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Topic: Beta decay


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  Beta decay - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In nuclear physics, beta decay is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted.
In nature, most isotopes are beta stable, but a few exceptions exist with half-lives so long that they have not had enough time to decay since the moment of their nucleosynthesis.
Beta decay can be considered as a perturbation as described in quantum mechanics, and thus follows Fermi's Golden Rule.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Beta_decay   (781 words)

  
 Double beta decay - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the process of beta decay unstable nuclei decay by converting a neutron in the nucleus to a proton and emitting an electron and anti-neutrino.
In double beta decay two neutrons in the nuclei are converted to protons, and two electrons and two anti-neutrinos are emitted.
In neutrinoless double beta decay the emitted neutrino is immediately absorbed (as its anti-particle) by another nucleon of the nucleus, so the total kinetic energy of the two electrons would be exactly the difference in binding energy between the initial and final state nuclei.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Double_beta_decay   (415 words)

  
 Radioactivity
Beta particles are just electrons from the nucleus, the term "beta particle" being an historical term used in the early description of radioactivity.
Beta emission is accompanied by the emission of an electron antineutrino which shares the momentum and energy of the decay.
Beta decay can be seen as the decay of one of the neutrons to a proton via the weak interaction.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/nuclear/beta.html   (364 words)

  
 NationMaster.com - Encyclopedia: Beta decay   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Alpha decay is a form of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus ejects an alpha particle through the electromagnetic force and transforms into a nucleus with mass number 4 less and atomic number 2 less.
decay, the weak interaction converts a neutron into a proton while emitting an electron and an anti-neutrino: The weak nuclear force or weak interaction is one of the four fundamental forces of nature.
decay, a proton is converted into a neutron, a positron and a neutrino: The first detection of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson The positron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Beta-decay   (2322 words)

  
 NationMaster.com - Encyclopedia: Double beta decay   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Alpha decay is a form of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus ejects an alpha particle and transforms into a nucleus with mass number 4 less and atomic number 2 less.
In neutrinoless double beta decay the two neutrinos annihilate very quickly after they are produced, so the total kinetic energy of the two electrons would be exactly the difference in binding energy between the initial and final state nuclei.
Categories: Radioactivity In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Double-beta-decay   (1044 words)

  
 Glossary Item - Beta Decay
During beta-minus decay, a neutron in an atom's nucleus turns into a proton, an electron and an antineutrino.
For example, after undergoing beta-minus decay, an atom of carbon (with 6 protons) becomes an atom of nitrogen (with 7 protons).
During beta-plus decay, a proton in an atom's nucleus turns into a neutron, a positron and a neutrino.
education.jlab.org /glossary/betadecay.html   (198 words)

  
 Beta decay
Beta decay is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted.
In beta minus decay, a neutron is converted to a proton via the weak nuclear force and a beta particle (an electron) and an anti-neutrino are emitted.
In beta plus decay, a proton is converted to a neutron via the weak nuclear force and a beta minus particle (a positron) and a neutrino are emitted.
www.fact-index.com /b/be/beta_decay.html   (223 words)

  
 Beta Decay
Beta decay occurs when, in a nucleus with too many protons or too many neutrons, one of the protons or neutrons is transformed into the other.
Proton decay, neutron decay, and electron capture are three ways in which protons can be changed into neutrons or vice-versa; in each decay there is a change in the atomic number, so that the parent and daughter atoms are different elements.
In beta decay the change in binding energy appears as the mass energy and kinetic energy of the beta particle, the energy of the neutrino, and the kinetic energy of the recoiling daughter nucleus.
www.lbl.gov /abc/wallchart/chapters/03/2.html   (445 words)

  
 Radiation Notes: Alpha and Beta Decay
Alpha decay is a change from the ground state of an original nucleus to an excited or ground state of a daughter nucleus with the expulsion of an alpha particle.
Beta decay presents a significantly different situation: there are three final objects, the daughter nucleus, the electron or positron, and the neutrino or antineutrino (see the next session for a further discussion of neutrinos).
Because beta decay, which changes a neutron into a proton, leaves the atomic mass number A (which is equal to N+Z) unchanged, and alpha decay reduces A by 4, there are four distinct heavy-atom chains, known as the 4n, 4n+1, 4n+2, and 4n+3 chains.
oak.cats.ohiou.edu /~piccard/radnotes/alphabeta.html#decays   (4535 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
In some kinds of beta decay">beta decay, a nuclide loses surplus positive charge by emitting a positron (in the same event, a proton becomes a neutron, and neutrinos are also given off).
In nuclear physics, beta decay is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle">beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted.
The primary decay mode">decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 52-Cr, is electron capture and the primary mode after is beta decay">beta decay.
www.worldhistory.com /wiki/b/beta-decay.htm   (513 words)

  
 EPA - Beta Particles (EPA's Radiation Protection Program: Understanding Radiation)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Beta particles have a mass of 549 millionths of one atomic mass unit, or AMU, which is about 1/2000 of the mass of a proton or neutron.
When the beta particle ejection doesn't rid the nucleus of the extra energy, the nucleus releases the remaining excess energy in the form of a gamma photon.
Beta emitters are also used in a variety of industrial instruments, such as industrial thickness gauges, using their weak penetrating power to measure very thin materials.
www.epa.gov /radiation/understand/beta.htm   (1424 words)

  
 The Talk.Origins Archive Post of the Month: March 2001
During b decay itself, a neutron changes into a proton, electron and electron-antineutrino, and the electron is expelled as a negative beta particle (b- - often written without the negative sign, but sometimes it is necessary to distinguish it from the rarer positive beta or positron decay b+).
Beta decay is in the present context treatable theoretically as if it resulted from a zero-range, current-current interaction, which transforms a proton (neutron) bound within a nucleus into a neutron (proton), with the simultaneous creation or absorption of an electron (positron) and a neutrino (anti-neutrino).
The naturally occurring nuclear beta decays were very early on shown experimentally to be directly associated with transitions between discrete stationary states of the parent and the daughter nucleus, most usually a transition from the ground state of the parent to the ground state or a low lying excited state of the daughter.
www.talkorigins.org /origins/postmonth/mar01.html   (4747 words)

  
 Theory: Radioactive Decay
It emerges from a weak decay process in which one of the neutrons inside an atom decays to produce a proton, the beta electron and an anti-electron-type neutrino.
Alpha decay is also a type of fission, common because the alpha particle is a particularly low energy arrangement of two protons and two neutrons.
Beta decay and gamma decay often occur as steps in a chain of radioactive decays that begins with the fission of some heavy element.
www2.slac.stanford.edu /vvc/theory/nuclearstability.html   (694 words)

  
 A world of particles.The standard model. Beta decay.
A radioactive atom can decay by emitting a beta particle which is a fast moving electron.
However, in beta decay, a fast moving electron is fired out of the nucleus.
Beta decay happens when one of the down quarks in a neutron changes into an up quark, making it a proton.
www.schoolscience.co.uk /content/4/physics/particles/particlesmodel3.html   (514 words)

  
 How to Change Nuclear Decay Rates   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The type of beta decay that involves destruction of a proton is not familiar to many people, so deserves a little elaboration.
For most nuclides that decay by electron capture or internal conversion, most of the time, the probability of grabbing or converting an electron is also insensitive to the environment, as the innermost electrons are the ones most likely to get grabbed/converted.
All told, the existence of changes in radioactive decay rates due to the environment of the decaying nuclei is on solid grounds both experimentally and theoretically.
math.ucr.edu /home/baez/physics/ParticleAndNuclear/decay_rates.html   (1170 words)

  
 Beta Decay   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Beta particles are emitted from the nucleus at 0.9 times the velocity of light.
Beta particles penetrating power is greater than that of the alpha particle.
The emission of a beta particle from the nucleus of an atom is represented by the following reaction.
wey238ab.ch.iup.edu /Carl/betadec.htm   (134 words)

  
 beta   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Beta decay is a radioactive process in which an electron is emitted from the nucleus of a radioactive atom, along with an unusual particle called an antineutrino.
Atoms which undergo beta decay are located below the line of stable elements on the chart of the nuclides, and are typically produced in nuclear reactors.
For example, when rhenium-187 decays (which has a Z of 75) by beta decay, osmium-187 is created (which has a Z of 76).
www.physics.isu.edu /radinf/beta.htm   (278 words)

  
 Beta Decay
Beta spectroscopy has been a particularly important tool in the study of beta decay.
The history of beta decay began in 1896 with the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel.
Observation of discrete energy lines in electron spectra from the decay of isotopes in the radium and thorium series was made in Berlin in the years 1910 and 1911 by von Bayer, Hahn, and Meitner.
www.calstatela.edu /faculty/kaniol/f2000_lect_nuclphys/lect1/betadecay_queens_hist.htm   (804 words)

  
 Beta-decay - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about Beta-decay
Disintegration of the nucleus of an atom to produce a beta particle, or high-speed electron, and an electron antineutrino.
During beta decay, a neutron in the nucleus changes into a proton, thereby increasing the atomic number by one while the mass number stays the same.
Beta decay is caused by the weak nuclear force, one of the fundamental forces of nature operating inside the nucleus.
encyclopedia.farlex.com /Beta-decay   (133 words)

  
 Nuclear Chemistry
Where A is the parent isotope (the atom being broken apart) B is the daughter isotope or the isotope formed.
Beta electrons can penetrate through about one (1) cm of flesh before they are brought to a halt because of electrostatic forces.
Beta decay is most common in elements with a high neutron to proton ratio.
www.shodor.org /unchem/advanced/nuc   (702 words)

  
 Beta Decay   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
I'm going to illustrate how radioactive decay works with the help of an isotope table applet, which should now be open in a separate window.
H metamorphoses into helium 3, it also gives off an electron--which has hardly any mass, and is endowed with a negative charge that exactly cancels one proton.
This process is known as beta decay, and the electron is called a beta particle in this context.
www.colorado.edu /physics/2000/isotopes/radioactive_decay.html   (262 words)

  
 ChemTeam: Writing Alpha and Beta Equations
Beta decay is somewhat more complex than alpha decay is. These points present a simplified view of what beta decay actually is:
As beta decay was studied over the years following 1899, it was found that the same exact beta decay produced an electron with variable energies.
Later on, it was discovered that it was an antineutrino that was produced in beta decay.
dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us /webdocs/Radioactivity/Writing-Alpha-Beta.html   (634 words)

  
 Double beta decay
The phenomenon of double beta decay is discussed rather fully both from the experimental and from the theoretical point of view, the relation between double beta decay and the possible kinds of inverse beta decay being also briefly treated.
The theory of double beta decay, both in the no-neutrino and in the two-neutrino cases, is worked out, ab initio, on the basis of a nucleon-lepton interaction without conservation of parity.
Comparison of the experimental limits on the double beta decay half-lives with the corresponding theoretical values indicates that two neutrinos are emitted together with two electrons in each double beta decay process - this conclusion is, however, not yet certain and must be confirmed by further experimental work.
stacks.iop.org /0034-4885/22/121   (367 words)

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