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Topic: Byzantine architecture

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In the News (Wed 21 Aug 19)

  Architecture - Printer-friendly - MSN Encarta
Byzantine architecture has its early prototypes in San Vitale (526-547) in Ravenna and in Saint Sergius and Saint Bacchus (527) in Constantinople, both domed churches on an octagonal plan with surrounding aisles.
Byzantine figurative art developed a characteristic style; its architectural application took the form of mosaics, great mural compositions executed in tiny pieces (tesserae) of colored marble and gilded glass, a technique presumed to have been borrowed from Persia.
Byzantine churches, each with a central dome opening into surrounding semidomes and other vault forms, and accompanied by the characteristic iconography, proliferated throughout the Byzantine Empire—Greece, the Balkans, Asia Minor, and parts of North Africa and Italy—and also influenced the design of churches in Western Christendom.
encarta.msn.com /text_761578082___23/Architecture.html   (2515 words)

 Architecture - MSN Encarta
While Byzantine architecture developed on the concept called the central church, assembled around a central dome like the Pantheon, the Western or Roman Church—more concerned with congregational participation in the Mass—preferred the Roman basilica.
Early prototypes of Byzantine architecture are San Vitale (526-547) in Ravenna and in St Sergius and St Bacchus (527) in Constantinople, both domed churches on an octagonal plan with surrounding aisles.
Byzantine figurative art developed a characteristic style; its architectural application took the form of mosaics, great mural compositions executed in coloured marble and gilt glass cut into tiny pieces (tesserae), a technique presumed to have been borrowed from Persia.
uk.encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761578082_4/Architecture.html   (1208 words)

 Byzantine art and architecture - HighBeam Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Byzantine art and architecture works of art and structures works produced in the city of Byzantium after Constantine made it the capital of the Roman Empire (AD 330) and the work done under Byzantine influence, as in Venice, Ravenna, Norman Sicily, as well as in Syria, Greece, Russia, and other Eastern countries.
An important aspect of Byzantine artistic activity was the painting of devotional panels, since the cult of icons played a leading part in both religious and secular life.
Byzantine silks, the manufacture of which was a state monopoly, were also eagerly sought and treasured as goods of utmost luxury.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-byzantinana.html   (1177 words)

 ArtLex on Byzantine Art
Byzantine paintings and mosaics are characterized by a rich use of color and
Byzantine architects favored the central plan covered by a huge dome.
Byzantine, 14th century, Reliquary Box with Scenes from the Life of John the Baptist, tempera and gold on wood, 9 x 23.5 x 9.9 cm (3 5/8 x 9 1/4 x 4 inches), Cleveland Museum of Art, OH.
www.artlex.com /ArtLex/b/byzantine.html   (925 words)

 Byzantine Art
Byzantine Art and Architecture is the art of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire.
Byzantine art and architecture arose in part as a response to the needs of the Eastern Orthodox Church.
In the early Byzantine period, as wide a diversity of styles is seen in ecclesiastical architecture as in art.
arthistory.heindorffhus.dk /frame-Style05-Byzantine.htm   (1047 words)

 Byzantine Architecture
Some authorities, it is true, not only go so far as to characterize the architecture of Ravenna (exemplified in the two churches S. Apollinare and S. Vitale) as Byzantine, but even include, without further consideration, examples which in other respects recall the favourite Eastern style, viz.
Nothing, however, seems to betray the essentially Oriental character of Byzantine architecture so much as the absence of work in the higher forms of sculpture, and the transformation of high into low decoration by means of interwoven traceries, in which the chiselled ornaments became flatter, more linear, and lacelike.
The real architectural ornaments are forced into the background by the frescoes which take the place of the costly mosaics and which practically cover all available wall surface.
www.catholicity.com /encyclopedia/b/byzantine_architecture.html   (1472 words)

 Byzantine Architecture
Their appearance changed quite considerably during the late Byzantine Period (1204-1453), the domes becoming smaller and higher, while the wall surfaces of the exterior were usually elaborately decorated, either with intricate patterns in brickwork or by setting glazed pottery vessels into the wall to form friezes similar to work in tile.
Byzantine forms were spread to Italy and Sicily, where they persisted in modified form through the 12th century and became formative influences on Italian Renaissance art.
The emphasis of the Byzantine church on the physical splendour of its edifices was a cardinal factor in determining the characteristics of Russian ecclesiastical architecture.
members.fortunecity.com /fstav1/archit.html   (1529 words)

 Byzantine architecture   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The 11th-century monastery of Hosios Lukas in Greece is representative of the Byzantine art during the rule of [[Macedonian dynasty.]] Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine empire.
The 6th-century church of St Irene in Constantinople is a superb sample of the early Byzantine architecture Gradually, a style emerged which was influenced more by the architecture of the near east, and used the Greek cross plan for the church architecture which mostly stands today.
Interior of the [[Hagia Sophia, showing many features of the grandest Byzantine architecture.]] At St Sergius, Constantinople, and San Vitale, Ravenna, churches of the central type, the space under the dome was enlarged by having apsidal additions made to the octagon.
byzantine-architecture.iqnaut.net   (1096 words)

 Orthodox Art and Architecture
The art* and architecture of the Orthodox Church came to maturity in the Christian Roman, or Byzantine, Empire and accompanied the faith to those countries that received their Christianity from Byzantium.
The result was Byzantine art, which combines the classical respect for material form with the capacity of the abstract style to suggest the transcendental.
Among the most admired examples of early Byzantine art are the fifth- and sixth-century mosaics in Ravenna, Italy, and those of the sixth century in the isolated Monastery of St. Catherine at Mount Sinai.
www.goarch.org /en/ourfaith/articles/article8025.asp   (4750 words)

 [No title]
Among the outstanding monuments of Vladimir-Suzdal are the Church of the Assumption (1158-89), which was to serve as a model for its namesake in the Moscow Kremlin; the Church of the Intercession of the Virgin on the Nerl, one of the loveliest creations of medieval Russia (1165); and the Church of St. Dmitri (1194-97).
The boldest departures from Byzantine architecture were the churches of the Ascension at Kolomenskoye (1532) and the Decapitation of St. John the Baptist at Dyakovo (c.1532) and, above all, the Cathedral of St. Basil (Vasily) the Blessed (the Pokrovsky Cathedral) in Moscow (1554-60).
In St. Basil the western academic architectural concepts, based on rational, manifest harmony, were ignored; the structure, with no easily readable design and a profusion of disparate colourful exterior decoration, is uniquely medieval Russian in content and form, in technique, decoration, and feeling.
russia-in-us.com /Religion/Christianity/architec.htm   (1716 words)

 Byzantine Architecture
The Byzantine, although it borrowed from the East, was largely original and became a living type of architecture.
Byzantine churches were usually built first without ornament, and of plain masonry.
Byzantine capital from the Church of San Vitale, at Ravenna, Italy.
www.oldandsold.com /articles10/famous-buildings-16.shtml   (354 words)

 Byzantine Empire - All About Turkey
The Byzantine Empire is also known as the Eastern Roman Empire, for it was in fact a continuation of the Roman Empire into its eastern part.
Almost all that survives of the Byzantine architecture are its churches, with their glorious frescoes and mosaics.
For 1100 years, the Byzantine's were able to maintain control of their empire, although somewhat tenuously at times; the Empire's expansion and prosperity were balanced by internal religious schisms (such as Nika Riot) and recurring wars with enemies from the outside.
www.allaboutturkey.com /bizans.htm   (423 words)

 Architects - ArchitectureWeek Online Library
In April, Rem Koolhaas, a 56-year-old architect from the Netherlands, was named the Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate for the year 2000.
Until June he was dean of the Irwin S. Chanin School of Architecture at the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art in New York.
He was known more for his visionary works of architecture on paper and his influence on graduates of Cooper Union—such architects as Daniel Libeskind and Elizabeth Diller—than his built work—such as the interior of Cooper's building at Astor Square in New York City.
www.architectureweek.com /topics/people.html   (442 words)

 Thesis Text
While all of the Byzantine monuments surviving today have undergone repeated renovation, conversion between mosque and church, and periods of neglect, they are still standing, and their art and architecture are available for study.
Although at the beginning of the Middle Byzantine period many of them were still pagans, by the end of that time they were all converted to Christianity with their own monuments and texts, largely as a result of missionaries and trade originating in the city.
Byzantine merchants may have waited in the city for the trade to come to them, but at the end of the Middle Byzantine Period they were still wealthy and powerful in Thessaloniki, where there was a minimal Western presence.
socrates.berkeley.edu /~arbrown/text.html   (21137 words)

 Early Christian & Byzantine Architecture | Real Virtual | Columbia University in the City of New York   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The Byzantines thought of themselves as the heirs of the Roman Empire, Greek remained the lingua franca of their domain, for example, as it had in this area under Roman rule, and we may approach their architecture from this position.
While the Byzantines were the heirs of the Roman Empire, they turned away from the gods of antiquity to embrace Christianity.
Taken in its architectural context, the iconographic program of the mosaics and frescoes of the Kariye Camii envelopes the believer within scenes of the Old Testament and the lives of Christ and Mary Mother of God.
www.mcah.columbia.edu /ha/html/byzantine.html   (714 words)

 Byzantine art and architecture. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
A.D. 330) and the work done under Byzantine influence, as in Venice, Ravenna, Norman Sicily, as well as in Syria, Greece, Russia, and other Eastern countries.
Artistic activity was temporarily disrupted by the Iconoclastic controversy (726–843), which resulted in the wholesale destruction of figurative works of art and the restriction of permissible content to ornamental forms or to symbols like the cross.
It was constructed in a short span of five years (532–37) during the reign of Justinian.
www.bartleby.com /65/by/ByzantinANA.html   (917 words)

 Byzantine Architecture
The Golden Age of Byzantine Architecture was under the rule of Justian in 527-565.
The style of the Hagia Sophia or Church of Divine Wisdom, was to have a large dome in the middle of the structure.
The dome remained the main focus of the Byzantine Church for the remainder of the empire.
www.historylink101.com /lessons/art_history_lessons/ma/byzantine_architecture.htm   (285 words)

 Byzantine Art and Architecture
After a class discussion and viewing examples of Byzantine styles of art and architecture, students working in small cooperative groups will be able to successfully label the pieces of the architectural dome of Hagia Sophia, define mosaic, and construct a small flower mosaic with teacher-provided materials and directions.
Students will be able to compare and contrast modern architecture and Byzantine architecture through their one-page essays.
Academic Enrichment: For those students who demonstrate full understanding of each of the parts of a Byzantine dome and successfully complete the flower mosaic, they will be given the opportunity to design their own mosaic or research Hagia Sophia further with the use of in school encyclopedias or the Internet.
www.lessonplanspage.com /ArtLASSHistory-ByzantineArtArchitecture56.htm   (663 words)

 Hagia Sophia - Mother of Churches
Architecturally the grand basilica represented a major revolution in church construction in that it featured a huge dome which necessitated the implementation of new ideas in order to support the weight of this dome, a feat which had not been attempted before.
In its heyday as the Imperial church, Hagia Sophia was served by 80 priests, 150 deacons, 60 subdeacons, 160 readers, 25 cantors and 75 doorkeepers.
Thus Eastern Christians of the Byzantine liturgical tradition are the inheritors and descendants of Byzantium, recalling whenever the Divine Liturgy is celebrated the glory of the Great Church in its ancient days.
www.byzantines.net /epiphany/hagiasophia.htm   (1441 words)

Still other scholars disagree with both views, and distinguish between Oriental art and that specifically Byzantine; that is, between the art of Byzantium, or Constantinople, and that of her dependent provinces, Asia Minor, Syria, Persia, and Egypt.
From classical and ancient Christian art Byzantine genius derived a correct combination of the ideal with truth to nature, harmonious unity along with precision in details, as well as the fondness for mosaics, frescoes, and pictures on panels, in opposition to the dislike of non-Christian and sectarian Orientals to pictorial representation.
The numerous mosaic pictures, which are to be found everywhere, still strove to imitate classical models; their symbolism reminds us of the general symbolic tendency of early Christianity, and their form gradually becomes more stiff and fixed.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/03095a.htm   (1169 words)

 Byzantine art and architecture — FactMonster.com
Byzantine art and architecture: General History - General History For more than a thousand years, until the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks...
Byzantine art and architecture: Byzantine Art - Byzantine Art Mosaic Byzantine achievements in mosaic decoration brought this art to an...
Byzantine art and architecture: Byzantine Architecture - Byzantine Architecture The architecture of the Byzantine Empire was based on the great legacy of...
www.factmonster.com /ce6/ent/A0809703.html   (185 words)

 Education World® - *Arts & Humanities : Design : Architecture : Periods & Styles : Byzantine
Byzantine Architecture Project Princeton University project to assess the structural viability of the Hagia Sophia under earthquake loads.
Byzantine Monuments Architectural study guide to the churches and monasteries of Byzantine Constantinople.
Eastern Christian Architecture Substantial, illustrated article with bibliography from Encyclopædia Britannica on the characteristics and development of the Byzantine style.
db.education-world.com /perl/browse?cat_id=10406   (361 words)

 Byzantine architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In Ravenna, we have the longitudinal basilica of S Apollinare Nuovo, and the octagonal, centralized structure of the church of San Vitale, commissioned by Emperor Justinian but never seen by him.
It is presumed that Basil I's votive church of the Theotokos of Phoros (no longer extant) served as a model for most cross-in-square sanctuaries of the period, including the monastery church of Hosios Lukas in Greece (ca.
In Bulgaria, Russia, Romania, Georgia, and other Orthodox countries the Byzantine architecture persisted even longer, finally giving birth to local schools of architecture.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Byzantine_architecture   (1779 words)

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