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# Topic: Bias (statistics)

 Overcoming Bias: Statistics I looked into it and indeed it turned out that the findings could be explained as statistical artifacts--the key errors were, in one of the studies, controlling for intermediate outcomes and, in the other study, reporting only one of multiple potential hypothesis tests. Friday's post on statistical bias and the bias-variance decomposition discussed how the squared error of an estimator equals the directional error of the estimator plus the variance of the estimator. Statistical bias is error you cannot correct by repeating the experiment many times and averaging together the results. www.overcomingbias.com /statistics/index.html   (2566 words)

 SurfStat.australia Statistical inference is the use of probability theory to make inferences about a population from sample data. If the variance of the statistic is 'small' and it is also unbiased then an observed statistic is likely to be close to the population parameter. Estimates have low bias because their average is near the population parameter, but have high variability because they are widely spread and a single sample value could be far from the parameter. www.anu.edu.au /nceph/surfstat/surfstat-home/4-1-1.html   (909 words)

 Journalism - Bias - Hear The Issues - Political Articles and Commentary A bias is a prejudice in a general or specific sense, usually in the sense for having a predilection to one particular point of view or ideology. For example, a bias voltage is applied to a transistor in an electronic amplifier to allow the transistor to operate in a particular region of its transconductance curve. Bias is also the term used for a high-frequency signal added to the audio signal recorded on magnetic tape. www.heartheissues.com /journalism-bias.html   (548 words)

 CPC "Probability of Exceedance" Temperature Forecast Those equations are derived from an analysis of the basic statistics of the temperature observations for the climate division and those for the station (i.e., their means, their year-to-year variabilities, and the correlation between them). Next appears a block of data showing statistics of the bias, or mean difference, between the temperature at the station and the temperature at each of the four related climate divisions. As in the case of the bias statistics, statistics for climate division 4 are shown in this example, with additional lines given for the three next most highly correlated climate divisions (not shown in this example). www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov /pacdir/NFORdir/tuto1dir/exp2.html   (913 words)

 Evaluation of Computer Simulated Baseline Statistics for Use in Item Bias Studies. [Revised]. Although item bias statistics are widely recommended for use in test development and test analysis work, problems arise in their interpretation. Specifically, the intent was to produce simulated sampling distributions of item bias statistics under the hypothesis of no bias for use in determining cut-off points to provide guidelines for interpreting item bias statistics obtained with actual test data. Real and simulated distribution for three item bias statistics when bias was not present were very similar and the minor differences that were found between the distributions had little effect on the interpretations of item bias statistics obtained with actual test data. www.eric.ed.gov /ERICWebPortal/recordDetail?accno=ED300399   (418 words)

 Welcome to Cornell Campus Life   (Site not responding. Last check: ) Gender Bias - recognizing that gender is not part of the federal Hate Crimes Data Collection protected groups, Campus Life/Community Development believes it important to label gender bias as a performed negative opinion or attitude toward an individual or a group based on their actual or perceived gender or gender identity. Bias Related Incident - an event which has the effect of demeaning or degrading an individual or a group and is motivated in whole or in part by the perpetrator's bias in any of the above mentioned forms. Bias Crime or Hate Crime - a criminal offense committed against a person or property which is motivated, in whole or in part, by the offender's bias against a race, religion, ethnic/national origin group, or sexual orientation group. campuslife.cornell.edu /sa_d/bias_related_activity.asp   (750 words)

 Chapter 23 But bias even exists in the way that states promote their lotteries by advertising the number of winners and money "given away" without telling you the number of losers and money taken in. The potential for bias arises when a scientist has some goal other than (or in addition to) finding an accurate model of nature, such as increasing profits, furthering a political cause, or protecting funding. If you suspect bias (e.g., you doubt the claim of support for a model), the ideal approach is to simply gather the relevant data yourself and evaluate the claim. www.utexas.edu /courses/bio301d/Topics/Deliberate.bias/Text.html   (4832 words)

 Map50 estimator, more information about estimator   (Site not responding. Last check: ) In statistics, mean has two related meanings: the average in ordinary English, which is more correctly called the arithmetic mean, to distinguish it from geometric mean or harmonic mean. This is for mathematical convenience, on account of their nice algebraic properties; as well as for generality, as they are in a sense very natural distributions to consider. In statistics, linear regression is a method of estimating the conditional expected value of one variable y given the values of some other variable or variables x. www.map50.com /estimator.html   (256 words)

 The Flat Hat Bias is a problem because it misinforms people, and then those people make uninformed choices. Bias, as a sidenote, is a really strange word to type over and over again. You may disagree with the way that a newspaper endorses political candidates or particular courses of action, but this is merely your bias conflicting with the bias of the editorial board of the paper. flathat.wm.edu /story.php?issue=2004-03-26&type=2&aid=7   (689 words)

 Quality Regulations - Final[5] CLIA Rule, part VI: Statistical Sense, Sensitivity, and Significance Statistics are tools to estimate the size of the analytical errors that occur between the test method and the comparative method. A simpler remedy is to utilize the bias estimate from t-test statistics and interpret the data at the mean of the patient results (assuming that the mean is close to the medical decision level of interest). Statistical tests can provide estimates of errors upon which judgments can be made, but they are not a substitute for the judgments that need to be made. www.westgard.com /cliafinalrule6.htm   (1772 words)

 Problems with Manager Universe Data The bias occurs because holding period returns represent the performance of the subset of managers that "survived" the holding period, not the full opportunity set of managers that existed at any point in time during the period. For example, the persistent bias apparent in the median manager excess returns for managers to be underweight Japan implies that managers were underweight Japan both in periods of relative strength and weakness in the Japanese equity market. After simple adjustments for the most common forms of bias, the median manager statistics for each of three manager universes I evaluated are entirely consistent with the notion that the average active manager underperforms its appropriate benchmark due to the presence of transaction costs and management fees. www.ssga.com /library/resh/ericbrandhorstproblemswithmanageruniversedata20021122/page.html   (3550 words)

 5342.0 - Balance of Payments Statistics, Information Paper on Quality , 1996 This bias in initial estimates is due in part to revisions to estimates of foreign borrowing domiciled in Australia for 1989-90 and earlier years resulting from improved coverage of Australian securities held by nominees on behalf of non-residents. For annual non-official sector statistics relating to FIA (Graph A.49), the initial estimates show a substantial negative bias on average (at a median ratio of 0.73) as do their quarterly counterparts (at a median ratio of 0.69). The bias in the median series reduces sharply after one annual revision cycle and continues to fall until the final estimate is reached after five years. www.abs.gov.au /ausstats/ABS@.nsf/66f306f503e529a5ca25697e0017661f/189E6CF3C13B6759CA25697E0018FCAE?opendocument   (3888 words)

 What is BIAS in Statistics? A statistic is biased if, in the long run, it consistently over or underestimates the parameter it is estimating. Bias in this sense is different from the notion of a biased sample. A statistic is positively biased if it tends to overestimate the parameter; a statistic is negatively biased if it tends to underestimate the parameter. www.onesmartclick.com /exams/statistics-bias.html   (131 words)

 Phoenix Police Department - Bias crimes were reported in all six police precincts during 2006. The bias clearance rate improved by 4% over last year’s figures, the entire 4% of that improvement was a direct result of increased arrest by the first responders. Investigation revealed 84 cases to be of a bias nature and of those 60 cases met the Federal Hate Crimes Statistics Act definition for Uniform Crime Reporting. www.ci.phoenix.az.us /POLICE/hatecr2.html   (461 words)

 Bias (statistics)   (Site not responding. Last check: ) A biased sample is a statistical sample in which members of the statistical population are not equally likely to be chosen. This kind of bias is usually regarded as a worse problem than statistical noise: Problems with statistical noise can be lessened by enlarging the sample, but a biased sample will not go away that easily. Another kind of bias in statistics does not involve biased samples, but does involve the use of a statistic whose average value differs from the value of the quantity being estimated. www.alloffinance.com /Bias_%28statistics%29.html   (1361 words)

 Facts, Statistics & Bias Statistics are used to either prove and support research or to refute it. This is an example of using the descriptive statistics to IMPLY that students in New England Cities use Five Star notebooks. However, evaluating statistical information can be a very difficult task, and in some cases is something that only experts or others with advanced knowledge of statistics know how to do, as it requires an in-depth understanding of the data-gathering process and the mathematical techniques used to generate the statistics. www.uri.edu /library/staff_pages/kinnie/lib120/stats.html   (1575 words)

 freedomforum.org: Native American journalists say bias, dubious statistics hold them back Although racial bias seems to be one reason for the low percentage of Native Americans in mainstream journalism, statistics, and the way they are compiled, can be equally problematic. Winton believes that inaccurate statistics are working against increases of people of color in the newsrooms, and that ASNE does not fully realize the negative effects of inaccurate statistics. When asked about possible inaccuracies in ASNE statistics, Bowman replied, "We report what the editors report to us." She said clerical workers are not included in the study, and conceded that reported racial status is not checked. www.freedomforum.org /templates/document.asp?documentID=12467   (1382 words)

 [No title] Bias crimes are designed to intimidate the victim and members of the victim's community, leaving them feeling isolated, vulnerable, and unprotected by the law. By compiling statistics and charting the geographic distribution of these crimes, police officials may be in a position to discern patterns and anticipate an increase in racial tensions in a given jurisdiction. Because there is increasing evidence that these bias crimes occur with disturbing frequency, we recommend that another category, "anti-transgender," be added to this section. www.adl.org /combating_hate/letter_CJIS.asp   (2476 words)

 Hate Crime Statistics 2002 A hate crime, also known as a bias crime, is a criminal offense committed against a person, property, or society which is motivated, in whole or in part, by the offender's bias against a race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or ethnicity/national origin. Of the total single-bias incidents reported in 2002, 48.8 percent were motivated by racial bias, 19.1 percent were driven by prejudice against a particular religion, 16.7 percent involved a sexual-orientation bias, 14.8 percent resulted from a bias against an ethnicity or national origin, and 0.6 percent were motivated by a disability bias. Of these victims, 67.2 percent were attacked because of an anti-fl bias motivation, and 19.9 percent were attacked because of an anti-white bias motivation. www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org /jsource/anti-semitism/hate02.html   (1231 words)

 Statistics Solutions Statistics Solutions, Inc. is a statistics research company of doctorate-level supervised statisticians dedicated to helping you finish your dissertation or thesis. At Statistics Solutions we are experts in dissertations and theses statistics. We clarify the method section, research questions, perform data analysis, present the results to you with APA-style figures and tables, plus have staff to edit your dissertation or thesis. www.statisticssolutions.com   (135 words)

 The Seattle Times: Nation & World: Houston police accused of bias in Taser use Houston police accused of bias in Taser use Instead, the incident — and a Houston judge's decision to dismiss charges of resisting arrest because of insufficient evidence — have become a rallying point for fl activists and some city officials who say police unjustly use stun guns against fl suspects. Facing a small, emotional crowd at the community meeting, Charles McClelland, executive assistant chief of police, said Taser use is minimal. seattletimes.nwsource.com /html/nationworld/2003484396_houston19.html   (755 words)

 On the Basis of Sex Symposium Generally defined, a "bias crime" is an offense involving the intentional selection of a victim based on the offender's bias or prejudice relating to an actual or perceived status characteristic of the victim. An unconcerned and undirected societal response to bias crimes lends a type of silent, implicit support to bias offenders, leading them to believe that their crimes are tolerable and, at least to a certain degree, socially acceptable. Bias crime recognition in such cases may also focus judicial attention on attempts to rehabilitate the offender by forcing a recognition that rapists and domestic abusers have a problem with violent behavior and the way they view women generally, rather than merely an individual problem with one woman. hatemonitor.csusb.edu /Research_articles/levin06.html   (15696 words)

 Health Services: Bias Crimes Bias crimes are intimidating or violent acts committed against people because of the group to which they belong or with whom they identify. Bias motivated crimes might include but are not limited to incidents based on: race, color, religion, ethnicity, national origin, sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, disability, gender, socio-economic status/homelessness. Because bias crimes do not happen in isolation and are often a byproduct of systemic prejudices, a survivor of bias crimes may feel further traumatized, or experience a “secondary injury,” when they face institutional prejudice or personal bias as they seek help from those around them. www.health.columbia.edu /docs/topics/sexual_violence/bias_crimes.html   (725 words)

 Intro. to Media Writing Class Notes - Bias/Stereotypes/Ethics At one time or other we all complain about "bias in the news." The fact is, despite the journalistic ideal of "objectivity," every news story is influenced by the attitudes and background of its interviewers, writers, photographers and editors. Reading their media files categorized specific issues on bias and stereotypes may open your eyes to your own biases. Showing the same kind of bias that appears in headlines, the use of positive or negative words or words with a particular connotation can strongly influence the reader or viewer. www.ndsu.nodak.edu /instruct/cahomsta/MCOM210/bias_ethics.html   (890 words)

 [No title] The Office of University Police at Buffalo State College is mandated to protect all members of the campus community by preventing and prosecuting bias or hate crimes that occur within the campus’s jurisdiction. Hate crimes, also called bias crimes or bias-related crimes, are criminal activity motivated by the perpetrator's bias or attitude against an individual victim or group based on perceived or actual personal characteristics, such as their race, religion, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, or disability. Bias incidents can be reported to University Police, Chase Hall, as well as to the Office of Equity and Campus Diversity, Cleveland Hall, room 415. www.buffalostate.edu /equity/documents/BiasCrime.doc   (454 words)

 bias in statistics   (Site not responding. Last check: ) The best agent returned by the statistics object won't do because it is simply the agent which got the highest score in one of it's runs. If I compare these values with the value logged by the statistics object I find that the first two averages(from obj and eval) are consistently lower. The average obtained by score() is equal to the average logged by the statistics object (not surprising as score() returns the score given to each genome in the last generation). mailman.mit.edu /pipermail/galib/2002-December/000774.html   (424 words)

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