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Topic: Planned economy

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  Planned economy information - Search.com
Planned economies implemented by the way of authority, such as the economy of the Soviet Union, have become widely known as command economies.
A planned economy can serve social rather than individual ends: under such a system, rewards, whether wages or perquisites, are to be distributed according to the social value of the service performed.
Pre-modern economies (those existing before the industrial revolution) are more difficult to analyze by today's standards, but a number of them, particularly those of hydraulic empires, may be seen as having been centrally planned as well.
www.search.com /reference/Planned_economy   (1489 words)

 Planned economy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A planned economy may either consist of state owned enterprises, private enterprises who are directed by the state, or a combination of both.
Important planned economies that existed in the past include the Economy of the Soviet Union, which was for a time the world's second-largest economy.
While the term planned economy usually refers to centrally-planned economies, it may also be used to refer to decentralized systems of planning such as participatory economics.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Planned_economy   (1492 words)

 Centrally Planned Economy
A centrally planned economy is one in which the total direction and development of a nation's economy is planned and administered by its government.
The primary purpose of central planning in the Soviet Union was the attainment of the five-year-plan goals, which state authorities formulated.
Central planning failed for a number of reasons including: inefficient allocation of resources and labor; upward transmission of distorted and self-serving information from agencies low on the hierarchical ladder; set prices unrelated to cost, supply, and demand; and inefficient execution and administration of the various economic plans.
www.referenceforbusiness.com /encyclopedia/Ca-Clo/Centrally-Planned-Economy.html   (877 words)

 Planned economy - Article from FactBug.org - the fast Wikipedia mirror site
A planned economy is an economic system in which economic decisions are made by centralized planners who determine what sorts of goods and services to produce and how they are to be priced and allocated, and may include state ownership of the means of production.
To stress the centralized character of planned economies and to contrast the term with decentralized planning in a market economy, a more specific term, centrally planned economy, is also used.
Nevertheless, a planned economy should not be seen as a necessary element of socialism.
www.factbug.org /cgi-bin/a.cgi?a=7843   (1072 words)

 Planned Economy and Workers Control
Economy during the period from the insurrection in 1917 until the institution of the New Economic Policy in 1923 was totally subordinated to the requirements of Civil War.
Obviously the Marxist theory of economy under dictatorship of the proletariat cannot be developed except in connection with the relevant practice of building a healthy workers state and it would be false to propose that we develop such a theory.
‘planned’ economy is often contrasted with the ‘anarchy’ of capitalist productin, and this tends to imply that the conception of socialist economy as equal to command economy is valid.
home.mira.net /~andy/works/econ_pap.htm   (2083 words)

 Economy Definition
A coincident indicator is an economic indicator that measures the current state of the economy of a nation.
The economic cycle is the periodic fluctuation of the economy between periods of growth and contraction.
Macroeconomics is the study of the behavior of the overall economy.
www.investorglossary.com /category/economy.htm   (1518 words)

 RussianLegacy.com | Russian History - E. Prussakov - Planned Economy
In Russia Stalin's planned economy was ushered in by the New Economic Policy (NEP) of 1921-1928.
This was the period of the 'free market' within the planned economy, a period of the milder (more realistic) targets of the second Five Year Plan.
This illustrates how German economic planning (and the use of propaganda) differed from that of the Soviet Union: for the most part, German propaganda was nothing but a "wish projection", while Hitler's economic planning could not achieve many of the set targets.
www.russianlegacy.com /russian_culture/history/ep_planned_economy.htm   (1403 words)

 People's Weekly World - Why the shift to a socialist market economy?
In the mid-1970s, a system-wide noncyclical economic crisis of the planned economies of the USSR and the European socialist countries began to appear.
Among factors contributing to this crisis were the U.S. escalation of the arms race to strain the economies of the socialist countries, a U.S.-led embargo of technology transfer, and violations of democratic centralism in the ruling Communist parties.
The introduction of the socialist planned economy to utilize a nation’s resources in what appeared to be the most rational way was, in reality, premature and, despite its many powerfully positive accomplishments, must be viewed as a variant of utopian socialism.
www.pww.org /article/articleprint/3740   (696 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Prior to independence in 1962 Algeria's economy had been dominated by agriculture for a millennium and was known as 'the breadbasket of the Roman empire'.
Algiers' efforts to reform its centrally planned economy stalled by the political turmoil erupted in the early nineties.
The government continued its efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector, but unemployment and improving living standards have not successfully dealt with.
www.arab.net /algeria/aa_economy.htm   (278 words)

 Economy of the Soviet Union - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Beginning in 1928, the economy was directed by a series of five-year plans, with a brief attempt at seven-year planning.
With the exception of a brief experiment with regional planning during the Khrushchev era in the 1950s, Soviet planning was done on a sectoral basis rather than on a regional basis.
However, the planning ministries had failed to loosen their control of the enterprise level in time to stem the prolonged stagnation of the 1970s and 1980s, which showed signs of a chronic problem.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Economy_of_the_Soviet_Union   (2537 words)

The basic planning unit for transformation of the Polish economy was the five-year plan, the first of which began in 1956.
As the years passed, these plans contained more and more specific detail; because requirements and supplies could not be forecast in advance, plans were inconsistent and constantly needed revision.
By the late 1960s, the economy was clearly stagnant, consumer goods were extremely scarce, and planners sought new approaches to avoid repetition of the social upheavals of 1956.
countrystudies.us /poland/50.htm   (1626 words)

 Free Essay Free Market vs Command Economy - Polandland transition eco   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
An economy may be defined as the state of a country or region in terms of the production and consumption of goods and services, and the supply of money.
Thus, economies are graded as being free market economies or planned economies using a tool called the economic spectrum, where the planned economies are placed on the left and the free market economies on the right.
 In a command economy, the distribution of goods and services among the population is planned by the government, based on their assessment of the people’s needs; whereas in a free market economy the population may acquire the goods and services as per their specific needs at the price fixed by the seller(s).
www.echeat.com /essay.php?t=28129   (1714 words)

 Glossary of Terms: Pl
Planned economy means the conscious organisation of the productive activity of all members of society, in contrast to all human history hitherto and the normal condition of bourgeois society in which people’s activity and the division of social labour is governed as if by superhuman forces like Adam Smith’s “invisible hand” or Hegel’s Absolute Spirit:
Planned economy means the working class raising the level of its organisation to the point where it is able to organise production.
Planned economy simply means the extension of proletarian (participatory) democracy to all spheres of life.
www.marxists.org /glossary/terms/p/l.htm   (1458 words)

 New Page 1   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Congress of the Communist Party of China in Dec. of 1978, there was a heated discussion on the relationship between the planned economy and the market economy (addressed by Li Xiannian, the former Vice Premier).
And the Reform and Open-door and flexible Policy was put forward, concentrating then on development of economy especially in agriculture, focusing on the science and technology, education and laws for the purpose of improving the living standard of the people.
The establishment of the socialist market economy, taken as a target mode, has undergone a process of constant exploration and incessant summing up of experience.
www.uwlax.edu /chinese/Golden-key/economy.htm   (358 words)

 Planned Economy, Page 2   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The executive planning board called the IRS is the overlord of virtually all labor activity.
Thus, we can see that the planned economy we have in America has caused our Rule of Law to decay just the same as the planned economy of the Germans caused their Rule of Law to decay.
In a planned society "the use of the government's coercive powers will no longer be limited and determined by preestablished rules.
www.restoreliberty.com /plannedpg2.htm   (2642 words)

 The Modern Market Economy and the Rule of Law   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
One difference between a market economy and a planned economy lies in the mechanism of resource allocation: a market economy relies on market prices to allocate resources, whereas a planned economy uses administrative commands of planned quantities.
At a deeper level, the core of a market economy is a free enterprise system, while the essence of a planned economy is state ownership of firms.
One of the most important distinctions that separate a bad market economy from a good one is that, in a bad market economy, there exists an unhealthy relationship between the state and the economic agents (including business enterprises) due to the absence of the rule of law.
oycf.org /Perspectives/5_043000/modern_market_economy_and_the_ru.htm   (2820 words)

 Bulgaria The Centrally Planned Economy - Flags, Maps, Economy, History, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
And, since the organization of the entire industrial and agricultural base was determined administratively, economies of scale could easily be incorporated into the planning process.
First, central economic planners often were unable to plan an economy efficiently; and second, even when they could plan well, they were unable to achieve the goals they planned.
Also, because enterprises were judged on their fulfillment of the plan, producers geared production levels for satisfying the plan, not consumers.
www.photius.com /countries/bulgaria/economy/bulgaria_economy_the_centrally_planne~6731.html   (549 words)

 Markets are for People
In the end, the most important test of the legitimacy and performance of any economy is the extent to which it assures the right of every person to a means of livelihood adequate to support full and healthy living.
We are replacing it with a corporate planned and managed economy, planned and managed for the exclusive benefit of the top managers and the wealthiest shareholders who are reaping the major rewards of growth in the present economic system.
If we want a market economy that responds to community interests with a minimum of intervention from big government, then we must look beyond the classic choice between corporate capitalism and state socialism and give serious attention a third option-to restructuring the system of finance and ownership to link business interests with community interests.
www.pcdf.org /corprule/markets.htm   (1468 words)

 Planned Economy - Search Results - MSN Encarta   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Planned Economy, economic system in which the production and distribution of the wealth of a country are predominantly directed by the government....
Given the tremendous pressure on agricultural land in China, rational planning of land use is of prime importance.
- government-controlled economy: an economy in which most aspects of economic life, especially production, prices, and incomes, are controlled by the government
uk.encarta.msn.com /Planned_Economy.html   (130 words)

 Planned Economy in the Ulbricht Era: German History
By taking possession of all resources, as well as of the means of production and distribution, the socialist state hoped to be able to compete successfully with the capitalist West and finally demonstrate the superiority of the socialist system.
The concept of multiyear plans was introduced with the First Five-Year Plan of 1951.
The Second Five-Year Plan, started in 1956, aimed to complete the nationalization of all industrial concerns and the collectivization of agricultural enterprises.
www.germanculture.com.ua /library/history/bl_planned_economy.htm   (392 words)

 USSR Restructuring 1928-1932
Marxism supplied no basis for Stalin's model of a planned economy, although the centralized economic controls of the war communism years seemingly furnished a Leninist precedent.
The economy was centralized: small-scale industry and services were nationalized, managers strove to fulfill Gosplan's output quotas, and the trade unions were converted into mechanisms for increasing worker productivity.
Under the Second Five-Year Plan (1933-37), the state devoted attention to consumer goods, and the factories built during the first plan helped increase industrial output in general.
www.onwar.com /aced/data/uniform/ussr1928.htm   (752 words)

 Mises, Socialism, Appendix and Epilogue: Library of Economics and Liberty
This mistake is all the more astonishing as the very name "planned economy" and all the arguments brought forward to support it stress particularly that the economic direction would be unitary.
But these are isolated interventions; their authors assert that they do not plan to combine these measures into a completely integrated system which regulates all prices, wages and interest rates, and which thus places full control of production and consumption in the hands of the authorities.
What characterized them was the belief that the most appropriate method for the realization of their plans to establish socialism, the final goal common to them as well as to the communists, was to win the support of the majority of their fellow-citizens.
www.econlib.org /library/Mises/msSApp.html   (16916 words)

 Ferenc: State Forest Management in the Transition Period from Planned Economy to Market Directed One
In the 1980's, at the end of plan economy system in Hungary the state owned about 1.2 million hectares, 70 % of Hungary's forest land.
The most appropriate organisation of the forest service for management of State forests will differ with circumstances but certain principles may be considered in decisions on this point; among them are the need to identify the objectives of different managers, the desirability of decentralisation, and the number of management levels...
It is necessary to unambiguously separate the tasks of the public functions of forests and forest management for HSHC to be able to meet the prescribed dividend expectations and privatisation obligations.
www.metla.fi /iufro/iufro95abs/rsp14.htm   (3145 words)

 LAWSO 160 Keywords: Planned (Command) Economy (14)
With a planned economy, each person was given just enough to live off of, which cut the gap out of the class system.
One thing that I find fault in what Marx wrote was that a planned economy is, “the public ownership of the means of production” (Encyclopedia Americana, V. 9), which I believe is wrong because only the government had control over production, it was the public that had to deal with it.
It can be seen that the planned economy in the end was not as prosperous or as efficient as is a free market economy, and that non-western systems will have to conform in order to survive in the end.
home.earthlink.net /~garrickl/KEY_14.htm   (593 words)

 The Bad Old Days of Planned Theft
A "planned" economy in the Chinese parlance means one in which every action must be sanctioned by some higher authority.
However, the intrusion of market economics at the insistence of the Central government in Beijing has meant that many activities previously requiring "approval" under the old "planned economy" are now simply beyond the reach of obstructive officials.
They have fought and are fighting this erosion of their influence with every instrument at their command, but they are slowly being forced to retreat.
members.fortunecity.com /thormay/chinadiary/plan.html   (687 words)

 Planned Economy, Page 1   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The reason I did this research was because I knew that the combination of legal and historical research I had already done conclusively had proven that the income tax laws were not imposed upon labor in their beginning in 1913 or shortly thereafter.
In a "planned economy" power must become arbitrary, in that, the "planners" must not be obstructed by fundamental rules of law.
The conviction grows that if efficient planning is to be done, the direction must be taken 'out of politics' and placed in the hands of experts- permanent officials or independent autonomous bodies." ibid., pg.
www.restoreliberty.com /plannedpg1.htm   (2192 words)

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