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Topic: Zooxanthella


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In the News (Tue 25 Jun 19)

  
  Zooxanthella
Zooxanthellae are dinoflagellate algae, found as endosymbionts of various marine animals and protozoa.
Most tropical corals have zooxanthellae, and are largely dependent on them, limiting their growth to the photic zone.
Other organisms which may have zooxanthellae include jellyfish, clams, sea slugs[?], and radiolaria.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/zo/Zooxanthella.html   (100 words)

  
  Zooxanthella - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Zooxanthellae are golden-brown intracellular endosymbionts of various marine animals and protozoa, especially anthozoans.
Hermatypic (reef-building) corals have zooxanthellae and are largely dependent on them, limiting their growth to the photic zone.
However, when corals are subjected to high environmental stress, they can lose their zooxanthellae by either expulsion or digestion and die, changing from their normal colour to their white 'skeletons' in a process known as coral bleaching.
www.sciencedaily.com /encyclopedia/zooxanthella   (232 words)

  
 The Sea Slug Forum - What are Zooxanthellae?
Zooxanthellae are single-celled plants that live in the tissues of animals.
Zooxanthellae are best known for their role in the life of reef-forming corals.
Just as in their free-living relatives, zooxanthellae need to live in the sunlight, so they are usually found in those parts of animals, such as the skin, which are in the sunlight.
www.seaslugforum.net /factsheet.cfm?base=zoox1   (557 words)

  
 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Zooxanthella
Zooxanthellae (ˌzoʊ.ˈzænθ.ə.leɪ) are golden-brown intracellular endosymbionts of various marine animals and protozoa, especially anthozoans.
Hermatypic (reef-building) corals have zooxanthellae and are largely dependent on them, limiting their growth to the photic zone.
The result is a ghostly white calcareous skeleton, absent of zooxanthellae, with the inevitable death of the coral unless conditions improve, allowing for the zooxanthellae to return.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Zooxanthella   (498 words)

  
 Getting Up-To-Date on Zooxanthellae
Zooxanthellae populations and densities are largely controllable by the coral animals.
In summary, it appears that the ability of corals to harbor multiple species and strains of zooxanthellae is not only much more specific and variable than had previously been assumed, but also that the ability is largely one of superior adaptation that ensures their success and survival.
Zooxanthellae are generally found in the gastroderm of corals, although some amounts are also found in the epidermis and tentacles of corals.
www.reefs.org /library/aquarium_net/0998/0998_4.html   (2536 words)

  
 Mutualisms By Ronald L. Shimek Aquarium.Net January 1998
The bottom fl and white photo shows a transmission electron micrograph view of some zooxanthellae in a host (the zooxanthellae are the roughly circular objects near the middle of the image, and their chloroplasts are the blobby darker structures in them).
Zooxanthellae can also provide their host with amino acids and complex chemicals, however the raw materials for those chemicals must come through the host's tissues as ammonia or other nitrogenous compounds.
Without its zooxanthellae, a reef-building coral grows exceptionally slowly and needs to feed a lot, but if the other physical conditions are okay, it may survive for quite a long time.
www.reefs.org /library/aquarium_net/0198/0198_3.html   (3107 words)

  
 Increased Zooxanthellae Numbers
Zooxanthella densities, mitotic indices, and chlorophyll were measured in six major reef-building coral genera growing on electrically stimulated "Biorock" reefs in Indonesia, and compared with genetically identical corals growing adjacent to them.
Zooxanthella densities and chlorophyll absorbances were ratioed to the weight of the coral samples.
These generally higher zooxanthella densities and mitotic indices are results are consistent with Biorock corals having improved growth compared to controls, as is observed for skeletal growth, and increased resistance to stress.
www.globalcoral.org /Increased%20Zooxanthellae%20Numbers%20and%20Mitotic%20Index%20in%20Electrically%20Stimulated%20Corals.htm   (2764 words)

  
 Relationship of Vibrio Species Infection and Elevated Temperatures to Yellow Blotch/Band Disease in Caribbean Corals -- ...
with a reconfiguration and swelling of the zooxanthellae, as
zooxanthellae was homogenized and centrifuged in a Beckman Accuspin
The breakdown of symbiotic zooxanthellae in the sea anemone Phyllactis (=Oulactis) flosculifera (Actiniara).
aem.asm.org /cgi/content/full/70/11/6855   (4729 words)

  
 Reminder
Describe what a zooxanthella is and what the relationship of a zooxanthella to a coral is, including where the zooxanthella lives and how the coral and zooxanthella each benefit or are harmed.
A zooxanthella is a symbiotic dinoflagellate that lives inside the cells of a coral.
The zooxanthellae releases organic compounds that coral uses for food and enhances calcification [or skeletal growth] of the coral.
www.life.umd.edu /classroom/zool210/jensen/2Lectures/lecture8.html   (374 words)

  
 SICB - 2002 meeting - Abstract Details   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Coral bleaching events are typically characterized by the breakdown of the coral-algal symbiosis and the loss/expulsion of the algal symbionts (ie, zooxanthellae).
Reconstituted zooxanthella populations are generally believed to derive from some combination of zooxanthella cells that remained in the host and newly acquired cells.
Zooxanthella genotype was reassessed at the end of the bleaching period.
www.sicb.org /meetings/2003/schedule/abstractdetails.php3?id=747   (228 words)

  
 Zooxanthella - TheBestLinks.com - Animal, Algae, Endosymbiont, Monophyletic, ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Zooxanthella - TheBestLinks.com - Animal, Algae, Endosymbiont, Monophyletic,...
Zooxanthella, Animal, Algae, Endosymbiont, Monophyletic, Protozoa, Photic zone...
Zooxanthellae are golden-brown endosymbionts of various marine animals and protozoa.
www.thebestlinks.com /Zooxanthella.html   (188 words)

  
 CSM - The CSM PhD Theses - Goiran C.
Although symbiosis between scleractinian corals and dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae) is fundamental to the existence of coral reefs, many of the participating physiological processes are poorly understood.
In scleractinians, zooxanthellae are located iside cells of the endoderm in membrane-bound vesicles.
During isolation, zooxanthellae were subjected to ionic shock caused by différences in the ionic composition of the cytosol of host cell and sea water.
www.centrescientifique.mc /csmuk/theses/goiran.php   (315 words)

  
 The Sea Slug Forum - Aeolidiella stephanieae
The colour of the ceratal digestive gland depends on the state of the digestive cycle, as the colour results from the presence of zooxanthellae which are symbionts of the anemones that Aeolidiella feeds on.
Steve Kempf suggests that the short-term retention of zooxanthella in the ceratal digestive gland illustrates a very early stage in the evolutionary process which led to solar-powered sea slugs.
Steve suggests that the short-term retention of zooxanthella in the ceratal digestive gland illustrates a very early stage in the evolutionary process which led to solar-powered sea slugs.
www.seaslugforum.net /showall.cfm?base=aeolstep   (1132 words)

  
 Frontiers 2005-Madeleine van Oppen
There is a range of published studies, mainly on cultured zooxanthellae, that show that zooxanthellae can differ in their response to light and to temperature, and they can differ in the production of certain compounds, such as microsporine-like amino acid synthesis.
Most corals have to acquire zooxanthellae from the environment every generation, and they do so early on in life, either as a juvenile polyp — here you can see a single-polyp coral colony, whose brown appearance is due to the zooxanthellae inside its tissues — or as a larva.
The red is the Magnetic Island populations, with clade D zooxanthellae, and the yellow one is actually the Keppel islands transplant that shuffled from a C type symbiont to a D type symbiont.
www.science.org.au /events/frontiers2005/vanoppen.htm   (3123 words)

  
 Aquarium Design, Marine Aquariums and Coral Reef Aquarium Tank, Stand, Canopy, and Aquarium Filter System
Zooxanthellae live within the coral tissues in a symbiosis - a relationship in which both the host (the coral) and the symbiont (the zooxanthella) mutually benefit.
The zooxanthellae live in a protected environment and use the coral wastes (such as carbon dioxide and forms of nitrogen) as a food source.
Zooxanthellae contain pigments that "harvest" light and use it for the process of photosynthesis.
www.aquarium-design.com /reef/lightingbasics.html   (2264 words)

  
 Zooxanthella at AllExperts
Zooxanthellae are golden-brown intracellular endosymbionts of various marine animals and protozoa, especially anthozoans.
Their population in the host tissue is limited by controlling the amount of food and light they receive and by expulsion of excess cells.
However, when corals are subjected to high environmental stress, they can lose their zooxanthellae by either expulsion or digestion and die, changing from their normal colour to their white 'skeletons' in a process known as coral bleaching.
en.allexperts.com /e/z/zo/zooxanthella.htm   (270 words)

  
 Biodiversity of Coral Reef Ecosystems III Posters - Ocean Sciences [OS]
The symbiotic relationship between scleractinian corals and photosynthetic dinoflagellate endosymbionts, known as zooxanthellae, is critical to the survival of both organisms involved.
In this study, zooxanthella DNA, extracted from {\it Pocillopora meandrina} and {\it Porites lobata} at two different locations on the island of Hawaii, Puako located on the West side of the island and Leleiwi, located on the East side was examined.
Zooxanthella DNA was extracted and amplified via PCR using ITS primers that were designed based on {\it Symbiodinium} sequences from Genbank.
www.agu.org /meetings/os06/os06-sessions/os06_OS46I.html   (3391 words)

  
 UB Department of Biological Sciences: Mary Alice Coffroth
I am using the population structure of zooxanthellae within an individual host and among the host population and details of the early stages of this symbiosis, to identify levels of specificity among host and zooxanthellae.
The dominant zooxanthella complements within hosts do not vary over time and in different environments, establishing that this is a stable system.
"Zooxanthella small subunit ribosomal DNA from zooxanthellae freshly isolated from a variety of scleractinian species, amplified with zooxanthella-biased primers and digested with Taq I.Lane labeling indicates the host from which the zooxanthellae were isolated.
wings.buffalo.edu /academic/department/fnsm/bio-sci/faculty/coffroth.html   (898 words)

  
 Anthozoa   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Although sea anemones can catch fish and other prey items and corals can catch plankton, anthozoans also rely on a symbiotic relationship with the dinoflagellate s called zooxanthella e.
The zooxanthellae are provided with protection by the anthozoan; it takes up wastes and carbon dioxide and provide their host (anemone or coral) with carbohydrates and oxygen.
It's these zooxanthellae that give anemones and corals their color.
www.serebella.com /encyclopedia/article-Anthozoa.html   (219 words)

  
 Investigation Of Coral Bleaching In Mauritius   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Coral bleaching occurs when the density of zooxanthellae declines sharply and/or when the concentration of photosynthetic pigments within the zooamthellae is reduced.
It is suggested that the mucus might alter gastrodermal function and contribute to the release and /or degeneration of zooxanthellae.
The immediate effects of bleaching on the host are a decline in zooxanthellae density, loss of chlorophyll pigments, an increase in respiration rate and a decline in coral protein, lipid and carbohydrate (Glynn and D'Croz, 1990,.
www.mrc.org.mu /uscpa27.htm   (1305 words)

  
 Advanced Aquarist's Online Magazine - Feature Article: Lighting by Number: "Types" of Zooxanthellae and What They Tell ...
In the following database, zooxanthellae sub-clades are designated by a numeral following the clade and, in some cases, a lower case letter for further refinement (i.e., C1a indicates Clade C, and the lower case letter indicates a variation of subclade 1).
(2001) report that zooxanthellae cultured in vitro may not be representative of the dominant in hospite zooxanthellae clade since conditions within the culture vessel may favor the growth of a sub-dominant clade.
Zooxanthellae with the ability to produce xanthophylls are equipped to endure higher light intensities with a lessened chance of destruction of their light harvesting proteins.
www.advancedaquarist.com /2006/1/aafeature1   (4868 words)

  
 [Coral-Literature] recent publication/coral literature   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The branching P. damicornis was significantly affected by the addition of nitrate, whereas P. lobata was significantly influenced by water temperature.
The reduced zooxanthellae density in both species indicated a detrimental influence of the interaction of high nitrate and high temperature.
The number of zooxanthellae in P. lobata was double that of P. damicornis.
coral.aoml.noaa.gov /pipermail/coral-literature/2004-December/000015.html   (335 words)

  
 Singapore Zoological Gardens - Docent   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The polyp creates a cage around the zooxanthella made of special cellular membrane so the zooxanthella is absorbed into the body but not digested.
They are called zooxanthellae ("little yellow creatures" in Greek) when they are cultured inside an animal, and dinoflagellate when they are not.
Each strain of zooxanthellae seems to be better adapted to different conditions of light, temperature, environment, and coral species.
www.szgdocent.org /resource/ff/f-reef2a.htm   (1404 words)

  
 Tropical Marine Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Zooxanthellae are symbiotic dinoflagellate algae associated with many marine invertebrates, and are particularly important in cnidarians such as corals and zoanthids.
Zoanthids obtain their zooxanthellae from the environment after settlement, so algal type to some extent depends upon regional availability.
Restricted zooxanthella diversity in the western Indian ocean might mean coral communities in the region are more vulnerable to bleaching and other suggested consequences of global climate change.
www.ncl.ac.uk /tcmweb/tmr/bb_biogeography.html   (201 words)

  
 symbiosis in animals
The brown coloration of the unbleached coral is due to the pigments of the zooxanthellae.
Much of the photosynthetic carbon fixed by zooxanthellae is released to the surrounding animal cells, soon after fixation.
Molecular diversity of symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) in scleractinian corals of Kenya.
www.york.ac.uk /depts/biol/units/symbiosis/coral.html   (667 words)

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