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Topic: Chloride

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  Calcium chloride - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Calcium chloride is a by-product of the Solvay process used for the manufacture of sodium carbonate.
Unlike the more-common sodium chloride (rock salt or halite), it is relatively harmless to plants and soil.
Calcium chloride tastes extremely salty and is used an ingredient in some foods, especially pickles, to give a salty taste while not increasing the food's sodium content.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Calcium_chloride   (558 words)

 Chloride - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The word chloride can also refer to a chemical compound in which one or more chlorine atoms are covalently bonded in the molecule.
Also, the chloride-bicarbonate exchanger biological transport protein relies on the chloride ion to increase the blood's capacity of carbon dioxide, in the form of the bicarbonate ion.
Chloride is found in many household liquids like water and other drinkable substances.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Chloride   (256 words)

 Polyvinyl chloride - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Polyvinyl chloride is produced by polymerization of the monomer, vinyl chloride as shown.
Polyvinyl chloride was accidentally discovered on at least two different occasions in the 19th century, first in 1835 by Henri Victor Regnault and in 1872 by Eugen Baumann.
According to the EPA, "vinyl chloride emissions from polyvinyl chloride (PVC), ethylene dichloride (EDC), and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) plants cause or contribute to air pollution that may reasonably be anticipated to result in an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible illness.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Polyvinyl_chloride   (1787 words)

 chloride. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Most chlorides are salts that are formed either by direct union of chlorine with a metal or by reaction of hydrochloric acid (a water solution of hydrogen chloride) with a metal, a metal oxide, or an inorganic base.
Most chloride salts are readily soluble in water, but mercurous chloride (calomel) and silver chloride are insoluble, and lead chloride is only slightly soluble.
Most metal chlorides conduct electricity when fused or dissolved in water and can be decomposed by electrolysis to chlorine gas and the metal.
www.bartleby.com /65/ch/chloride.html   (322 words)

 Chloride - An Essential Element
Chloride is found in the soil as the chloride ion.
Chloride, nitrate, sulfate, borate, and molybdate are all anions in their available forms, and in that form they are antagonistic to each other.
In particular, chloride deficiency in cabbage is marked by an absence of the cabbage odor from the plant.
www.tetrachemicals.com /Products/Agriculture/Chloride_-_An_Essential_Element.aqf   (548 words)

Chloride is an anion (a negatively charged ion), generally consumed as sodium chloride (NaCl) or table salt.
Deficiency of chloride alone leads to contraction of extracellular fluid volume and metabolic alkalosis which, in turn, leads to a deficiency of potassium by increasing urinary excretion of potassium.
For chloride alone, the Estimated Minimum Requirements per day set by the Food and Nutrition Board are as follows: infants: 0-6 months, 180 mg; 6 months-11 months, 300 mg; 1 year, 350 mg; 2-5 years, 500 mg; 6-9 years, 600 mg; and adolescents and adults, 750 mg.
www.drlera.com /MINERALS/CHLORIDE.HTM   (594 words)

 WDNR - Chloride - Understanding Lake Data
Chloride does not affect plant and algae growth and is not toxic to aquatic organisms at most of the levels found in Wisconsin.
Chloride is not common in Wiscons soils, rocks or minerals, except in areas with limestone deposits.
Higher chloride concentrations from spring to fall may be the effect of lawn fertilizer runoff or septic systems during heavy use by summer residents.
www.dnr.state.wi.us /org/water/fhp/lakes/under/chloride.htm   (268 words)

 Chloride - New Mexico Ghost Town
During the 1880s, Chloride had 100 homes, 1,000-2,000 people, eight saloons, three general stores, restaurants, butcher shops, a candy store, a lawyer's office, a doctor, boarding houses, an assay office, a stage line, a Chinese laundry and a hotel.
Chloride and the surrounding area began to decline with the silver panic of 1893, when the country went on the gold standard and silver prices dropped about 90 percent.
Chloride was the center of all mining activity in the 12 producing mines.
www.ghosttowns.com /states/nm/chloride.html   (375 words)

 E F S A | European Food Safety Authority   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The main source of chloride in the diet is from processed foods (about 70-75% of the total intake), with about 10-15% from naturally occurring chloride in unprocessed foods and about 10-15% from discretionary chloride added during cooking and at the table.
Chloride is not carcinogenic but high intakes of sodium chloride can increase the susceptibility to the carcinogenic effects of carcinogens, such as nitrosamines, and gastric infection with H. pylori.
There is strong evidence that the current levels of chloride consumption (as sodium chloride) in European countries contribute to increased blood pressure in the population, which in turn has been directly related to the development of cardiovascular disease and renal disease.
www.efsa.eu.int /science/nda/nda_opinions/975_en.html   (549 words)

 ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: Methylene Chloride
Methylene chloride is used as an industrial solvent and as a paint stripper.
Methylene chloride is mainly released to the environment in air.
Methylene chloride does not easily dissolve in water, but small amounts may be found in drinking water.
www.atsdr.cdc.gov /tfacts14.html   (972 words)

 Chloride, Arizona   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Chloride was founded in 1862 with the discovery of silver ore. During its heyday, there were more than 75 mines in operation, and the population reached 2,000 in 1920.
The Wild Roses of Chloride, the world's only all-female gun-fighting troupe perform hilarious skits involving gun battles, bank robberies, catching cattle rustlers (usually a member of the audience), mock weddings (usually a male from the audience is chosen to marry one of the Roses), and a host of other Wild West frivolities.
Chloride is a peaceful place for tourists to visit and for others to retire to.
www.desertusa.com /chloride/du_chloride.html   (871 words)

 Chloride - Arizona Ghost Town
Doc.B. Chloride lies under the Cerbat Mountains and is one of oldest miner communities in Arizona.
Chloride was established in 1862 when silver were founded and the town become silver mine center.
Chloride postoffice grounded in 1871 is the oldest still working post office in Arizona.
www.ghosttowns.com /states/az/chloride.html   (216 words)

 Chloride (Cl)
Chloride is one of the most important electrolytes in the blood, along with sodium, potassium, and calcium.
The amount of chloride is indirectly regulated by the hormone aldosterone, which also regulates the amount of sodium in your blood.
Chloride can also be measured in skin sweat to test for cystic fibrosis.
www.webmd.com /hw/health_guide_atoz/hw6323.asp   (1231 words)

 Chloride, New Mexico
In the morning he discovered silver chloride ore nearby, and later, with some friends, returned to stake claims.
The town was named Chloride for the ore found there, and by 1881 the so-called "Pye Lode" had attracted hundred of prospectors.
The town of Chloride became the center for all silver mining in the area, although there were other smaller towns in the hills nearby.
www.ghosttowngallery.com /htme/chloridenm.htm   (172 words)

 Sodium & Chloride Requirements in Dogs
Sodium and chloride are often thought of as a pair.
Chloride is also necessary for the production of hydrochloric acid (HCl) in the stomach which helps in the digestion of protein.
Sodium and chloride may also be bound to minerals or molecules such as Vitamin K or Potassium (K).
www.peteducation.com /article.cfm?articleid=686   (367 words)

 EPA - Air Toxics Website - Vinyl chloride
Cancer is a major concern from exposure to vinyl chloride via inhalation, as vinyl chloride exposure has been shown to increase the risk of a rare form of liver cancer in humans.
Ambient air concentrations of vinyl chloride are generally quite low, with exposure occurring from the discharge of exhaust gases from factories that manufacture or process vinyl chloride, or evaporation from areas where chemical wastes are stored.
Vinyl chloride is reported to be slightly irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract in humans.
www.epa.gov /ttn/atw/hlthef/vinylchl.html   (1356 words)

 EPA - Air Toxics Website - Methylene Chloride (Dichloromethane)
Methylene chloride is predominantly used as a solvent.
Methylene chloride is predominantly used as a solvent in paint strippers and removers; as a process solvent in the manufacture of drugs, pharmaceuticals, and film coatings; as a metal cleaning and finishing solvent in electronics manufacturing; and as an agent in urethane foam blowing.
Methylene chloride is also approved for use as a postharvest fumigant for grains and strawberries and as a degreening agent for citrus fruit.
www.epa.gov /ttn/atw/hlthef/methylen.html   (1405 words)

Methyl chloride is metabolized in mammals either by conjuga tion with glutathione or, to a lesser extent, through oxi dation by cytochrome P-450; the glutathione pathway yields methanethiol, and both pathways yield formalde hyde and formate.
In the stratosphere, the concentra tion of methyl chloride decreases with altitude.
Lesions that were induced by exposure to methyl chloride alone were epididymal sperm granulomas, degeneration of cere bellar granule cells, necrosis of renal proximal tubules, cloudy swelling of hepatocytes, and vacuolization of cell cytoplasm in the outer region of zona fasciculata in the adrenal glands.
www.inchem.org /documents/cicads/cicads/cicad28.htm   (15104 words)

 Thionyl Chloride
Containers of thionyl chloride may explode in the heat of the fire and should be moved from the fire area if it is possible to do so safely.
Clothing contaminated with thionyl chloride should be removed immediately, and provisions should be made for the safe removal of the chemical from the clothing.
Containers of thionyl chloride should be protected from physical damage and contact with moisture and should be stored separately from ammonia or other bases, and dimethyl sulfoxide.
www.osha.gov /SLTC/healthguidelines/thionylchloride/recognition.html   (2598 words)

Strange, then, that Chloride is well over 100 years old, with a history of bullfights and bare-handed battles with bears.
Chloride also has a distinctly feminine presence, but the origin of that is more easily understood.
Gender and age notwithstanding, Chloride has scratched its way out of the ghost town books and once again become a prosperous community.
www.vivanewmexico.com /ghosts/chloride.html   (416 words)

 Electrolytes, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Bicarbonate by MedicineNet.com
Chloride: Chloride is the major anion (negatively charged ion) found in the fluid outside of cells and in blood.
Increased chloride (hyperchloremia): Elevations in chloride may be seen in diarrhea, certain kidney diseases, and sometimes in overactivity of the parathyroid glands.
The normal serum range for chloride is 98 - 108 mmol/L. Bicarbonate: The bicarbonate ion acts as a buffer to maintain the normal levels of acidity (pH) in blood and other fluids in the body.
www.medicinenet.com /electrolytes/article.htm   (713 words)

 chloride   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The decrease in chloride conductance characteristic of denervated muscle was not halted by cycloheximide.
The possibility that chloride might regulate the expression of AChRs in skeletal muscle was tested by altering the intracellular concentration of chloride in muscles maintained in organ culture.
When chloride conductance was blocked by 9AC (9-anthracene carboxylic acid) intracellular chloride was elevated to the levels seen in denervated muscle.
www.uwm.edu /People/rdh/chloride.htm   (362 words)

 Chloride - Elson M. Haas M.D. - HealthWorld Online
The element chlorine itself is a poisonous gas that is soluble in water; in nature and in our body, it exists primarily as the chloride anion, the negatively charged ion that joins with cations such as sodium to make salt (sodium chloride) and with hydrogen to make stomach acid (hydrochloric acid).
Chloride makes up about 0.15 percent of our body weight and is found mainly in the extracellular fluid along with sodium.
The kidneys excrete or retain chloride mainly as sodium chloride, depending on whether they are trying to increase or decrease body acid levels.
www.healthy.net /library/books/haas/minerals/cl.htm   (692 words)

 ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: Vinyl Chloride
Vinyl chloride in the air breaks down in a few days to other substances, some of which can be harmful.
Breathing vinyl chloride in air or during contact with your skin or eyes in the workplace.
Studies in workers who have breathed vinyl chloride over many years showed an increased risk of liver cancer; brain cancer, lung cancer, and some cancer of the blood have also been observed in workers.
www.atsdr.cdc.gov /tfacts20.html   (1101 words)

 ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: Hydrogen Chloride
At room temperature, hydrogen chloride is a colorless to slightly yellow, corrosive, nonflammable gas that is heavier than air and has a strong irritating odor.
Hydrogen chloride dissociates readily in water to chloride and hydronium ions (an ion is an electrically charged atom or molecule), which ultimately lowers the pH of the water (makes it more acidic).
Hydrogen chloride is used to produce other chemicals, or for applications such as a metal pickling, ore refining, food processing, manufacture of fertilizers and dyes, and in the rubber and textile industries.
www.atsdr.cdc.gov /tfacts173.html   (1016 words)

 Micro K Online, Description, Chemistry, Ingredients - Potassium Chloride Extended-release - RxList Monographs
capsules are oral dosage forms of microencapsulated potassium chloride containing 600 and 750 mg, respectively, of potassium chloride USP equivalent to 8 and 10 mEq of potassium.
Dispersibility of potassium chloride (KCl) is accomplished by microencapsulation and a dispersing agent.
Potassium chloride USP occurs as a white, granular powder or as colorless crystals.
www.rxlist.com /cgi/generic/kclsr.htm   (278 words)

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