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Topic: Chlorine

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  Chlorine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Chlorine gas, also known as bertholite, was first used as a weapon against human beings in WWI on April 22nd, 1915, and afterwards was used by both sides.
In nature chlorine is found mainly as the chloride ion, a component of the salt that is deposited in the earth or dissolved in the oceans—about 1.9% of the mass of seawater is chloride ions.
Chlorine is used extensively in organic and inorganic chemistry as an oxidizing agent and in substitution reactions because chlorine often imparts many desired properties in an organic compound when it is substituted for hydrogen (as in synthetic rubber production).It has the highest electron affinity among halides.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Chlorine   (1391 words)

 Chlorine (Cl) - Chemical properties, Health and Environmental effects
Chlorine is an important chemical in water purification, in disinfectants, in bleach and in mustard gas.
Chlorine often imparts many desired properties in an organic compound when it is substituted for hydrogen (synthetic rubber), so it is widely use in organic chemistry, in the production of chlorates, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and in the bromine extraction.
Chlorine is especially harmful to organisms living in water and in soil.
www.lenntech.com /Periodic-chart-elements/Cl-en.htm   (814 words)

 Chlorine compounds glossary: chemistry of dioxins, chlorinated solvents and trichlorothane
Chlorinated aromatics are widely used as intermediates in the manufacture of medicines, agricultural chemicals and paints.
Chlorine is produced by electrolysis of brine (salt dissolved in water).
Naturally-occurring chlorine compounds are present in our blood, skin and teeth, and chlorine in the form of hydrochloric acid has an important part to play in the digestive process.
www.eurochlor.org /mainglossary   (2978 words)

 ATSDR - MMG: Chlorine
Chlorine is also used widely as a chemical reagent in the synthesis and manufacture of metallic chlorides, chlorinated solvents, pesticides, polymers, synthetic rubbers, and refrigerants.
The action of chlorine is due to its strong oxidizing capability, in which chlorine splits hydrogen from water in moist tissue, causing the release of nascent oxygen and hydrogen chloride which produce major tissue damage.
Chlorine poisoning is not known to pose additional risk during the use of bronchial or cardiac sensitizing agents.
www.atsdr.cdc.gov /MHMI/mmg172.html   (4007 words)

 chlorine as disinfectant for water
Chlorine is produced from chlorine bonds by means of electrolytic or chemical oxidation.
Chlorine has been used for applications, such as the deactivation of pathogens in drinking water, swimming pool water and wastewater, for the disinfection of household areas and for textile bleaching, for more than two hundred years.
The amount of chlorine that is used during this process is referred to as the 'chlorine enquiry' of the water.
www.lenntech.com /water-disinfection/disinfectants-chlorine.htm   (3149 words)

 Chlorine | Technology Transfer Network Air Toxics Web site | US EPA
Chlorine is a potent irritant to the eyes, the upper respiratory tract, and lungs.
Chlorine is a potent irritant in humans to the eyes, the upper respiratory tract, and the lungs.
Developmental and reproductive toxicity of chlorine have been examined in rats and mice, but with suboptimal studies; due to the chemical relationship between chlorine and monochloramine, reproductive and developmental studies for monochloramine may be used to satisfy data gaps for chlorine.
www.epa.gov /ttn/atw/hlthef/chlorine.html   (1293 words)

 CDC | Facts About Chlorine
Chlorine is sometimes in the form of a poisonous gas.
Chlorine is used in drinking water and swimming pool water to kill harmful bacteria.
The extent of poisoning caused by chlorine depends on the amount of chlorine a person is exposed to, how the person was exposed, and the length of time of the exposure.
www.bt.cdc.gov /agent/chlorine/basics/facts.asp   (1065 words)

 ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: Chlorine
Chlorine is mainly used as a bleach in the manufacture of paper and cloth and to make a wide variety of products.
The general population is probably not exposed to chlorine gas, but may be exposed to products which are made from chlorine like sodium hypochlorite which is used as a disinfectant in public drinking water and swimming pools and as a common household bleach.
The EPA has set a limit for drinking water of 4 milligrams of chlorine per liter of water (4 mg/L) and also recommends that levels of chlorine in lakes and streams be limited to 10 mg/L to prevent possible human health effects from drinking water or eating fish contaminated with this chemical.
www.atsdr.cdc.gov /tfacts172.html   (1088 words)

 Chlorine Gas
Chlorine gas destroyed the respiratory organs of its victims and this led to a slow death by asphyxiation.
After the first German chlorine gas attacks, Allied troops were supplied with masks of cotton pads that had been soaked in urine.
One disadvantage for the side that launched chlorine gas attacks was that it made the victim cough and therefore limited his intake of the poison.
www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk /FWWchlorine.htm   (1376 words)

 Chemistry : Periodic Table : chlorine : key information
Chlorine is a greenish yellow gas which combines directly with nearly all elements.
Chlorine is found largely in seawater where it exists as sodium chloride.
It is recovered as a reactive, corrosive, pale green chlorine gas from brine (a solution of sodium chloride in water) by electrolyis.
www.webelements.com /webelements/elements/text/Cl/key.html   (308 words)

 Chlorine Pool Page, chlorine in pools
Chlorine was first discovered in the sixteenth century, and today is one of the most produced chemicals in the US, finding its way into a multitude of products.
Chlorine is an expensive and corrosive compound, so make the attempt to avoid consistently overchlorinating the pool, which may also irritate your swimmers.
The efficacy of chlorine, that is, the power of it to have an effect, is greatly influenced by the care with which you manage your pH levels.
www.poolcenter.com /chlor.htm   (2442 words)

 Chemical Fact Sheets -- Chlorine
Chlorine is a poisonous, greenish-yellow gas described as having a choking odor.
Chlorine is added in small amounts to some municipal water supplies when bacteria contamination threatens public health.
Liquid chlorine bleach and its vapors (at levels of 3-6 ppm in air) are irritating to eyes.
www.dhfs.state.wi.us /eh/ChemFS/fs/chlorine.htm   (825 words)

Aqueous chlorine is effective in reducing surface spoilage bacterial counts on carcasses of slaughter animals and is presently being used for washing beef, pork, lamb, and poultry in some plants under interim authorization.
Chlorination studies conducted on natural and artificial seawater, have shown two phases of chlorine losses in seawater: a rapid initial loss followed by a continuous loss at a sharply reduced rate.
Chlorine application in water treatment facilities serving 19 Massachusetts communities ranged from a minimum of 4.3 mg/l to a maximum of 29.7 mg/l with a mean of 15.2 + or - 7.44 mg/l.
www.speclab.com /elements/chlorine.htm   (1738 words)

 Chlorine   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Chlorine is manufactured industrially as a by-product in the manufacture of Caustic Soda by the electrolysis of brine.
Chlorine is a highly reactive element, and undergoes reaction with a wide variety of other elements and compounds.
Chlorine is soluble in water (which solution is called Chlorine Water) and this loses its yellow colour on standing in sunlight, due to the formation of a mixture of Hypochlorous Acid and Hydrochloric Acid.
www.ucc.ie /ucc/depts/chem/dolchem/html/elem/elem017.html   (775 words)

This chlorine molecule easily enters micro organisms through their cell walls and kills the organisms by destroying the sulfur groups on the cell's enzymes, causing the cell's metabolism to stop, resulting in the cell's death.
For instance, OCAW has proposed a tax on chlorine and related chemicals; the revenue would be used to encourage reinvestment in affected communities and provide income protection, continued health care, and meaningful opportunies for higher education and re-employment for workers and their families.
Chlorine has not been found to be carcinogenic in animals; no tumors were noted in a study where rats were exposed to 100 ppm chlorine in their drinking water over their lifespan, for 7 generations (see Reproductive/Developmental Effects section).
www.rhtubs.com /chlorine.htm   (6342 words)

 Chlorine   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
It is a member of the halogen (salt-forming) group of elements and is obtained from chlorides by the action of oxidizing agents and more often by electrolysis; it is a greenish-yellow gas, combining directly with nearly all elements.
Most of the chlorine produced is used in the manufacture of chlorinated compounds for sanitation, pulp bleaching, disinfectants, and textile processing.
Organic chemistry demands much from chlorine, both as an oxidizing agent and in substitution, since it often brings many desired properties in an organic compound when substituted for hydrogen, as in one form of synthetic rubber.
www.scescape.net /~woods/elements/chlorine.html   (288 words)

Chlorine tablets should be used in a floater or a feeder.
I checked the Chlorine level in the pool again and it still was approximately 3 ppm (I had not yet put a chlorine tablet in the skimmer basket yet).
Free Chlorine is the active form of chlorine and is a better measurement of the pool's sanitizing ability.
spas.freeservers.com /Chemicals/AskAlan/Chlorine/chlorine.html   (2235 words)

 CHLORINE - A Special Problem for Drinking Water as health concerns of cancer causing carcinogenic contaminants may ...
When chlorine is fed into water, it first reacts with any iron, manganese, or hydrogen sulfide that may be in the water.
Chlorination kills many pathogenic bacteria (including those which cause typhoid, cholera and dysentery), however cyst forming protozoa (Cryptosporidium) which cause amoebic dysentery, and giardiasis are extremely resistant to chlorination.
To minimize the risks of using chlorine, the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) adopted new regulations in November 1980, requiring cities to cutdown the chlorination by-products in water to a level not exceeding 100 parts per billion.
www.doulton.ca /chlorine.html   (652 words)

 Howstuffworks "How does chlorine bleach work?"
Chlorine itself is a gas at room temperature.
Chlorine is chlorine, so the chlorine in bleach is the same as the chlorine in drinking water and in a swimming pool.
If you are worried about the chlorine in your water, all you have to do is let the water stand for a day or two in a loosely covered container in your refrigerator and the chlorine is eliminated.
science.howstuffworks.com /question189.htm   (447 words)

 Euro Chlor: Chlorine information, chlorine production and chlor alkali info
Read about chlorine production: how it occurs naturally in the environment, but is made industrially from salt water by man. Discover the range of materials, chemicals and pharmaceuticals that depend on this essential compound and its valuable co-product caustic soda.
Given the increase in reported cases of diarrhoea among the displaced population, Lebanon is giving priority to hygiene promotion activities, and the procurement and distribution of chlorine tablets for safe drinking water.
As violence continues in the country, WHO is using chlorine-based water disinfectants in its humanitarian relief efforts, having distributed enough "chlorine powder" for 40 million litres of safe drinking water for the displaced, as well as for the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA).
www.eurochlor.org   (297 words)

 Chlorine: What is it? - C3.org
Chlorine chemistry is deeply woven into the fabric of our lives.
A comprehensive introduction to chlorine including information on the discovery of the element in 1774, its chemical properties, its important applications, and its significant contributions to the global economy.
A fun, interactive timeline describing significant and historical advances involving chlorine chemistry, from its discovery in 1774 to today.
c3.org /chlorine_what_is_it/index.html   (74 words)

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