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Topic: Logic


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In the News (Wed 23 Jul 14)

  
  Apple - Logic Express
Logic Express 8 delivers the power, precision, and professional toolset of Logic Pro 8—including a redesigned interface that allows musicians to write, record, edit, and mix with unparalleled speed and ease.
Logic Express 8 features 36 incredible-sounding instrument plug-ins from Logic Studio—including Ultrabeat, EXS24 Sampler, the ES synth series, and more than a dozen GarageBand instruments.
Logic Express can be used with any audio interface that works with Mac OS X, so you never have to worry about restrictive proprietary hardware requirements.
www.apple.com /logicexpress   (1939 words)

  
  Logic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The ambiguity is that "formal logic" is very often used with the alternate meaning of symbolic logic as we have defined it, with informal logic meaning any logical investigation that does not involve symbolic abstraction; it is this sense of 'formal' that is parallel to the received usages coming from "formal languages" or "formal theory".
Logic cut to the heart of computer science as it emerged as a discipline: Alan Turing's work on the Entscheidungsproblem followed from Kurt Gödel's work on the incompleteness theorems, and the notion of general purpose computers that came from this work was of fundamental importance to the designers of the computer machinery in the 1940s.
Relevance logic and paraconsistent logic are the most important approaches here, though the concerns are different: a key consequence of classical logic and some of its rivals, such as intuitionistic logic, is that they respect the principle of explosion, which means that the logic collapses if it is capable of deriving a contradiction.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Logic   (4685 words)

  
 Logic gate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Logic gates are primarily implemented electronically using diodes or transistors, but can also be constructed using electromagnetic relays, fluidics, optical or even mechanical elements.
Logic circuits are often classified in two groups: combinatorial logic, in which the outputs are continuous-time functions of the inputs, and sequential logic, in which the outputs depend on information stored by the circuits as well as on the inputs.
The field-programmable nature of programmable logic devices such as FPGAs has removed the 'hard' property of hardware; it is now possible to change the logic design of a hardware system by reprogramming some of its components, thus allowing the features or function of a hardware implementation of a logic system to be changed.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Logic_gate   (2747 words)

  
 Mathematical logic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics that is concerned with formal systems in relation to the way that they encode intuitive concepts of mathematical objects such as sets and numbers, proofs, and computation.
In essentials, it is still the logic of Aristotle, but from the point of view of notation it is written as a branch of abstract algebra.
Attempts to treat the operations of formal logic in a symbolic or algebraic way were made by some of the more philosophical mathematicians, such as Leibniz and Lambert; but their labors remained little known and isolated.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Symbolic_logic   (1296 words)

  
 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Logic
Logic is the science and art which so directs the mind in the process of reasoning and subsidiary processes as to enable it to attain clearness, consistency, and validity in those processes.
Logic is the science and art of conviction it uses only arguments, discarding emotional appeal and employing merely words as the symbols of thoughts.
Transcendental logic (Kant) is the inquiry into human knowledge for the purpose of determining what elements or factors in human thought are a priori, that is, independent of experience.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/09324a.htm   (5106 words)

  
 Inverse Logic - Professional Website Design & Web Design Company
Inverse Logic - Professional Website Design & Web Design Company
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inverse-logic.com   (212 words)

  
 CRpuzzles Logic Problems Index
CRpuzzles' Logic Problems are constructed by Randall L. Whipkey, who has published almost 1,000 logic puzzles in Dell and Dell Champion puzzle magazines.
The noontime ride of Paul Revere spreads news of the events of the 4th of July throughout the Massachusetts countryside.
In this medium Logic Puzzle, the camps on the lake in the Pocoskills prepare a warm summer welcome.
crpuzzles.com /logic   (2374 words)

  
 Science> Mathematics> Logic [encyclopedia]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The study of logic is the effort to determine the conditions under which one is justified in passing from given statements, called premises, to a conclusion that is claimed to follow from them.
Logical validity is a relationship between the premises and the conclusion such that if the premises are true then the conclusion is true.
Mathematical logic lies at the heart of mathematics, but a good understanding of the rules of logic came only after their first use.
www.kosmoi.com /Science/Mathematics/Logic   (1036 words)

  
 Fuzzy Logic Encyclopedia Article @ HotAndCold.com (Hot and Cold)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Fuzzy logic can be used to control household appliances such as washing machines (which sense load size and detergent concentration and adjust their wash cycles accordingly) and refrigerators.
In fact, fuzzy logic wasn't largely used at that time, and today it is used to solve very complex problems in the AI area.
Basic propositional fuzzy logic is an axiomatization of logic where the conjunction is defined by a continuous t-norm, and the implication defined as residuum of the t-norm.
www.hotandcold.com /encyclopedia/Fuzzy_logic   (2438 words)

  
 Classical Logic
One desideratum of the enterprise is that the logical structures in the regimented language should be transparent.
Logic books aimed at mathematicians are likely to contain function letters, probably due to the centrality of functions to mathematical discourse.
The rules in D are chosen to match logical relations concerning the English analogues of the logical terminology in the language.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/logic-classical   (11911 words)

  
 COMPUTABILITY LOGIC: a theory of interactive computation HOMEPAGE
Technically CL is a game logic: it understands interactive computational problems as games played by a machine against the environment, their computability as existence of a machine that always wins the game, logical operators as operations on computational problems, and validity of a logical formula as being a scheme of "always computable" problems.
The name "universal" is related to the potential of this logic to integrate, on the basis of one semantics, classical, intuitionistic and linear logics, with their seemingly unrelated or even antagonistic philosophies.
The inherent incompleteness of affine or linear logics, resulting from the fundamental limitations of the underlying sequent-calculus approach, is apparently the reason why such intuitions and examples, while so heavily relied on in the popular linear-logic literature, have never really found a good explication in the form of a mathematically strict and intuitively convincing semantics.
www.cis.upenn.edu /~giorgi/cl.html   (4255 words)

  
 Digital Logic
Logically, we can use these symbols or we can equate them with others according to the needs of the moment.
One essential reason for basing logical operations on the binary number system is that it is easy to design simple, stable electronic circuits that can switch back and forth between two clearly-defined states, with no ambiguity attached.
Digital logic may be divided into two classes: combinational logic, in which the logical outputs are determined by the logical function being performed and the logical input states at that particular moment; and sequential logic, in which the outputs also depend on the prior states of those outputs.
www.play-hookey.com /digital   (645 words)

  
 'Fuzzy' logic
Professor Matthew Yen's research is focused on the application of "fuzzy logic" in the control of equipment such as heaters, motors, pumps, valves and sprinklers used in the food processing industry and other automated agricultural operations.
Generally speaking, the procedures of fuzzy logic control are these: A set of input data from an array of sensors is fed into the control system.
Besides temperature controls, fuzzy logic has been implemented or proposed for many other processes in food technology, namely aseptic processing; diagnosis of principle causes of breakage during drying; determination of key ingredients for new products; evaluation of the "doneness" of beef steak; intelligent irrigation; automated feeding systems; and so on.
cati.csufresno.edu /upda/95/winter/story1.html   (472 words)

  
 Aristotle's Logic
The rise of modern formal logic following the work of Frege and Russell brought with it a recognition of the many serious limitations of Aristotle's logic; today, very few would try to maintain that it is adequate as a basis for understanding science, mathematics, or even everyday reasoning.
One major difference between Aristotle's understanding of predication and modern (i.e., post-Fregean) logic is that Aristotle treats individual predications and general predications as similar in logical form: he gives the same analysis to "Socrates is an animal" and "Humans are animals".
Modern modal logic treats necessity and possibility as interdefinable: "necessarily P" is equivalent to "not possibly not P", and "possibly P" to "not necessarily not P".
plato.stanford.edu /entries/aristotle-logic   (11024 words)

  
 Logic - Master's programme in Logic - Universiteit van Amsterdam (UvA)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The MSc in Logic is a highly interdisciplinary and international two-year research Master's degree that has been in existence since 1995.
The goal of the ILLC (and as such the underlying spirit of the MSc in Logic) is to connect the traditional fundamental research in the formal sciences with a broad range of applications from information sciences to linguistics and philosophy.
All students follow a historical introduction into modern research in logic in the course Core Logic which is obligatory for all students.
www.studeren.uva.nl /ma-logic   (600 words)

  
 Logic Resources
My Gateway to Logic displays truth tables, expression trees, alpha graphs, normal forms and so on, both in a server side and a client side version.
It proves theorems of propositional and predicate logic and contains a proof checker and a Lemmon-style proof builder as well as a Fitch-style proof builder and even a proof builder of the Alpha Part of Peirce's Existential Graphs.
Metamath Solitaire is a Java applet that allows to interactively construct proofs in predicate logic and set theory; it uses an axiomatic approach.
logik.phl.univie.ac.at /~chris/logic.html   (368 words)

  
 The Math Forum - Math Library - Logic/Foundations   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Arché: Centre for the Philosophy of Logic, Language, Mathematics and Mind - Crispin Wright, Director; University of St. Andrews, U.K. Arché is a new research centre within the School of Philosophical and Anthropological Studies, St Andrews.
Aristotle and the Paradoxes of Logic - Gilbert Voeten
The Association for Symbolic Logic (ASL) is an international organization supporting the presentation, publication, and critical discussion of scholarly work in the field of logic.
mathforum.org /library/topics/logic   (2213 words)

  
 Peirce's Logic
Charles Peirce's contributions to logical theory are numerous and profound.
It has been frequently claimed that real progress in logic was only realized in the work of Frege and later work of Peirce in which the equational paradigm was dropped and the powerful expressive ability of quantification theory was realized.
Following his development of quantification theory, Peirce developed a graphical system for analyzing logical reasoning that he felt was superior in analytical power to his algebraic and quantificational notations.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/peirce-logic   (1996 words)

  
 Open Learning Initiative > ENTER COURSES
This is part of a full course that includes predicate logic and has been taught at Carnegie Mellon University in iteratively improved versions every semester since Fall 2003.
Logic and Proofs is an introduction to modern symbolic logic.
Logic and Proofs has been developed in the Laboratory for Symbolic and Edcational Computability (LSEC) as part of the APROS project.
www.cmu.edu /oli/courses/enter_logic.html   (443 words)

  
 03: Mathematical logic and foundations
Mathematical Logic is the study of the processes used in mathematical deduction.
In second-order logic, the quantifiers are allowed to apply to relations and functions -- to subsets as well as elements of a set.
Just as ordinary logic may be studies with Boolean algebras one may formalize the calculi with many-valued logics using other algebraic systems.
www.math.niu.edu /~rusin/known-math/index/03-XX.html   (2050 words)

  
 Fairchild - Logic Products
Logic Functions in MicroPak™ provide near "invisible" circuit fixes that speed product design and time to market.
Fairchild has a full portfolio of high performance, low power 1-3 bit logic gates, buffers, inverters, and other functions specified for 1.0-3.6 volts (4.3 V max) operation.
FXLP34L6X Unidirectional Translator in MicroPak™ is specified for 1.1V to 3.6V (4.6 V absolute Max), for high to low or low to high logic levels.
www.fairchildsemi.com /products/logic   (197 words)

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