter present in the seawater.
The number of emerging zooplankton is related to the structural heterogeneity and three-dimensionality of the reef.
www.coexploration.org /bbsr/coral/html/body_zooplankton.html   (731 words)

 Zooplankton - MarineBio.org
Zooplankton (zoh-plankton) are tiny animals found in all ocean zones, particularly the pelagic and littoral zones in the ocean, but also in ponds, lakes, and rivers.
Zooplankton are also sensitive to their environment and like phytoplankton—a change in zooplankton concentration can indicate a subtle environmental change.
Zooplankton are highly responsive to nutrient levels, temperatures, pollution, food that is not nutritious, levels of light, and increases in predation.
marinebio.org /Oceans/Zooplankton.asp   (1773 words)

 VIMS Zooplankton Ecology
The Zooplankton Ecology lab is a research unit of the Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, Virginia and the School of Marine Science of The College of William and Mary.
Our research interests are in zooplankton ecology and physiology, coastal and deep-sea food webs, nutrient cycling, and marine detritus ("marine snow").
Much of our current focus is how zooplankton community structure affects flux of organic material and cycling of nutrients in the sea.
www.vims.edu /bio/zooplankton   (158 words)

 Zooplankton of freshwaters
The distinction between suspended zooplankton having limited powers of locomotion, and animals capable of swimming independently of turbulence- the latter referred to as nekton- is often diffuse.
Freshwater zooplankton are dominated by four major groups of animals: protozoa, rotifers, and two subclasses of the Crustacea, the cladocerans and copepods.
The horizontal spatial distribution of zooplankton in lakes is often uneven and patchy.
lakes.chebucto.org /zoo.html   (2022 words)

 EcoFOCI Bering Sea Ice Expedition 2006 :: Research :: Zooplankton
Zooplankton are microscopic animals that drift with the ocean’s currents (planktos means wander in Greek).
In places where the ice retreats before the middle of March, the spring phytoplankton bloom is delayed until May or June, in part because the warmer water allows zooplankton to grow, reproduce and exert more grazing pressure on the phytoplankton as conditions became good for their growth and reproduction.
During this expedition, scientists will sample zooplankton from beneath ice floes (using SCUBA divers), from the water between ice floes and from open water near, but not part of, the ice edge using nets.
www.pmel.noaa.gov /foci/ice06/FOCI_Ice2006_zooplankton.html   (560 words)

 The Food of Reefs, Part 4: Zooplankton by Eric Borneman - Reefkeeping.com
Zooplankton are defined as small (often microscopic) aquatic animals and nonphotosynthetic protists suspended or weakly swimming in water.
Zooplankton form an important food (trophic) resource to many groups of animals, are part of a complex food web, and are themselves significant consumers of phytoplankton, bacterioplankton and other zooplankton.
Zooplankton, tending to be quite numerous, albeit small, also accumulate where there is sufficient food to allow for their growth and reproduction.
reefkeeping.com /issues/2002-12/eb/index.htm   (3315 words)

 Beyond the Reef - Zooplankton
Zooplankton are floating or weakly swimming animals that rely on water currents to move any great distance.
There are two major types of zooplankton: those that spend their entire lives as part of the plankton (called Holoplankton) and those that only spend a larval or reproductive stage as part of the plankton (called Meroplankton).
Zooplankton are the favourite food of a great many marine animals so camouflaging themselves is a very important survival strategy.
www.amonline.net.au /exhibitions/beyond/zooplankton/index.htm   (152 words)

 LiveScience.com - Rich Gallery of Deep-Sea Life Discovered in Bermuda Triangle
The expedition has provided a new understanding of the diversity of gelatinous zooplankton, which the researchers describe as "the gooiest, stickiest, and most transparently fragile animals of the sea." They are rarely captured without being destroyed.
The zooplankton then carry the carbon from the surface to the depths, effectively sequestering it from the atmosphere, where it acts as a greenhouse gas.
Some 10,000 pounds of phytoplankton is consumed by 1,000 pounds of zooplankton, which in turn support 100 pounds of larger zooplankton, which become meals for 10 pounds of small fish species like herring or anchovies, which support 1 pound of a larger fish species that might end up on your dinner table.
www.livescience.com /animalworld/060504_sea_creatures.html   (526 words)

Zooplankton keep disappearing every time they send out a study team during the day.
You need to explain in your video what zooplankton are, where they live-including all the various environments that you researched.
But, zooplankton are not the only microscopic organism living in our oceans.
web.utk.edu /~ctmelear/ossabaw/AngelaVelazquez/WebQuest2/default.html   (1072 words)

 Untitled Document
Zooplanktons main sustenance are bacteria and phytoplankton, making them the second link in the food chain (Vegas).
In order for the zooplankton to have easy access to their food source, they need to be located near the phytoplankton.
The difference between the movement of phytoplankton and zooplankton is that zooplankton can often weight too much to just float along, like the phytoplankton, so they use spikes for weight distribution (Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia).
drake.marin.k12.ca.us /stuwork/rockwater/PLANKTON/zooplankton.html   (328 words)

At 3-4 h intervals over 24-36 h, zooplankton were collected with a 1m closing net (202um mesh) from deep and surface depth strata.
During a cruise in April 1993, zooplankton abundance was mapped on a series of transects along and across the shelf.
Grazing from other components of the zooplankton community is as yet unquantified but indications are that protozoans and larvaceans can contribute significantly.
www.aoml.noaa.gov /general/project/ocdpbo5.html   (1732 words)

 Zooplankton Research
Using sunlight as their energy source, chloroplasts deep inside the cell are able to assemble carbon dioxide and water into glucose, the basic building block of all organic life.
Diaptomids (herbivorous copepods) dominate the zooplankton community of Trout Lake and are a major food source for the lake herring.
Next in zooplankton abundance are cyclopoids, many of which are carnivorous.
www.venturenorth.com /tlca/doc7_6.htm   (408 words)

 Marianne Moore Research | Zooplankton and Vertical Migration
Many freshwater and marine zooplankton perform daily excursions (i.e., vertical migrations) up and down in the water column, with changing levels of light triggering these daily migrations.
For example, the classic pattern consists of zooplankton residing deep in the water column during the day when light levels are high.
The major predator of zooplankton is planktivorous fish (e.g., perch, alewives, or mackerel in the ocean).
www.wellesley.edu /Biology/Faculty/Mmoore/research_zooplankton.html   (210 words)

 The Food of Reefs, Part 4: Zooplankton by Eric Borneman - Reefkeeping.com
Zooplankton are defined as small (often microscopic) aquatic animals and nonphotosynthetic protists suspended or weakly swimming in water.
Zooplankton form an important food (trophic) resource to many groups of animals, are part of a complex food web, and are themselves significant consumers of phytoplankton, bacterioplankton and other zooplankton.
Zooplankton, tending to be quite numerous, albeit small, also accumulate where there is sufficient food to allow for their growth and reproduction.
www.reefkeeping.com /issues/2002-12/eb/index.php   (3315 words)

Zooplankton were collected from 1951 until 1978 by oblique net tows (1 m diameter, 5 m long, 500 um mesh-size nets).
Distributions of zooplankton volume for these other areas for the period 1951 - 1982 have been extensively described by Chelton et al.
For data analysis we used log-normalized zooplankton displacement units and assumed that these were normally distributed.
www.calcofi.org /data/zooplankton/zoodata.htm   (283 words)

 BBC - Radio 4 - Nature 20/5/2002
The aim of the cruise is to study the factors affecting the abundance and lifecycle of important zooplankton species, principally a copepod called Calanus Finmarchicus.
In the winter, these copepods live in deep, protective water, and then time their return to the warmer upper ocean to coincide with the spring bloom of microscopic plant growth (phytoplankton), allowing them to feed and reproduce.
Long term monitoring of zooplankton in the upper ocean imay indicate that change is on its way, and that fish stocks are about to decline further.
www.bbc.co.uk /radio4/science/nature_20020520.shtml   (334 words)

 ENVIRONMENT: What Are Zooplankton? (And Why You Should Care)
Zooplankton species -- tiny shrimp-like creatures, worms, snails and jellyfish -- provide a fundamental link in the food chain between ocean plant life and predators from fish to whales.
By one rough estimate, 10,000 pounds of plant plankton is needed to feed 1,000 pounds of small zooplankton, which in turn support 100 pounds of larger zooplankton, which supports 10 pounds of small fish species (like herring or anchovies), which support 1 pound of a larger fish species, such as those harvested for human consumption.
In sampling unique marine environments, the zooplankton census is enlarging human understanding of the pattern, flow, and development of life in the sea, she adds.
www.ipsnews.net /news.asp?idnews=33144   (949 words)

 From zooplankton to the great whales   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Zooplankton itself is food for larger marine animals from small fish to the largest whales.
Various factors such as frequency, acoustic backscatter properties of plankton species, size and orientation, and physical properties of the ocean environment that determine the efficacy of acoustic methods are discussed.
This is a general-purpose system for processing large quantities of data in real-time and can serve as the oceanic equivalent of a radio telescope, an infrared telescope, and an optical telescope combined into one system.
www.mbari.org /seminars/1998/jan23_laskari.html   (236 words)

 Invasive Species: The Effective of Zebra Mussels - Section 5
As carnivorous zooplankton feed on herbivorous zooplankton and herbivorous zooplankton feed on three groups of phytoplankton (diatoms, greens, and “others”), obviously according to theory of bioaccumulation, SPCB concentration in carnivorous zooplankton should be highest, followed by herbivorous zooplankton, and phytoplankton.
The scarcity of food helped herbivorous zooplankton to assimilate lesser quantity of contaminated food than those would have been consumed with sufficient supply of food (even though may be less contaminated) (2) zebra mussels filter herbivorous zooplankton which serves as a lone food source for carnivorous zooplankton.
Under this scenario, herbivorous zooplankton was not being grazed by mussels and they were also benefited for the sufficient resources available for their growth since the consumption by zebra mussels was distributed among all five phytoplankton groups.
www.epa.gov /greatlakes/invasive/zmussels/sec5.html   (3520 words)

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In addition, because of their critical role as a food source for larval and juvenile fish, the dynamics of zooplankton populations have a critical influence on recruitment to fish stocks.
It is this latter role which has made zooplankton ecology of particular interest to ICES.
The 4th Zooplankton Production Symposium, again co-sponsored by ICES, PICES and GLOBEC, will be held May 28-June 1, 2007, at the International Conference Center in Hiroshima, Japan.
www.pices.int /meetings/international_symposia/2007_symposia/4th_Zooplankton/4th_Zoopl.aspx   (309 words)

 Water's Edge Scientific LLC - Zooplankton Analysis
Zooplankton are an important link in the aquatic food web, serving both as consumers- of algae, bacteria, and other microorganisms- and as prey for larger animals such as fish.
Continuous, long-term monitoring of zooplankton community structure can be useful in detecting patterns and changes in species composition that may be related to changes in water quality.
Crustacean zooplankton are typically identified to species where possible; rotifers are typically identified to genus (species if possible).
www.watersci.com /zooplankton.html   (408 words)

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