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# Topic: Drag equation

###### In the News (Wed 22 May 13)

 Drag equation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia is the drag coefficient (a dimensionless constant, e.g. The equation is based on an idealized situation where all of the fluid impinges on the reference area and comes to a complete stop, building up stagnation pressure over the whole area. The equation is precise, it is the C en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Drag_equation   (303 words)

 Drag - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For a solid object moving through a fluid or gas, drag is the sum of all the aerodynamic or hydrodynamic forces in the direction of the external fluid flow. Beyond these two kinds of drag there is a third kind of drag, called wave drag, that occurs when the solid object is moving through the fluid at or near the speed of sound in that fluid. The overall drag of an object is characterized by a dimensionless number called the drag coefficient, and is calculated using the drag equation. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Drag   (262 words)

 The Drag Equation Drag depends on the density of the air, the square of the velocity, the air's viscosity and compressibility, the size and shape of the body, and the body's inclination to the flow. The drag equation states that drag D is equal to the drag coefficient Cd times the density r times half of the velocity V squared times the reference area A. Determining the value of the drag coefficient is more difficult than determining the lift coefficient because of the multiple sources of drag. www.grc.nasa.gov /WWW/K-12/airplane/drageq.html   (536 words)

 The Drag Coefficient The drag coefficient is a number that aerodynamicists use to model all of the complex dependencies of shape, inclination, and flow conditions on aircraft drag. This equation is simply a rearrangement of the drag equation where we solve for the drag coefficient in terms of the other variables. As pointed out on the drag equation slide, the choice of reference area (wing area, frontal area, surface area,...) will affect the actual numerical value of the drag coefficient that is calculated. www.grc.nasa.gov /WWW/K-12/airplane/dragco.html   (869 words)

 Drag coefficient - Open Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) The drag coefficient is a number that describes a characteristic amount of aerodynamic drag caused by fluid flow, used in the drag equation. This is done to improve fuel efficiency at highway speeds, where aerodynamic effects represent a substantial fraction of the energy needed to keep the car moving. It is also a factor in sports car design, where low drag, coupled with reduced lift, results in a car which can achieve stability and high top speeds. open-encyclopedia.com /Drag_coefficient   (216 words)

 Drag The basic inertial drag equation used to calculate drag force on an arrow travelling through the air is as presented where 'F' is the drag force, 'D' is the air density, 'C' is a drag coefficient, 'A' is the object area and 'V' is the air velocity normal to the surface. The total drag on the arrow that moves it is the sum of the pile drag and the shaft drag. Arrow drag is looked at for the case where effectively the arrow is rigidly mounted in a wind tunnel with the air flow running parallel to the shaft axis (the shear drag situation covered in the section on drag). homepage.ntlworld.com /joetapley/link3.htm   (2035 words)

 Week 10 ase 201 In space, there is no gravity and no atmosphere, so the equation for velocity as a function of time is very simple and can be solved by hand, Near the earth, gravity is a constant force, and the velocity equations are still solvable by hand. When a realistic model of drag is included, the equation for velocity becomes nonlinear and is no longer easy to solve by hand. Drag:  Drag is the integral involving density and velocity from time =0 to the current time. www.ae.utexas.edu /courses/ase201/assign_dir/rocketdrag.html   (878 words)

 Terminal velocity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) The terminal velocity of an object falling towards the ground is the speed at which the gravitational force pulling it downwards is equal and opposite to the atmospheric drag (also called air resistance) pushing it upwards. The reason objects reach a terminal velocity is because the drag force depends on the speed. This equation is derived from the drag equation by setting drag equal to mg, the gravitational force on the object. www.newlenox.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Terminal_velocity   (351 words)

 IHS ESDU: Data Item AERO A.S.02.03.01   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) The equation for the drag is given together with the form it reduces to when Mach number approaches unity which yields the theoretical transonic drag rise. The equation for the drag according to the transfer rule is then given and the terms in it explained. The equation for drag according to the moment of area rule is then introduced and it is noted that it offers a method of optimising the area distribution at supersonic speeds. www.esdu.com /graphics/dataitem/aas231b.htm   (301 words)

 TARO Article This equation is trivial and states that the drag factor (on a level surface) is equal to the acceleration in units of g. The Equation for drag factor from a drag sled is The results of this drag sled test state that is there is a 95% probability that the true drag factor lies between.74 +-.033. tarorigin.com /art/Omasory/Dragfactor   (1514 words)

 Skin Friction & Force Drag Definition In aerodynamics, form drag, or profile drag, is a drag force created by the wind hitting the aircraft. Form drag follows the drag equation, meaning that it rises with the square of speed, and thus becomes more important for high speed aircraft. This form of drag is reduced through the use of streamlining to create a shape with as little overall drag as possible. www.eng.fsu.edu /~ugartjo/skinfriction&forcedrag.htm   (333 words)

 Science Fair Projects - Lift-to-drag ratio Induced drag is caused by the generation of lift by the wing. This form of drag, simply another name for wind resistance, varies with the square of speed (see drag equation). Profile drag is lowered primarily by using thinner wings, but such a shape often leads to less low-speed lift, and thus higher induced drag. www.all-science-fair-projects.com /science_fair_projects_encyclopedia/Lift-to-drag_ratio   (616 words)

 Drag equation -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) The reference area A is related to, but not exactly equal to, the area of the projection of the object on a plane perpendicular to the direction of motion (ie (Click link for more info and facts about cross-section) cross-sectional area). ((The ratio of the drag on a body moving through air to the product of the velocity and the surface area of the body) drag coefficient) that can vary and is found by experiment. This is because the force exerted by drag quadruples (2² = 4), and the (Possession of controlling influence) power required equals force times velocity. www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/d/dr/drag_equation.htm   (537 words)

 Drag In physics, drag consists of the sum of all the aerodynamic or hydrodynamic forces in the direction of the external airflow (or water flow). Dragging is usually unintentional and undesirable, since it tends to drain the energy out of the music. Drag is also slang for any costume, referring in particular to the ostentatiously glamorous costumes of the type worn by drag queens and kings. www.brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/d/dr/drag.html   (272 words)

 Encyclopedia: Drag equation The drag coefficient (Cd or Cx) is a number that describes a characteristic amount of aerodynamic drag caused by fluid flow, used in the drag equation. In dimensional analysis, a dimensionless number (or more precisely, a number with the dimensions of 1) is a pure number without any physical units; it does not change if one alters ones system of units of measurement, for example from English units to metric units. The terminal velocity of an object falling towards the ground, in non vacuum, is the speed at which the gravitational force pulling it downwards is equal and opposite to the atmospheric drag (also called air resistance) pushing it upwards. www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Drag-equation   (742 words)

 Drag equation It should also be noted that this equation is an empirical equation, and does not necessarily accurately reflect the air drag in all situations. Because drag is the result of many very complex interactions between the object and fluid in which it is moving, the drag equation is grossly simplified. One notable exception to this is when the object is moving fast enough to produce turbulence in the fluid, at which point the accuracy of the equation decreases. www.sciencedaily.com /encyclopedia/drag_equation   (396 words)

 Drag coefficient - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia About 60% of the power required to cruise at highway speeds is taken up overcoming air drag, and this increases very quickly at high speed. The product of the drag coefficient and area, called drag area, was introduced in 2003 by Car and Driver as a more accurate way to compare the aerodynamic efficiency of various automobiles. Reported drag area ranges from the 2005 Chevrolet Corvette at 6.1 ft² (.57 m²) to the 2006 Hummer H3 at 16.8 ft² (1.56 m²). www.wikipedia.org /wiki/Drag_coefficient   (702 words)

 [No title] Equation 2 is the basis for determining the stability of objects resting on the sea floor. The drag force is the predominate wave induced force on a submerged object in shallow water (Dean). Equation 13 is the final stability equation used in the stability analysis. www.artificialreefs.org /ScientificReports/CancunHotelRBstability.htm   (2239 words)

 Drag equation: Definition and Links by Encyclopedian.com - All about Drag equation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) V is the speed of the object relative to the fluid, and Of particular importance is the V² figure, meaning that fluid drag increases with the square of velocity. A car cruising on a highway at 50mph may require only 10 horsepower to overcome air drag (and another 15 or so for other sources of drag), but that same car at 100mph requires 100hp. www.encyclopedian.com /dr/Drag-equation.html   (149 words)

 Shape Effects on Drag   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) The drag coefficient is a number which aerodynamicists use to model all of the complex dependencies of drag on shape, inclination, and some flow conditions. The drag equation was then used to produce the coefficient. The drag coefficient for a sphere is given with a range of values because the drag on a sphere is highly dependent on Reynolds number. wright.nasa.gov /airplane/shaped.html   (416 words)

 Magnetic force Equation (1) is deduced from Weber¡¦s equation c=1/ You may notice that the above equation of drag force is different to the drag force equation of fluid dynamics. In this paper, the two components of magnetic force, drag force and Bernoulli force, are successfully derived from ether dynamics. www.geocities.com /redlorikee/mdb2.html   (690 words)

 5.5 Special Terms in the Equations of Motion A head-loss term is incompatible with equation 46 because all terms in that equation refer to momentum content, momentum flux, or forces on the water in the control volume. Therefore, application of equation 53 provides a close estimate of the drag in any reasonable flow, and the area to use is the arithmetic average of the areas in the cross sections bounding the location of the loss. The direction of flow is determined in equation 59 on the basis of the sum of flows at each end of the control volume. il.water.usgs.gov /proj/feq/feqdoc/chap5html/chap5_6.html   (2295 words)

 Drag equation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) This is becausethe force exerted by drag quadruples (2² = 4), and the power required equals force timesvelocity. It should also be noted that this equation is an empirical equation, and doesnot necessarily accurately reflect the air drag in all situations. Because drag is the result of many very complex interactionsbetween the object and fluid in which it is moving, the drag equation is grossly simplified. www.therfcc.org /drag-equation-127586.html   (310 words)

 Getfaster.com Tech Tips Aerodynamic Drag   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) In this equation, D is the density of the air, A is the frontal area, and V is the velocity. This equation shows that to calculate drag you need to know three things: Cd the drag coefficient, A the frontal area of what is passing through the air, and the speed of air past it. The drag coefficient, Cd, is important because along with frontal area, it determines the power cost of pushing a shape through air at a certain speed. www.getfaster.com /Techtips/Aerodrag.html   (330 words)

 Air Resistance Formula   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08) I feel that the equation is not adequate because it does not seem to incorporate the notion that the speed of the fluid is very high. The drag force is useful when the object moving through the air is moving much faster than the air itself. The drag equation is a very good approximation if the fluid is not moving too fast or is not too thick. www.newton.dep.anl.gov /askasci/phy00/phy00200.htm   (489 words)

 [No title] As a consequence of a higher drag, or an increased force in the opposite direction of movement, the same particle will move with a slower terminal velocity than if the walls were not present. Equation 3 — Ladenberg Equation  EMBED Equation.3  where: Db - bounded drag force (Newton) R — cylinder radius (meter) At this point, the equations are manipulated to be in terms of terminal velocity. Equation 5a — Ratio of Bounded Terminal Velocity to Unbounded Terminal Velocity Or manipulated to be in linear equation form: Equation 5b — Linear form of Ratio of Bounded to Unbounded Terminal Velocity  Now, having formulated a mathematical approach, the experimentation phase began. www.seas.upenn.edu /courses/belab/LabProjects/1998/BE310S98T3R01.doc   (1200 words)

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