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Topic: Ainu

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  Ainu   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
The Ainu (a word meaning "human" in the Ainu language), are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaido and the northern part of Honshu in Northern Japan, as well as the Kurile Islands and the southern half of Sakhalin Island.
There are over 150,000 Ainu today, however the exact figure is not known as many Ainu hide their origins or in many cases are not even aware of them, their parents having kept it from them so as to avoid racism.
As the Japanese moved north and took control over their traditional lands, the Ainu often gave up without resistance, but there was occasionally resistance as exemplified in wars in 1457, 1669, and 1789, which each time were lost by the Ainu.
bopedia.com /en/wikipedia/a/ai/ainu.html   (950 words)

 Ainu - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
The Ainu (a word meaning "human" in the Ainu language; Ezo, or Yezo, (蝦夷;) in old Japanese; Utari now preferred by some members) are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaido, the northern part of Honshu in Northern Japan, the Kurile Islands, much of Sakhalin, and the southernmost third of the Kamchatka peninsula.
Ainu is the traditional language, but today somewhere between 1% and 5% of Ainu can speak it fluently, between 5% and 10% are passive speakers or partial speakers, and about 50% of Ainu have a very basic command of the language
As the Japanese moved north and took control over their traditional lands, the Ainu often gave up without resistance, but there was occasional resistance as exemplified in wars in 1457, 1669, and 1789, all of which were lost by the Ainu.
encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /ainu.htm   (1277 words)

 Ainu   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
The Ainu (a word meaning "man, people" in the Ainu language), are an ethnic group inhabiting the northernmost islands of Japan and the Kurile and Sakhalin Islands.
The Ainu preserve a tradition about a flood which seems to be the counterpart of the Biblical deluge, and about an earthquake which lasted a hundred days, produced the three volcanoes of Yezo and created the island by bridging the waters that had previously separated it into two parts.
Little as the Japanese and the Ainu have in common, intermarriages are not infrequent, and at Sambutsu especially, on the eastern coast, many children of such marriages may be seen.
brandt.kurowski.net /projects/lsa/wiki/view.cgi?doc=369   (1262 words)

 Ainu on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
More powerful invaders from the Asian mainland gradually forced the Ainu to retreat to the northern islands of Japan and Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands in what is now the Russian Far East; today, they reside mainly on Hokkaido.
The Ainu have attracted the attention of tourists, and some now make a living by selling reproductions of their cultural artifacts.
Their religion is highly animistic and centers on a bear cult; a captive bear is sacrificed at an annual winter feast and his spirit, thus released, is believed to guard the Ainu settlements.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/A/Ainu.asp   (504 words)

In 1807, the Edo officials estimated the census population of Ainu to be 26,256.
Studies in eugenics and serology soon followed wherein the perceived aggressiveness of the Ainu was attributed to the predominance in blood type O within the population as compared to Wajin majority of A and AB type.
The Ainu are publicly reclaiming their own identity and are attempting to do so outside of the prism of Ainu-Wajin relationships, but Siddle remarks that present-day scholars display little interest in recording the present Ainu movements attempt to “fuse culture and politics in a new discourse of ethnicity” (Siddle 7).
www.artsci.wustl.edu /~copeland/ainu.html   (3513 words)

 Ainu Dogs, Dog Breed Information Center®, Dog Breeders, Dogs, Puppies, Ainu Dog, Hokkaido Dog, Ainu-Ken, Hokkaido Dog, ...
As the Ainu were pushed onto the island of Hokkaido by an influx of Japanese people, their dogs gradually became restricted to this island.
The Ainu Dog is probably the oldest of the Japanese breeds.
Many Ainu Dogs have blue-fl tongues, a physical trait that suggests a distant relationship with the similarly tongued Chow Chow and Shar Pei.
www.dogbreedinfo.com /ainudog.htm   (544 words)

 Untitled Document
To resist the oppression by the Japanese, the Ainu waged the Battle of Kosyamain in 1457, the Battle of Syaksyain in 1669, and the Battle of Kunasiri-Menasi in 1789.
At the Hokkaido Ainu Convention in Shizunai, Hokkaido, in 1946, the Hokkaido Ainu Association was established primarily to provide higher education and collaborate in the construction of social welfare facilities.
The reasons for the decrease were, among others, the spread through the Ainu population of such diseases as smallpox, measles, cholera, tuberculosis and venereal diseases and the breakup of families due to forced labor.
www.ainu-museum.or.jp /english/eng01.html   (781 words)

 The UN Works for Cultural Diversity: Endangered Language of the Ainu
Ainu men were encouraged to shave their beards and tie their hair, and the women's traditional practice of applying blue facial tattoos was banned.
Nature is a dominant theme in Ainu culture, with the natural beauty of Hokkaido, with its dramatic coastline, snow capped mountains and wide green valleys, providing the perfect setting and inspiration.
The Ainu's unique worldview has been transmitted through original words and music, which were created from a very subtle and precise recognition of nature.
www.un.org /works/culture/japan_story.html   (612 words)

 [No title]
The Ainu are an aboriginal hunter/gatherer/fisher people who once inhabited many of the islands that bound the southern half of the Sea of Okhotsk north of the main Japanese island of Honshu.
The few hundred Ainu who inhabited the southern half of Sakhalin Island were relocated to the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido at the end of World War II when Sakhalin became a territory of the recently defunct USSR.
The Ainu native to Hokkaido are, and were, the most numerous and are the best known to the outside world; they are still living on Hokkaido, although their tribal culture has been obliterated.
www.bears.org /spirit/ainumyth.html   (1018 words)

 TIMEasia.com | From Sapporo to Surabaya | Meeting the First Inhabitants | 8/21/2000
Ainu remained oddly absent from the Japanese popular imagination as well, even though the two groups had fought on and off for hundreds of years on the main Japanese island of Honshu.
Ainu activists are also demanding the return of remains dug up from village graves by Japanese university departments for research, mostly during the 1930s.
But some Ainu believe the spirits will never find peace until they are reinterred at their home villages, and they want the university to pay for it.
www.time.com /time/asia/features/ontheroad/japan.sapporo.ainu.html   (1429 words)

 Ainu of Japan
Excerpt: "The Ainu Museum, popularly known as 'Porotokotan' was established in 1976 as the Shiraoi Foundation for the Preservation of Ainu Culture.
In 1984, the Ainu Folk Museum was added to this facility to exhibit both tangible and intangible Ainu cultural assets and to perform academic research and study.
The Ainu have enjoyed their lifestyle, protected by the spirits and provided with abundant natural resources.
www.ankn.uaf.edu /ainu.html   (247 words)

 Ainu Language of Japan's Hokkaido Region
The Ainu language (Aynu Itak) is spoken by the Ainu ethnic group on the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido.
Speakers: Ainu is a moribund language, with a small and rapidly dwindling number of speakers; in the town of Nibutani where most of the remaining native speakers live, there are 100 speakers, out of which only 15 use the language everyday.
Typology and grammar: Ainu is SOV, with postpositions.
www.japan-101.com /language/ainu_language_of_japan.htm   (402 words)

 The Ainu of Japan
The Ainu (ì´n¡) aborigines of Northern Japan are heavily bearded and have thick wavy hair.
Urban Ainu in particular face problems of alcoholism, homelessness, and violence, and try to hide their Ainu heritage and deny their Ainu identity, even to themselves.
Ainu daily life is traditionally a continuous ritual to the gods and their mutual assistance to man.
www.suite101.com /article.cfm/fourth_world/22057   (538 words)

 Breed Profile: Ainu
The Ainus were an ancient people who migrated to and were the first settlers in Japan, ten centuries before Christ.
The Ainus were slowly pushed out over the centuries by the influx of Yamato (Japanese) people and now live only in their own settlements on the northernmost island of Hokkaido.
The Ainu Dog is probably the oldest of the Japanese breeds and may have been altered somewhat through crosses with matagi dogs.
www.sidyboysfoolin.com /Ainu.html   (608 words)

 Graduate student co-organizes 300-piece Ainu exhibition   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
The Ainu people of Japan, victims of centuries of social discrimination, lost territory and political and economic subjugation, are relatively unknown beyond their homeland where some would prefer to think of them as a people of the past.
Born to a mother of Ainu descent, Dubreuil was hired by the Smithsonian just after completing her master’s degree in native art history at the University of Washington in 1995.
The Ainu are believed to come from the Jomon culture, a Neolithic people who occupied much of the Japanese archipelago between 20,000 and 2,000 years ago -- before ancestors of today’s Japanese population migrated from mainland Asia and drove the Ainu north to Hokkaido and the remote Kurile and southern Sakhalin islands.
ring.uvic.ca /99oct29/grad.html   (776 words)

 THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLES   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
Light-skinned and bearded Ainu men, and Ainu women with tattoos round the mouth and on the hands, were a war-like people.
Many of the Ainu and Nivkh articles were collected by the distinguished researcher into the local cultures, B.O.Pilsudskii, who was originally a political exile to Sakhalin, late last century.
The photos show the ceremony of feeding the bear, the death of the bear at an Ainu festival, and the bear's burial place, which became sacred to the tribe.
museum.sakh.com /eng/10.shtml   (1375 words)

Maher and Yashiro state that since the government of Japan does not distinguish the Ainu from the Japanese on the census report, the accurate number of the Ainu population is not available.
Ainu have had contact with these neighboring countries for over thousands of years, it is surely necessary to consider the resemblance could be borrowed words from neighboring countries.
The Ainu and the Polynesians have a common origin and belong neither to the Caucasian nor to the Mongolian race, although they possess some characteristics of both..ÖÖthe Ainu and the Polynesians had a common, ancient ancestry.
linguistics.byu.edu /classes/ling450ch/reports/ainu.htm   (2947 words)

 Ainu   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
For a long time it was believed that the Ainu were the direct descendents of the Jomon people but we now know that the culture evolved over time before it became Ainu.
The Ainu are often called the Indians of Japan because of some similarities.
In the 1200s AD when the Ainu culture was taking shape, hunting and gathering was an important element along with agriculture.
www.mnsu.edu /emuseum/cultural/oldworld/asia/ainu.html   (403 words)

 NOVA Online | Island of the Spirits | Origins of the Ainu
Archeologists and historians have long described the Ainu, like the Jomon, as hunter-fisher-collectors and, because the two peoples lived in the same region, they had few qualms about assuming the Ainu were living representatives of Jomon culture.
However, the Ainu, at least in the last few centuries according to historic records, lived in above-ground, rectangular dwellings and used metal tools as well as wooden and ceramic bowls, pots, and dishes.
Further bolstering this opinion, the skeletal biology of Jomon populations demonstrates a strong resemblance and therefore a close affinity to the Ainu.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/nova/hokkaido/ainu.html   (691 words)

 Ethnologue 14 report for language code:AIN
The Ainu in China is a different, unrelated language.
Ainu has not been determined to be related linguistically to any other language.
The Ainu spoken in China is a different, unrelated language.
www.ethnologue.com /show_language.asp?code=AIN   (121 words)

 East Asian Studies 210 Notes: Nivkh/Negidal
Today the Ainu as an ethnic group have disappeared entirely from the Russian held areas (Kamchatka, Sakhalin, and the Kuriles); the entire Ainu population of the Kuriles and Sakhalin was evacuated with the Japanese en masse to northern Japan in 1946 at the close of the Second World War.
The history of the Ainu resembles that of the Native Siberian or Native American: the hunter-gatherer Ainu were gradually pushed onto less desirable land by a numerically superior farming people; assimilation to the dominant culture was stressed.
Linguists consider Ainu to be virtually extinct, though some older people retain a knowledge of it (the last completely fluent speaker is reported to have died in the 1960's).
pandora.cii.wwu.edu /vajda/ea210/ainuNivkh.htm   (1614 words)

 The reason why John Bachelor made his mind to work for the Ainu as follows
The first was to teach Ainu Christianity, the second was to make them know the generosity, mercy and light of the God, the third was to inform Japanese people of Ainu religion and language because they did not now know them.
Batchelor was formally assigned to preach Ainu by the Church.
In 1804 there was a kind of Ainu dictionary, which collected about 2,500 words with Japanese translation classified into the heaven, characters, plants, animals and birds, tools and postpositional word functioning as an auxiliary to a main word.
www2s.biglobe.ne.jp /~matu-emk/bachel.html   (2023 words)

 E Law: Toward a Genuine Redress for an Unjust Past: The Nibutani Dam Case
Under this Act, the Ainu were characterized as "kyu-dojin' (former Aborigines in Japanese, with a derogatory connotation) and as a group they had to abandon their distinct culture in order to integrate into mainstream Japanese so ciety.
After studying the Ainu proposal, the Hokkaido government endorsed this draft (with reservations concerning the proposed notion of political quotas) and requested that the central government enact new legislation accordingly.
The Ainu population in Tokyo was estimated at 2,700 by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government which conducted the similar investigation in 1988.
www.murdoch.edu.au /elaw/issues/v4n2/sonoha42.html   (4573 words)

The Ainu are a people with a cultural and racial background which is different from that of the ethnic Japanese.
According to one of several theories, the Ainu are descendants of Mongoloid migrants who entered the Japanese islands before the Jomon period.
In the Meiji Period (1868-1912), the Ainu received the status of "former aboriginals", but suffered under official discrimination for some years.
www.japan-guide.com /e/e2244.html   (163 words)

 Japan - Ainu   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-06)
The second largest minority group among Japanese citizens is the Ainu, who are thought to be related to the Tungusic, Altaic, and Uralic peoples of Siberia.
Characterized as remnants of a primitive circumpolar culture, the fewer than 20,000 Ainu in 1990 were considered racially distinct and thus not fully Japanese.
Although no longer in daily use, the Ainu language is preserved in epics, songs, and stories transmitted orally over succeeding generations.
countrystudies.us /japan/57.htm   (119 words)

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