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# Topic: Lithosphere

###### In the News (Thu 18 Jul 19)

 Lithosphere: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library The lithosphere consists of the heavy oceanic and lighter continental crusts, and the uppermost portion of the mantle. The lithosphere rests on a soft layer called the asthenosphere, over which the plates of the lithosphere glide. On...components; and that forcing factors in the lithosphere and the rest of the cosmosphere are... www.questia.com /library/encyclopedia/101255599   (1348 words)

 * Lithosphere - (Meteorology): Definition The lithosphere is the outer, rigid shell of the Earth, situated above the asthenosphere and containing the crust, the uppermost part of the mantle,... Lithosphere - That part of the earth which is composed predominantly of rocks (either coherent or incoherent, and including the disintegrated rock materials known as soils and subsoils), together with everything in this rocky crust. In the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the earth, water is found as a gas, liquid, and solid. en.mimi.hu /meteorology/lithosphere.html   (327 words)

 * Lithosphere - (Astronomy): Definition The lithosphere is the solid, rocky, outer part of the Earth consisting of the crust and the upper mantle. The lithosphere is the solid, rocky, outer part of the consisting of the and the upper. The crust is the outermost layer of the lithosphere (the solid part of the Earth consisting of the crust (broken into plates) and the upper mantle). en.mimi.hu /astronomy/lithosphere.html   (238 words)

 Lithosphere   (Site not responding. Last check: ) The Lithosphere (from the Greek for "rock") consists of the Earth 's crust and the uppermost layer of the mantle. Papers are restricted to the structure and evolution of the terrestrial lithosphere with dominant emphasis on the continents. Emphasis is on the laws of distribution of different physical fields in the lithosphere and the methods used in the search for various mineral deposits. www.serebella.com /encyclopedia/article-Lithosphere.html   (297 words)

 Earth Floor: Spheres See how uneven the surface of the lithosphere is. There are high mountains ranges like the Rockies and Andes (in reds), huge plains like those in Texas, Iowa and Brazil (in greens), and the deep valleys of the ocean floor (in blues). We walk and climb on this part of the lithosphere. This movement causes earthquakes and mountain ranges and is called "plate tectonics." When talking about plate tectonics, geologists use the word "lithosphere" to mean only the cold, hard part at the surface, and not the whole inside of the Earth. www.cotf.edu /ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/lithosphere.html   (259 words)

 Lithosphere Summary The lithosphere (from the Greek for "rocky" sphere) is the solid outermost shell of a rocky planet. On the Earth, the lithosphere includes the crust and the uppermost layer of the mantle (the upper mantle or lower lithosphere) which is joined to the crust. Under the influence of the low-intensity, long-term stresses that drive plate tectonic motions, the lithosphere responds essentially as a rigid shell and thus deforms primarily through brittle failure, whereas the asthenosphere (the layer of the mantle below the lithosphere) is heat-softened and accommodates strain through plastic deformation. www.bookrags.com /Lithosphere   (1228 words)

 Quasi?adiabatic shear zones in the lithosphere: The problem of softening and eventual faulting in the lithosphere is of central importance in lithospheric dynamics in which the strength of the lithosphere holds the key. This classical concept of lithosphere strength (Goetze and Evans 1979) envisions a temperature dependent yield stress for the lower part of the lithosphere in contrast to recent numerical models that focus on the upper and brittle part (marked as low-T fracture in Fig.1) of the lithosphere (Buck and Poliakov 1998). Lithosphere strength profiles were later on applied to the case of extension of the continental lithosphere (England 1983) without specifically considering the problem of shear zone formation and limiting strength (high-T fracture) of the lithosphere. www.sg.geophys.ethz.ch /geodynamics/klaus/springer/paper.htm   (6315 words)

 Lithosphere - LoveToKnow 1911 The superficial soil, a layer of loose earthy material from a few feet to a few hundreds of feet in thickness, lies upon a zone of hard rock many thousands of feet in thickness but varying in character, and composed mainly of sandstones, shales, clays, limestones and metamorphic rocks. All the tectonic movements of the solid nucleus produce changes in the mobile lithosphere. Volcanic and seismic activity is manifested, mountains are folded, levels change, fresh surfaces are exposed to denudation, erosion and deposition. www.1911encyclopedia.org /Lithosphere   (124 words)

 Su Journal » Blog Archive » Earth lithosphere The lithosphere is divided into 12 major plates, the Earth is from the Earth - the lithosphere includes the crust and all of the Earthuc asthenosphere carries the lithosphere is about the four spheres of the earth that the whole inside of Earth. On the boundary between the core at the center of the warmth of the lithosphere, which is, In solid-Earth physics the outermost part of The plates consist of deep in horizontal motionuc together as limestone, dolomite and chalk. It is composed of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, cryosphere, and biosphere. sujornal.com /2006/12/04/earth-lithosphere   (877 words)

 Lithosphere   (Site not responding. Last check: ) The terms lithosphere and asthenosphere predate plate tectonics by about 50 years, and they were ready-made for their application to plate tectonics. Mechanical lithosphere — layer strong enough to resist small-scale convection — based on concept that there is a relatively thin layer of convection cells at the base of the mantle, but these have never been directly observed. Plate tectonic lithosphere — lithosphere = plate — rigid layer that moves as a unit in plate tectonics. www.es.mq.edu.au /courses/GEOS260/Lithosphere1.html   (1830 words)

 Engelder, T.: Stress Regimes in the Lithosphere. The relationship between lithospheric stress and the properties of rocks is then presented in terms of microcrack-related phenomena and residual stress. Lithospheric stress is also inferred from the analysis of earthquakes. Finally, lithospheric stress is placed in the context of large-scale stress fields and plate tectonics. press.princeton.edu /titles/5155.html   (217 words)

 Earth's Interior & Plate Tectonics Because cold rocks deform slowly, we refer to this rigid outer shell as the lithosphere (the rocky or strong layer). New oceanic lithosphere forms through volcanism in the form of fissures at mid-ocean ridges which are cracks that encircle the globe. Earth's lithosphere presently is divided into eight large plates with about two dozen smaller ones that are drifting above the mantle at the rate of 5 to 10 centimeters (2 to 4 inches) per year. www.solarviews.com /eng/earthint.htm   (1396 words)

 10(h) Structure of the Earth The lithosphere is a layer that includes the crust and the upper most portion of the asthenosphere (Figure 10h-2). The lithosphere is also the zone of earthquakes, mountain building, volcanoes, and continental drift. The lithosphere consists of the oceanic crust, continental crust, and uppermost mantle. www.physicalgeography.net /fundamentals/10h.html   (843 words)

 Geological Society - Teaching Resources - Crust and Lithosphere The lithosphere is the rigid outer layer of the Earth required by plate tectonic theory. The base of the lithosphere is conventionally defined as the 1300 C isotherm since mantle rocks below this temperature are sufficiently cool to behave in a rigid manner. Hence, whilst the crust is an integral part of the lithosphere, the lithosphere is mainly composed of mantle rocks. www.geolsoc.org.uk /template.cfm?name=lithosphere   (753 words)

 Lithospheric uplift The vertical rheological profile and the structure of the lithosphere are varied from “young juvenile” lithosphere to “old, craton-like” lithosphere. The role of the competent mechanical “core” of the crust may be as important as that of the mantle lithosphere, particularly for early Archean lithosphere or lithosphere younger than 300 Ma. This scenario is consistent with differential mantle lithosphere thinning of the younger plate and is compatible with inferences from seismic tomography. www.mantleplumes.org /LithUplift.html   (1308 words)

 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for lithosphere   (Site not responding. Last check: ) lithosphere Solid, upper layer of the Earth which includes the crust and the uppermost mantle. It proposes that the Earth's crust and part of the upper mantle (the lithosphere) consists of several separate, rigid slabs, termed plates, which move independently forming part of a... The Rocky Mountain region; an evolving lithosphere tectonics, geochemistry, and geophysics. www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=lithosphere   (736 words)

 Continental and Oceanic Mantle Lithosphere The subcontinental lithosphere is extremely heterogeneous in its isotopic and trace element composition. This reflects the stable nature of the continental lithosphere: variations in parent-daughter ratios are preserved over long time periods and produce a larger range in radiogenic isotope ratios than in the asthenosphere, where convective mixing destroys heterogeneity. Several mechanisms may produce incompatible element enrichment of the subcontinental lithosphere, including metasomatism by hydrous fluids released from subducting lithosphere and freezing of mantle plume-derived or asthenosphere-derived melts. www.agu.org /revgeophys/white00/node2.html   (404 words)

 The Lithosphere II   (Site not responding. Last check: ) Maximum temperatures in the lithosphere are buffered (limited) by the solidus (the minimum melting temperature) and at shallow depth, by where water has access to the surface, by the boiling point curve. Extension thins the lithosphere resulting in downwarp of the surface (isostasy) but structural uplift of rocks at most depths within the lithosphere, raising hotter rocks to shallower depths and raising the geotherm. However, during reheating of the lithosphere the mantle lithosphere may be thermally eroded and the base of the thickened crust may be heated above its solidus resulting in magmatic heating of the remaining crust. www.es.mq.edu.au /courses/GEOS260/THELIT~1.htm   (876 words)

 Decompressional Melting During Extension of Continental Lithosphere Instead, we investigate how small variations in lithosphere structure that may be present at the onset of rifting influence the system behavior. One of the factors tested is the thickness of the crust and the topography of the Moho at the onset of rifting. This figure (Van Wijk, 2005) shows the location and orientation of individual rift basins that form where a weak structure in the lithosphere is oriented oblique with respect to far-field plate forces (panels labeled M2 and M3). www.mantleplumes.org /VM_DecompressMelt.html   (1389 words)

 The Arabian Lithosphere: Upper Mantle and Crustal Xenoliths The wide spread interest in ophiolites and mafic and ultramafic xenoliths from basaltic rocks is caused by the informa-tion these ophiolites and xenoliths give on the nature of the lithosphere and the generation of basaltic magma from the mantle. Many questions regarding the evolution of the lithosphere remain to answer For the better understaning it is obvious that further petrological and geochemical investigations are urgently needed. The lithosphere beneath the northwestern part of the Arabian plate (Jordan): evidence from xenoliths and geophysics. www.angelfire.com /ms/snasir/page13.html   (1756 words)

 Present-Day Crustal Movements: Lithosphere Models Note that in the context of these two models, the terms "lithosphere" and "asthenosphere" are linked to mechanical properties of the Earth's crust and upper mantle: The lithosphere is the strong elastic layer near the Earth's surface, and the asthenosphere is the region of ductile flow that lies beneath. Similarly, except for the transition from elastic lithosphere to viscoelastic asthenosphere, depth variations in material properties are not considered, although, again, solutions have been obtained for faulting in plane-layered elastic and viscoelastic media. The simplest form of the thick lithosphere model, first proposed by Savage and Burford (1970), is illustrated in Figure 7.10. www.johnmartin.com /earthquakes/eqsafs/safs_745.htm   (1462 words)

 Marginal Stability of Thick Continental Lithosphere The alteration of ancient lithosphere within plate interiors, independent of spatial proximity to continental margins, suggests that lithosphere may not be perfectly stable. We argue that subcontinental mantle lithosphere, not just on its margins, but also within its interior, has persisted in a thermal and mechanical state near the threshold of stability, such that the local Rayleigh number for the lithosphere is close to a critical value, $Ra_c$. Applied to continental lithosphere in a thermal and mechanical state near the instability threshold, this relationship implies that the lithospheric thickness \emph{must} decrease as the mean density of the lithospheric mantle increases, consistent with the geological record. www.gl.ciw.edu /~ecottrell/MargStabAbs.html   (423 words)

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