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Topic: Physiocrats


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 Physiocrats - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Physiocrats were a group of economists who believed that the wealth of nations was derived solely from agriculture.
The Physiocrats strongly opposed mercantilism, which emphasized trade of goods between countries, as they pictured the peasant society as the economic foundation of a nation's wealth.
The foundation of the Physiocrats’ economic theories was first described in François Quesnay's Tableau Économique, which was published in 1759.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Physiocrats   (1716 words)

  
 PHYSIOCRATS. The Columbia Encyclopedia: Sixth Edition. 2000   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Among the antecedents of physiocracy the single-tax schemes of the marquis de Vauban and the sieur de Boisguilbert and the free-trade ideas of Vincent de Gournay may be cited.
To tax anything but the land was futile because only the land produced wealth and because manufacturers and traders pass their tax burden on to the farmer; only taxation at the very source of wealth was reasonable and economical—an argument not without charm for industrialists.
The physiocrats made no contribution to purely political thought except the idea of “legal despotism,” by which the king and his government were to enforce the “economic laws of nature.” Their fanaticism in economic doctrine was much ridiculed by their contemporaries, notably by Voltaire and by the Abbé Galiani.
www.bartleby.com /aol/65/ph/physiocr.html   (458 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The failure of their critics to place themselves at the Physiocratic point of view has led to much destructive criticism of their work; whereas, when seen through Physiocratic eyes, such doctrines as those of the net product and of the barrenness of the artisan class appear to be substantially true.
The Physiocratic point of view may, therefore, well be taken as the point of departure in an attempt to trace that shifting of aims and norms of procedure that comes into view in the work of later economists when compared with earlier writers.
Physiocratic economics is a theory of the working-out of the Law of Nature (loi naturelle) in its economic bearing, and this Law of Nature is a very simple matter.
socserv2.socsci.mcmaster.ca /~econ/ugcm/3ll3/veblen/prec1.txt   (7563 words)

  
 MSN Encarta - Capitalism
The first was the appearance of the physiocrats in France after 1750; and the second was the devastating impact that the ideas of Adam Smith had on the principles and practice of mercantilism.
Thus, both the physiocrats and Smith contributed to the belief that the economic powers of governments should be limited and that there existed a natural order of liberty applicable to the economy.
The ideas of Smith and the physiocrats provided the ideological and intellectual background for the Industrial Revolution—the material side of the sweeping transformations in society and the world that characterized the 19th century.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761576596_2/Capitalism.html#s8   (1666 words)

  
 ninemsn Encarta - Search Results - Physiocrats
Physiocrats, school of French 18th-century economists, the first to broadly apply the scientific method to economics.
Physiocracy is the term applied to a school of economic thought that suggested the existence of a natural order in economics, one that does not...
Thus, both the physiocrats and Smith contributed to the belief that the economic powers of governments should be limited and that there existed a...
au.encarta.msn.com /Physiocrats.html   (99 words)

  
 Mason Gaffney / Notes on the Physiocrats
The Physiocrats were a group of French thinkers from "The Age of Reason" (18th Century) who mingled and found favor in the courts of Louis XV and, briefly, Louis XVI.
Physiocrats were reacting against his brand of extreme dirigisme.
You may have noted that the Physiocrats appear "radical" in terms of raising taxes on the rich, and lowering them on the poor.
www.cooperativeindividualism.org /gaffney_physiocrats.html   (3065 words)

  
 PHYSIOCRATS AND THE IMPOT UNIQUE
This system, however, with all its imperfections, is, perhaps, the nearest approximation to the truth that has yet been published upon the subject of political economy, and is upon that account well worth the consideration of every man who wishes to examine with attention the principles of that very important science.
The Physiocrats advocated the impot unique to make the landowners of France pay for the expenses of the sovereign thus avoiding the onerous taxation of the peasants, workers, and cultivators of land.
It was to be a levy on the value of land exclusive of improvements such as crops, houses, barns, fertilization- as well as the wealth* produced by labor and capital utilizing land, the source of all wealth.
www.angelfire.com /az/physiocrat   (1751 words)

  
 From Stanley Brue   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
By advocating the doctrine of laissez-faire the physiocrats were promoting industry, even though this was not their intention; they were interested in encouraging freer internal grain trade and in stimulating the export of farm products and the import of manufactured goods.
Third, the physiocrats originated the analysis of tax shifting and incidence that today is an important part of applied microeconomics.
Finally, by advocating laissez-faire, the physiocrats turned the attention of economists to the question of the proper role of government in the economy.
www.suu.edu /faculty/bowman/Econ3790/BruePhysiocracy.htm   (942 words)

  
 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Physiocrats
The physiocrats rejected the balance of trade argument and held that dear food was desirable because this meant the prosperity of agriculture and the swelling of the net product.
Some critics hold that Gournay is equally entitled with Quesnay to be called the founder of the physiocratic school on account of the currency which he gave to the doctrine of freedom of trade.
The principal service of the physiocrats to modern political economy was not the discovery of any one of their doctrines, but their attempt to formulate a science of society out of materials already at hand.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/12067a.htm   (1508 words)

  
 AllRefer.com - physiocrats (Philosophy, Terms And Concepts) - Encyclopedia
His most ardent disciple, Victor de Mirabeau, was the author of the physiocratic tax doctrine; Pierre Samuel Du Pont de Nemours and Mercier de la RiviEre elaborated on Quesnay's and Mirabeau's ideas.
To tax anything but the land was futile because only the land produced wealth and because manufacturers and traders pass their tax burden on to the farmer; only taxation at the very source of wealth was reasonable and economical : an argument not without charm for industrialists.
The physiocrats made no contribution to purely political thought except the idea of "legal despotism," by which the king and his government were to enforce the "economic laws of nature." Their fanaticism in economic doctrine was much ridiculed by their contemporaries, notably by Voltaire and by the AbbE Galiani.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/P/physiocr.html   (572 words)

  
 Axel Fraenckel / The Physiocrats and Henry George
The Physiocrats believed, and here they were quite right as in much else they criticised, that the existing taxation system cost far too much to industrial life and to the people.
The Physiocratic doctrine certainly contributed to the misunderstanding on the land question that came with and after the Revolution, and it gave people at a later stage trust in the belief that all was well.
The Physiocratic view on the functions of the State and the limits that should be imposed is interesting.
www.cooperativeindividualism.org /fraenckel-axel_physiocrats-and-henry-george.html   (4511 words)

  
 Foldvary: Physiocratize
To "physiocratize" means to reduce taxes on labor and capital and shift the source of public revenue to site rentals or land value.
The physiocrats theorized that there are laws of nature that apply to society, just as there are natural laws that apply to physics and biology.
Physiocratizing helps do the other four, since land rent is suitable as a local source of local public finance, unlike taxes on income or sales.
www.progress.org /2004/fold338.htm   (787 words)

  
 The Physiocrats
The Physiocrats therefore wanted to encourage not only the development of a class of rich agricultural entrepreneurs but also to facilitate the general flow of capital to agriculture (14).
Capital could in a sense be equated to labor and labor, the Physiocrats, thought, was to be undistributed and unfettered and the fruits of labor guaranteed to the possessor.
In France itself the writings and teachings of the Physiocrats was tolerated and somewhat accepted until the fall of Turgot in 1776.
department.monm.edu /history/faculty_forum/Olson_physiocrats.htm   (1885 words)

  
 Econ 524 - History of Econ Thought - Physiocratic School   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The physiocrats appeared in France toward the end of the mercantilist epoch.
The physiocrats thought that industry, trade, and the professions were useful but sterile, simply reproducing the value consumed in the form of raw materials and subsistence for the workers.
Physiocrats thought that since only agriculture produced a surplus, which the landowner received in the form of rent, only the landowner should be taxed.
www.ku.edu /~jsic/econ-524/physiocrX.html   (2558 words)

  
 The Science of Political Economy, P. II, Ch. 3
The resemblance of the views expressed in Adam Smith's work to those held by the Physiocrats has been noticed by all critics, and both on the side of their opponents and their advocates there have not been wanting intimations that Smith borrowed from them.
The Physiocrats, on their part, clearly laid down and steadily contended that nothing that did not have material existence, or was not produced from land, could be included in the category of the wealth of society.
He went with the Physiocrats in their condemnation of the attempts of governments to check commerce, but stopped both where they had carried the idea of freeing all production from tax or restraint to the point of a practical proposition, and where they had fallen into obvious error.
www.henrygeorge.org /science/speII_3.htm   (2140 words)

  
 PHYSIOCRATS
The Physiocrats were a group of French Enlightenment thinkers of the 1760s that surrounded the French court physician, François Quesnay.
The Physiocrats argued that the old Colbertiste policies of encouraging commercial and industrial corporations was wrong-headed.
The Physiocrats, unlike many of their contemporaries, continued to view the State as a parasitical entity.
cepa.newschool.edu /het/schools/physioc.htm   (2341 words)

  
 Physiocracy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Physiocrats held the belief that agriculture was the only source of wealth and therefore that sector should not be taxed, they believed in the advocacy of free trade.
Physiocracy was born in France and was at it’s peak during the period prior to the French revolution.
Deregulation meant the price of corn in the wholesale and retail markets rose during the 1760’s, possibly attributed to some poor harvests, however the physiocrats were accused of worsening the supply of corn for the French people, which was important as corn was the most popular good consumed.
www.ecommerce-now.com /images/ecommerce-now/Physiocracy.htm   (441 words)

  
 FIVE FUNDAMENTAL ERRORS
The physiocrat odre naturel (to which there corresponds in the world of real phenomena an odre positif) is the ideal dictate of human nature as revealed by human reason.
The Physiocrats were the first to describe the economy as a circular flow and held that whatever increased economic activity was good, and whatever decreased economic activity was bad.
So when the Physiocrats were inventing modern economics, they simply didn't know that economic activity is limited by available energy, that energy resources themselves are limited -- limited energy stocks "stocks" (e.g., oil) and limited energy "flows" (e.g., wind), or that all economic activity wastes energy.
dieoff.org /page243.htm   (1560 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Physiocrats concluded that a reasonable measure of a society’s net product is: (a) the number of houses built in one year.
Physiocrats reached consensus that all value comes from: (a) the labor that goes into producing a good.
The French physiocrats’ view that a specific type of resource is the ultimate source of all value seems most consistent with: (a) Thomas Jefferson’s mild preference for rural agriculture over urban industrialization.
www.unc.edu /~rbyrns/HET/HET_TB_Key/02_Pre-Smith_Key.doc   (3816 words)

  
 © The Economics of Physiocracy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Physiocrats assumed that the system of market exchange which it was their main purpose to analyse was subject to certain objective economic laws, which operated independently of the will of man and which were discoverable by the light of reason.
In the construction of this theoretical model, the Physiocrats' main aim was to illuminate the operation of the basic causes which determined the general level of economic activity.
What makes their system appear strange to contemporary economists is, first, the fact that they often clothed their propositions in the now unfamiliar language of 'natural law' doctrines, and, second, the fact that they insisted so strongly, and apparently so perversely, on the crucial economic significance of the distinction between agriculture and manufacture.
www.st-andrews.ac.uk /~jfec/cal/frenrev/resource/18ab(6).htm   (1456 words)

  
 INTERNETIX - Yrittäjyys - fysiokraatit   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Physiocrats formed an economical school that was opposed to mercantilism and supported the freedom of trade.
According to the physiocrats there were three classes in society.
First, there was the owners' class that consisted of land owners, who rented their land to farmers who then produced the raw material for the third class that consisted of craftsmen.
www.uta.fi /entrenet/english/internetix/fysioEN.htm   (322 words)

  
 Keith Rankin's Thursday Column
They could be called advocates of "naturism" (physiocrat means 'rule of nature'); that would help us to appreciate the difference between them and the later Anglo-Scottish classical political economists who were advocates of "capitalism".
Further, the physiocrats' theory of property rights was equally applicable to public property (the domain of the sovereign) as to private property (the domain of the private landlords).
An important addendum (in the laissez-faire spirit of the physiocrats) to this eighteenth century chapter in the annales of political economy lies in the writings of Thomas Paine.
www.ak.planet.gen.nz /~keithr/rfc2001322PublicParadigm.html   (1700 words)

  
 The Physiocrats
The Physiocrats took Issac Newton's idea that the universe was mechanistic and applied this mechanistic world view to the social production and distribution of goods and services.
They examined the phenomenon of mercantile economics—mercantilism is the distribution of goods with the calculated goal of achieving profit—and argued that the distribution of goods operated under the same mechanistic and natural laws that the rest of the universe operated under.
The notion that the purpose of the economy is to grow, that is, to increase in wealth, is firmly rooted in the idea of progress, that human intervention in history is directed towards steady and unlimited improvement in the human condition.
www.wsu.edu:8080 /~dee/GLOSSARY/PHYSIOC.HTM   (241 words)

  
 THE ENLIGHTENMENT: RETHINKING SOCIETY AND POLITICS (1680-1790)
The Physiocrats believed that agriculture was the only real source of added value in economics, and therefore wished to encourage agricultural productivity, which implied, in turn, encouraging free markets in grain.
Physiocrat policies were introduced by Turgot in France and by the Hapsburg heir, Leopold, in Tuscany.
The Physiocrats were equally unsuccessful at staving off the financial collapse of the French crown.
www.unlv.edu /Faculty/gbrown/westernciv/wc201/wciv2c11/wciv2c11lsec5.html   (854 words)

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