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Topic: Biological cell

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  Encyclopedia: Biological cell   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
This membrane serves to separate and protect a cell from its surrounding environment and is made mostly from a double layer of lipids (fat_like molecules) and proteins.
Prokaryotic cells have three architectural regions: appendages called flagella and pili—proteins attached to the cell surface; a cell envelope consisting of a capsule, a cell wall, and a plasma membrane; and a cytoplasmic region that contains the cell genome (DNA) and ribosomes and various sorts of inclusions.
The latter is fundamental for the evolution of biological complexity.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Biological-cell   (3516 words)

 Cell (biology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, sometimes called the "building blocks of life." Some organisms, such as bacteria, are unicellular, consisting of a single cell.
All cells whether prokaryotic or eukaryotic have a membrane, which envelopes the cell, separates its interior from its environment, controls what moves in and out, and maintains the electric potential of the cell.
The cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell is surrounded by a plasma membrane.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Biological_cell   (3665 words)

 biological cell   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The cell (from latin cellulae: "little rooms") is the basic unit of life.
These functions and abilities are expressed in the cell cycle: the "birth", growth, reproduction, and "death" of individual cells.
Organisms vary from single cells (called single-celled organisms) that function and survive more or less independently, through colonial forms with multiple similar cells living together, to multicellular forms in which cells are specialized and do not generally survive once separated.
www.yourencyclopedia.net /Biological_cell.html   (805 words)

 Cell biology:Biological membranes - Wikibooks
The phospholipid bilayer which the cell membrane is an example of, is composed of various cholesterol, phospholipids, glycolipids and proteins.
Both the interior of the cell and the area surrounding the cell is made up of water or of an aqueous solution.
Cell membranes are constructed of a phospholipid bilayer as shown above.
en.wikibooks.org /wiki/Cell_biology:Biological_membranes   (299 words)

 Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
BBSRC - Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council The Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) is the leading funding agency for academic research and training in the biosciences at universities and institutes throughout the UK.
The American Institute Of Biological Sciences AIBS was founded for the advancement of research, education, professional relations and public understanding in the biological, medical, environmental and agricultural sciences.
Biological Warfare and the Implications of Biotechnology History, current worldwide status of Biological Weapons, and advantages and Disadvantages of Biological Warfare.
www.serebella.com /encyclopedia/article-Biotechnology_and_Biological_Sciences_Research_Council.html   (432 words)

 biological clock - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about biological clock
Such clocks are known to exist in almost all animals, and also in many plants, fungi, and unicellular organisms;; the first biological clock gene in plants was isolated in 1995 by a US team of researchers.
For example, although body temperature and activity cycles in human beings are normally ‘set’ to 24 hours, the two cycles may vary independently, showing that two clock mechanisms are involved.
Exposing humans to bright light can change the biological clock and help, for example, people suffering from jet lag and seasonal affective disorder.
encyclopedia.farlex.com /biological+clock   (180 words)

 Biofocus: Cell Biology - Biological Sciences - University at Albany, State University of New York
Cell biology melds the principles of biochemistry, molecular biology, physiology, and structural biology to forge an integrated approach to the study of cellular structure and function.
Cell biology seeks to understand how these various cells are constructed and organized, how they differ from one another, as well as how they sense and respond to external influences.
Cell Theory, one of the fundamental tenets of the Biological Sciences states that all organisms are cells or are composed of cells.
www.albany.edu /biology/undergraduate/biofocus_cell.html   (964 words)

 Biological cell - FreeEncyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Membranes, which separate the cell form its environment, work as a filter, and act as a communication relay with the outside.
Organisms vary from single cells which survive individually, through colonial forms with multiple similar cells living together, to multicellular forms in which cells are specialized and do not generally survive if separated.
There are 220 types of cells and tissues that make up the human body.
openproxy.ath.cx /bi/Biological_cell.html   (547 words)

 Biological cell   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The cell theory, first developed in the 1800s, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells; all cells come from preexisting cells; allvital functions of an organism occur within cells and that cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cellfunctions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells.
Eukaryotic cells have organelles with theirown cell membranes.
The latter is fundamental for the evolution of biological complexity.If we have,let's imagine, freely-floating DNA molecules that code for enzymes that arenot enclosed into cells, the enzymes that advantage a given DNA molecule (for example,by producing nucleotides) willautomatically advantage also the neighbouring DNA molecules.
www.therfcc.org /biological-cell-6796.html   (1285 words)

 03.01.00 - Bionic Chip Merges Living Biological Cell With Electronic Circuitry
The tiny cell, invisible to the naked eye, sits in a hole in the center of this chip.
The new chip uses the discovery that a biological cell can act in a circuit as an electrical diode, or switch, that allows current to flow through the device at certain voltages.
The much tinier cell, which measures about 20 microns across, or one thousandth of an inch, is not visible to the naked eye.
www.berkeley.edu /news/berkeleyan/2000/03/01/bionic.html   (781 words)

 Cell UK ONLINE | What Is Cell   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The biological cell is a basic building block of life.
Cell groups meet weekly in homes and come together with other cells as a local body at celebration services.
Each cell meeting has a structure within it which enables the cell leader to be a facilitator leader.
www.celluk.org.uk /whatiscell.html   (451 words)

 Cell Motility, Biological Sciences, Purdue University
Breaching the boundaries of traditional disciplinary lines, the study of cell motility brings scientists who study plants, animals, and protists together, and spans both the cellular- and nano-scales.
It’s a relatively new paradigm for the study of biological science and promises a wealth of new insights for basic research, medicine, and industry.
The Department of Biological Sciences plays host to an interdisciplinary group of faculty known as the Purdue Motility Group, one of the nation’s largest collections of researchers who focus on the important biological role played by cell motility.
www.bio.purdue.edu /research/cell_motility.htm   (198 words)

 EMF Effects on Cellular Calcium - EMF Science Review Symposia Theoretical Mechanisms and In Vitro Research Findings ...
The conclusion from our experiments with Jurkat cells is that the ability of EMF to activate Jurkat cells is comparable to anti-CD3 crosslinking antibodies, the target molecules are localized at the cell membrane and the field effect is reversible and has a threshold.
The experimental conditions and possible biological effects of EMF exposure are quite different from the stable transfection of a cell with an expression construct containing ODC genes, as in Mosier et al.
Though biological systems have evolved an efficient signal transduction system to respond appropriately to chemical, biological, and environmental stimuli, the mechanism whereby the energy in low level extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) may be coupled to a biophysical process is unknown.
www.niehs.nih.gov /emfrapid/html/Symposium1/3.htm   (9262 words)

 Biological Cell Introduction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Muscle cells are long and smooth in structure and their elastic nature allows these cells to perform flexible movements, just as they do in our own body's.
Cells at the back of the eye are sensitive to light stimuli, and thus can interpret differences in light intensity which can in turn be interpreted by our nervous system and brain.
The cell membrane, otherwise known as the plasma membrane is a semi-permeable structure consisting mainly of phospholipid (fat) molecules and proteins.
www.biology-online.org /1/1_cell.htm   (842 words)

 Biological cell - Researchers Explain How Proteins Filter Water into Cells [PSC]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Biological cell types are compared and differences explained.
Biological cells are the complex mixture of a large number of biomolecules enclosed in cell membrane, including nucleic acids, proteins, polysaccharides,
Cell division is the process of a biological cell (called a mother cell) dividing into two daughter cells.
biological-cell.searchforsearch.com   (215 words)

 Medicine: Biological cell
All known cells (except a few specialized cell types) have certain basic components in common: * cytoplasm (the living substance which makes up most of the cell volume) * DNA, the genetic information that acts as a blueprint for the other components.
* The plasma membrane (a phospholipid bilayer) separates the interior of the cell from its environment and serves as a filter and communications beacon.
Eukaryotic cells * The cytoplasm of eukaryotes does not appear as granular as that of prokaryotes, since an important part of the ribosomes are bound to the endoplasmatic reticulum.
www.americanfactfinders.com /Medicine/Biological_cell.shtml   (559 words)

 Defining Life, Explaining Emergence
Furthermore, "the biological phenomenology is the phenomenology of autopoietic systems in the physical space and a phenomenon is a biological phenomenon only to the extent that it depends in one way or another on the autopoiesis of one or more autopoietic unities."[46] Autopoiesis is an all-or-non property; a system cannot be `more or less' autopoietic.
It is a theory of biological organization that explains the autonomy of living systems, not a chemical theory of the `structure' of the cell's component macromolecules.
If the cell (e.g., the first cell in the primordial soup) is an emergent entity, or has emergent properties (such as metabolism, self-reproduction), this entails a kind of `upward causation' from the physical collection of individual macromolecules (lacking such properties) to a functional whole.
www.nbi.dk /%7Eemmeche/cePubl/97e.defLife.v3f.html   (14232 words)

  Biological Sciences Cell/Molecular/Biochemical Track  
Undergraduate courses in the biological sciences (or other pertinent area of science) equivalent to a major.
For those who majored in biological sciences, one year courses in General and Organic Chemistry and Physics or the equivalent.
The exam will consist of an oral examination on general topics in the biological sciences with emphasis on topics presented and discussed in the core courses.
newarkbiosci.rutgers.edu /cell_track.htm   (2532 words)

 MIT Biological Engineering Division   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Asymmetric cell kinetics are a characteristic property of stem cells in adult tissues.
The cultured cells that model asymmetric cell kinetics have been used to identify genes and a biochemical pathway required for asymmetric cell kinetics.
The unique cell kinetics properties of the cultured model cells can be used to identify compounds that are toxic to cells that exhibit cancer-like exponential kinetics but spare cells with normal stem cell-like asymmetric kinetics.
web.mit.edu /be/people/sherley.htm   (932 words)

Biological fuel cell is a device that realizes the conversion of biochemical energy into electrical energy.
In the current study, we are going to study the small enzyme fuel cell and try to apply the enzymatic fuel cell for small electronic devices like mobile phone.
On the other hand, the size of the biological fuel cell is important factor for the efficient energy conversion from chemical to electrical energy.
www.automation.hut.fi /research/bio/biofuel.htm   (734 words)

 Exocytosis -- Exocytosis is the process of a biological cell releasing subst...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Exocytosis is the process of a biological cell releasing substances into the extracellular fluid (its environment).
Vesicles that contain the substances to be released are transported to the plasma membrane and fuse with it.
This is important for the regulation of cell size, e.g., during cell growth.
exocytosis.en.tracking24.net   (168 words)

 Biological cell   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Stem Cell Therapy International, Inc., a pioneer in the field of research and development of stem cell transplantation therapy and regenerative medicine, announced today that it has changed its stock symbol to and will begin trading under the new stock symbol effective immediately.
Abnormal cell division that yields cells with an extra set of chromosomes can initiate the development of tumors in mice, researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have shown, validating a controversial theory about cancer causation put forth by a scientific visionary nearly 100 years ago.
Cell Genesys, Inc., today announced that Sharon E. Tetlow, senior vice president and chief financial officer of Cell Genesys, will present a company update at the BIO Investor Forum in San Francisco, CA that will be broadcast live over the internet on Wednesday, October 19, 2005 at 4:40 p.m.
484612.mallforeverything.com   (515 words)

 02.23.00 - New UC Berkeley "bionic chip" features living biological cell successfully merged with electronic ...
UC Berkeley applied for a patent on the technology last summer and is in the process of licensing it commercially.
Said Rubinsky, "It works this way: the biological cell does not transfer any current until a particular voltage is reached.
It is an example of the type of research the UC Berkeley campus is now sponsoring through its new Health Sciences Initiative, an effort that draws scientists from both the physical and biological sciences into a multidisciplinary search for solutions to today's major health problems.
www.berkeley.edu /news/media/releases/2000/02/02-23-2000.html   (698 words)

 Biological fuel cell and method (US6294281)
    A fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with anode enzyme disposed on the anode and cathode enzyme is disposed on the cathode.
The anode is configured and arranged to electrooxidize an anode reductant in the presence of the anode enzyme.
Palmore, G. et al., "Electro-enzymatic reduction of dioxygen to water in the cathode compartment of a biofuel cell", Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol.
www.delphion.com /details?pn=US06294281__   (471 words)

 Biological Cell Defense   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Interferons are a family of proteins that are released by a cell that is under attack by an antigen.
This tells these neighbouring cells that an antigen is nearby and instructs them to begin coding for antiviral proteins, which upon action, defend the cell by shutting it down.
The cell is prepared for this and the bacterium becomes trapped in a vacuole that forms around it.
www.biology-online.org /1/10_cell_defense.htm   (633 words)

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