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Topic: Historical linguistics


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  Historical linguistics - Open Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of languages which are recognizably related through similarities such as vocabulary, word formation, and syntax.
Historical linguistics aims to classify the world's languages by their genetic affiliations and to trace the historic development of languages.
Historical linguists construct family trees, an idea pioneered by the 19th century historical linguist August Schleicher.
open-encyclopedia.com /Historical_linguistics   (991 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Historical linguistics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time, by means of examining languages which are recognizably related through similarities such as vocabulary, word formation, and syntax, as well as the surviving records of ancient languages.
Historical linguistics enjoys both a rich history (the study of linguistics grew out of historical linguistics) and a strong theoretical foundation for the study of language change.
Sociolinguistics, anthropological linguistics, and linguistic anthropology are social sciences that consider the interactions between linguistics and society as a whole.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Historical-linguistics   (996 words)

  
 Linguistics - Open Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Historical linguistics, the study of languages whose historical relations are recognizable through similarities in vocabulary, word formation, and syntax.
Sociolinguistics, anthropological linguistics, and linguistic anthropology are where the social sciences that consider societies as whole and linguistics interact.
For linguistic research that uses the methods of corpus linguistics and computational linguistics, written language is often much more convenient for processing large amounts of linguistic data.
open-encyclopedia.com /Linguistics   (1481 words)

  
 Facts about topic: (Historical linguistics)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Modern historical linguistics grew out of the earlier discipline of philology (The humanistic study of language and literature), the study of ancient texts and documents.
The comparative method is used to distinguish true linguistic descent - that is, the passing of a language from parents to children, down through the generations - from accidental resemblance due to cultural contact.
On the other hand, this linguistic "noise" may be reduced by comparing large amounts of words, which is exactly the point of mass lexical comparison (additional info and facts about mass lexical comparison).
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/h/hi/historical_linguistics.htm   (944 words)

  
 Linguistics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Linguistics is the scientific study of human language, and someone who engages in this study is called a linguist or linguistician.
Whereas theoretical linguistics is concerned with finding and describing generalities both within particular languages and among all languages, applied linguistics takes the results of those findings and applies them to other areas.
Applications of computational linguistics in machine translation, computer-assisted translation, and natural language processing are extremely fruitful areas of applied linguistics which have come to the forefront in recent years with increasing computing power.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Linguistics   (1895 words)

  
 Learn more about Historical linguistics in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Historical linguistics (or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of languages which are recognizably related through similarities such as vocabulary, word formation, and syntax.
The basis for the trees is the comparative method: languages presumed to be related are compared with one another, and based on what is generally known about how languages can change, linguists reconstruct the best hypothesis about the nature of the common ancestor language from which the attested languages are descended.
For example, the majority of the vocabulary of Persian (Farsi) is taken from Arabic, as a result of the Arab conquest of Iran in the 8th century and much subsequent cultural contact.
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /h/hi/historical_linguistics.html   (1132 words)

  
 Corpora and historical linguistics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Historical linguistics can be seen as a species of corpus linguistics, since the texts of a historical period or a "dead" language form a closed corpus of data which can only be extended by the (re-)discovery of previously unknown manuscripts or books.
In recent years, however, some historical linguistics have changed their approach, resulting in an upsurge in strictly corpus-based historical linguistics and the building of corpora for this purpose.
Other examples of English historical corpora in development are the Zürich Corpus of English Newspapers (ZEN), the Lampeter Corpus of Early Modern English Tracts (a sample of English pamphlets from between 1640 and 1740) and the ARCHER corpus (a corpus of British and American English from 1650-1990).
bowland-files.lancs.ac.uk /monkey/ihe/linguistics/corpus4/4hist.htm   (655 words)

  
 Schousboe: Teaching Historical Linguistics
Historical linguistics and the reading of medieval texts were both abandoned as obligatory disciplines in 1976.
Historical linguistics can be used to test the validity of a sociolinguistic hypothesis or throw light on a common grammatical error.
Phonology itself, the backbone of the classical tradition in historical linguistics, was studied in a way which seemed to have very little to do with general phonetics.
www.univie.ac.at /Anglistik/hoe/pschousboe.htm   (2729 words)

  
 Historical Linguistics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Historical linguistics is the branch of linguistics that focuses on the interconnections between different languages in the world and/or their historical development.
Historical linguists investigate how languages evolve and change through time, how multiple "offspring" languages can arise from one past "parent" language, and how cultural contact between speakers of different languages can influence language development and evolution.
The purpose of this section is to point out some of the historical relationships that are known between different languages of the world and to discuss the dynamic aspects of language in general that are ultimately responsible for these historical relationships.
www.mc.maricopa.edu /~reffland/anthropology/language/history1.html   (220 words)

  
 Read about Historical linguistics at WorldVillage Encyclopedia. Research Historical linguistics and learn about ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time, by means of examining languages which are recognizably related through similarities such as
Historical linguists construct family trees, an idea pioneered by the 19th century historical linguist
comparative method: languages presumed to be related are compared with one another, and linguists look for regular sound correspondences based on what is generally known about how languages can change, and use them to reconstruct the best hypothesis about the nature of the common ancestor language from which the attested languages are descended.
encyclopedia.worldvillage.com /s/b/Historical_linguistics   (1126 words)

  
 Linguistics: An Introduction to Linguistics
Linguists focus on describing and explaining language and are not concerned with the prescriptive rules of the language (ie., do not split infinitives).
Linguistics is a social science that shares common ground with other social sciences such as psychology, anthropology, sociology and archaeology.
Historical Linguistics: Historical linguistics is the study of language change and the relationships of languages to each other.
www.geocities.com /CollegePark/3920   (653 words)

  
 Darwin-L Message Log 1: 81-105 (September 1993)
Darwin-L was not restricted to evolutionary biology nor to the work of Charles Darwin, but instead addressed the entire range of historical sciences from an explicitly comparative perspective, including evolutionary biology, historical linguistics, textual transmission and stemmatics, historical geology, systematics and phylogeny, archeology, paleontology, cosmology, historical geography, historical anthropology, and related “palaetiological” fields.
Physicists are generally not interested in these historical aspects, but the distinction, and interest in the historical aspect, should be readily apparent to all in astronomy and geology.
Historical sciences, including evolutionary history, clearly may use a scientific method, but for the purpose of reconstructing and generating explanatory hypotheses for unobservable and unrepeatable events.
rjohara.net /darwin/logs/1993/9309b.html   (7774 words)

  
 Amazon.co.uk: Textbook of Historical Linguistics: Books   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
This is a major introduction to historical linguistics, designed for students who have no background in historical linguistics but who have at least some knowledge of phonetics, phonology and morphology.
Historical linguistic theory is introduced throughout where appropriate, although the book presupposes no acquaintance with contemporary theories of phonology or syntax.
The author introduces all major types of change, consequences of change (dialect and language families), methods in historical linguistics, and later chapters deal with sociolinguistic aspects of change, language contact, birth and death of languages, language and prehistory and finally the issue of very remote relations.
www.amazon.co.uk /exec/obidos/ASIN/0340607580   (703 words)

  
 Science Social Sciences Linguistics Historical Linguistics
Corpora and Historical Linguistics - "Historical linguistics can be seen as a species of corpus linguistics, since the texts of a historical period or a "dead" language form a closed corpus of data which can only be extended by the (re-)discovery of previously unknown manuscripts or books."
Introduction to Historical Linguistics - A brief summary of the subject of comparative linguistics.
Kjell Gustafson's homepage - Historical Linguistics - An overview of the field of historical linguistics and its sub-disciplines.
www.iper1.com /iper1-odp/scat/id/Science/Social_Sciences/Linguistics/Historical_Linguistics   (622 words)

  
 Linguistics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
While all PhD candidates are expected to acquire a solid background in contemporary linguistic theory, the department places great emphasis on the inseparability of good theoretical work and detailed empirical research, and on the interrelatedness of diachronic and synchronic approaches to the study of linguistic phenomena.
A general exam in the major field—normally a 48-hour take-home exam—is usually taken at the end of the third or the beginning of the fourth year of study, and must be passed by the end of the fourth year at the latest.
Competence in the minor field—either another major subarea of linguistics (phonology, syntax, etc.) or a more specific one (e.g., Germanic syntax, psycholinguistics, Greek historical grammar)—must be demonstrated by the end of the third year in residence.
www.gsas.harvard.edu /programs/degree/ling.html   (2005 words)

  
 linguistics. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Phonetics, the study of the sounds of speech, is generally considered a separate (but closely related to) field from linguistics.
Through the comparison of language structures, such 19th-century European linguists as Jakob Grimm, Rasmus Rask, Karl Brugmann, and Antoine Meillet, as well as the American William Dwight Whitney, did much to establish the existence of the Indo-European family of languages.
In contrast to theoretical schools of linguistics, workers in applied linguistics in the latter part of the 20th cent.
www.bartleby.com /65/li/linguist.html   (621 words)

  
 Linguistics 105
While LN 105 is a self-contained course which teaches many linguistic terms, there is a set of basic terms which will help things run more smoothly in the course.
For a more thorough listing of all linguistic terminology you may use this dictionary of terms prepared by OTS of the University of Utrecht.
Linguistics fonts are installed in the computer laboratories in Taylor 204 and Rooke 17.
www.departments.bucknell.edu /linguistics/ln105.html   (889 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The point about a historical record was not that a language has to be written before it can be used for historical linguistics, but that the language must be recorded somehow before it can be used in a comparison.
So in my usage, anyone who is doing historical linguistics is doing comparative linguistics (even if only working with one language since this still involves the comparison of different stages of the language) and I suppose that it is theoretically possible to do comparative linguistics without doing historical linguistics, but what would be the point.
But the problem with doing historical linguistics with languages that don't have a (recorded) history is that there is no way to check the direction of the historical development.
oi.uchicago.edu /OI/ANE/ANE-DIGEST/1998/v1998.n325   (2848 words)

  
 Emily's Introduction to Historical Linguistics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Historical linguistics is the study of not only the history of languages, as the name implies, but also the study of how languages change, and how languages are related to one another.
Historical linguistics is full of lively debate and controversy (I'll point out controvercial things when they come), and occasionally some nasty words are thrown around.
The main job of historical linguists is to learn how languages are related.
www.mit.edu /~ejhanna/language/histlang.html   (440 words)

  
 Department of Linguistics - Home
Linguistics offers students an opportunity to engage in scientific and historical study of the complexities of sound, form, and meaning which distinguish human language.
Students then broaden their competence in a specific area in consultation with the undergraduate linguistics advisor, planning a track in one of the following areas: phonology, syntax and semantics, historical linguistics, psycholinguistics, computational linguistics, and descriptive linguistics of specific languages.
Linguistics majors are encouraged to develop fluency in a foreign language (or American Sign Language) or competence in computer programming.
www.ling.rochester.edu   (148 words)

  
 Kjell Gustafson's homepage - Historical linguistics
The importance accorded to historical linguistics has diminished considerably during the 20th century.
In the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, historical linguistics was considered by many - or even most - linguists as the most important branch of linguistics, what linguistics was really about.
One of the most significant results in the history of linguistic sciences was the establishing and perfection of the comparative method in historical linguistics (see below) and, in the process, the establishing of the genetic relationship of the members of the Indo-European language family and of many other language families.
www.speech.kth.se /~kjellg/kg_historical_linguistics.htm   (497 words)

  
 Historical Linguistics Blog
Borrowing a thought from Lyons (Lyons 1981:10), the aim of linguistics is to describe language competence as opposed to language performance, i.e.
Generative Grammar is interested in language competence in a fairly straightforward manner -- relying on introspection and speaker抯 intuition, it is subjective and not empirical in the sense that it does not build itself on large amounts of heterogeneous data but rather on few languages or standard dialects.
One of the reasons for such a decision was that with the aim of gaining a representative picture of Old English, the compilers of the corpus have tried to include proportionate representation of different text genres, i.e.
yuyanxue.motime.com   (2529 words)

  
 Linguistics Department
As one of the humanities, linguistics is concerned with the historical development of a particular language or language family.
As a social science, linguistics may be related to anthropology in describing language as part of culture; or it may be related to physics in describing phonetics; it may even be considered a natural science, related to the physical science of acoustics and the biological sciences of anatomy and physiology.
The interdisciplinary aspects of linguistic study are reflected in the organization of the program which offers a core of general linguistics courses and draws upon linguistically related courses in other departments.
www.fullerton.edu /catalog/academic_departments/ling.asp   (1990 words)

  
 Li7 Historical linguistics
The attempts of various schools of linguists to describe, classify and explain these changes are surveyed, and the implications of change for linguistic theory in general are examined.
We consider both why a new linguistic form should appear in the speech of one individual in the first place, and why that innovation should spread to different linguistic contexts (words, constructions) and to different speakers.
Many linguists attribute language change to child language acquisition, the process by which each generation has to work out the grammar of its language anew.
www.mml.cam.ac.uk /ling/courses/ugrad/p_7.html   (571 words)

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