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Topic: Spruce


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Fir

In the News (Wed 19 Jun 19)

  
  Spruce Meadows' Official Website
Spruce Meadows is located in the foothills of the majestic Canadian Rockies, within the city of Calgary, Alberta.
Spruce Meadows blends the discipline of sport with the communication of international commerce and the goodwill of visitors...
Spruce Meadows' tournaments have attracted virtually every Olympic, World, European, and National Show Jumping Champion; but there is more than just athletic excitement and excellence at Spruce Meadows.
www.sprucemeadows.com   (167 words)

  
  Spruce - MSN Encarta
The genus, of the pine family, was formerly combined with a fir genus, from which it differs in having pendulous cones, persistent woody leaf-bases, and four-angled leaves, scattered and pointing in every direction.
Spruces occur farther north than most trees, forming forests within the Arctic Circle, and extending south, especially in the mountains, as far as the Pyrenees in Europe and the Himalayas in Asia; in the United States, spruces occur as far south as North Carolina and Arizona.
In Europe the Norway spruce is similarly distributed; the timber is valuable for fuel and for house building and is exported from Norway and Sweden for masts and spars of sailing vessels.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761560525/Spruce.html   (409 words)

  
  Spruce - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Spruce (etym.: from Polish "z Prus" means "from Prussia") refers to trees of the Genus Picea, a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the Family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal (taiga) regions of the earth.
Spruces are large trees, from 20-60 (-95) m tall when mature, and can be distinguished by their whorled branches and conical form.
Spruces are popular ornamental trees in horticulture, admired for their evergreen, symmetrical narrow-conic growth habit.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Spruce   (537 words)

  
 Norway Spruce - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Norway Spruce (Picea abies) is a large evergreen tree growing to 35-55 m tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 1-1.5 m.
Some botanists treat Siberian Spruce as a subspecies of Norway Spruce, though in their typical forms, they are very distinct, the Siberian Spruce having cones only 5-10 cm long, with smoothly rounded scales, and pubescent (hairy) shoots.
Norway Spruce is one of the most widely planted spruces, both in and outside of its native range, used in forestry for timber and paper production, and as an ornamental tree in parks and gardens.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Norway_spruce   (483 words)

  
 The Spruce Beetle - FIDL
Spruce stands are highly susceptible if they grow on well-drained sites in creek bottoms, have an average diameter-at breast-height (dbh) of 16 inches or more, have a basal area greater than 150 square feet per acre, and have more than 65 percent spruce in the canopy.
In Alaska, susceptibility of spruce stand is based on average tree diameter, age of stand, condition of the stand, and proportion of spruce in the canopy.
Schmid, J.M.; Frye, R.H. Spruce beetle in the Rockies.
www.na.fs.fed.us /spfo/pubs/fidls/sprucebeetle/sprucebeetle.htm   (2952 words)

  
 Ohio Trees, Bulletin 700-00, Picea – Spruce
Spruces are evergreen trees with pyramidal habits, whorled branches, and scaly bark.
White spruce is a native tree of the lake states and the New England region and extends north to the Canadian tundra.
Blue spruce is well-adapted to the heavy, clay soils of Ohio, and loss in the landscape is often due to windthrow.
ohioline.osu.edu /b700/b700_17.html   (877 words)

  
 Spruce
We know that spruce was present in these areas because we find its pollen, logs, needles, and cones preserved in the sediments from mires, lakes, and ponds throughout the area.
Spruce logs are found frequently in mire, lake, and loess deposits in much of the midwestern U.S., including Illinois.
This grain of spruce pollen is from Nelson Lake, Kane County, Illinois.
www.museum.state.il.us /exhibits/larson/picea.html   (385 words)

  
 What's bugging Alaska's forests? Spruce bark beetle facts and figures
Spruce bark beetles spend most of their life in the phloem tissue between the bark and the wood of a host tree.
Spruce beetle prefer to attack recently windthrown trees, but they also attack and kill standing trees that are weakened or diseased.
Spruce beetles will not attack well-seasoned wood and normally gone from trees that have been dead for more than three years (though beetles and other insects may enter the wood).
www.dnr.state.ak.us /forestry/insects/sprucebarkbettle.htm   (939 words)

  
 spruce. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
Commercially, spruces are of particular value as a major source of pulpwood for the manufacture of paper.
Spruce beer has been made from the young shoots of the red spruce and the fl spruce.
Spruce is classified in the division Pinophyta, class Pinopsida, order Coniferales, family Pinaceae.
www.bartleby.com /65/sp/spruce.html   (312 words)

  
 Spruce Tree
The Spruces differ from the Pines, Larches, and Cedars in that their leaves are arranged singly in a spiral along elongated shoots, and not tufted or grouped on lateral dwarf shoots.
It oozes as a fine yellow turpentine, known as "Spruce rosin" or "frankincense," from cracks in the bark or from artificial incisions, for as long as twenty years; but eventually the wood is rendered valueless for timber, and even almost useless for fuel.
As a tree, the chief value of the Spruce is as a nurse, its dense foliage and tapering form serving well for the protection of young oaks or elms, whilst the thinnings prove fairly remunerative as hop-poles.
www.2020site.org /trees/spruce.html   (1323 words)

  
 Spruce
Spruce are not only important in the landscape, they are valued for their strong, lightweight wood used in construction and for items important to many Minnesotans, such as canoe paddles.
The sap from spruce may be a nuisance to gardeners as they work with their plants, but it is used in several medicinal compounds and in varnish.
Spruce have an extensive shallow root system and they are very sensitive to being planted too deeply.
www.bachmans.com /tipsheets/woodies/spruce.cfm   (951 words)

  
 New York State' Endangered, Threatened and Special Concern Species Fact Sheets - Spruce Grouse   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Spruce grouse are a smaller, darker cousin of the ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus).
Spruce grouse range across northern North America in the area generally congruent with the coniferous boreal forests.
The goal of this team is to ensure the long term survival of viable populations of spruce grouse and their associated boreal forest community in New York.
www.dec.state.ny.us /website/dfwmr/wildlife/endspec/spgrfs.html   (752 words)

  
 Ohio Trees - White Spruce
White Spruce, an evergreen conifer, is not an Ohio native, but is found throughout Ohio and much of the United States and Canada as a planted ornamental, primarily in two forms.
White Spruce gradually reaches 60 feet in height by 20 feet in spread with a slow growth rate, and adapts to a variety of harsh soil and sparse moisture conditions.
White Spruce is monoecious, with male flowers scattered throughout the canopy serving as a source of pollen for the female flowers (immature cones).
www.dnr.state.oh.us /forestry/trees/spruce_white.htm   (681 words)

  
 The Spruce Beetle
Spruce stands are highly susceptible if they grow on well-drained sites in creek bottoms, have an average diameter-at breast-height (dbh) of 16 inches or more, have a basal area greater than 150 square feet per acre, and have more than 65 percent spruce in the canopy.
In Alaska, susceptibility of spruce stand is based on average tree diameter, age of stand, condition of the stand, and proportion of spruce in the canopy.
Susceptibility of a spruce stand to spruce beetle attack in British Columbia and the Northeastern United States is based on criteria similar to that used in the Rocky Mountains and Alaska.
www.barkbeetles.org /spruce/SBFIDL127.htm   (3135 words)

  
 PICEA (Pi'cea) | Botany.com
Spruce trees can be distinguished from Pine and Fir trees by inspecting their shoots.
The cones of the Spruce dangle from the branches, except when very young, and they stay on the branches several months after they are ripe.
Except for very small plants, Spruce shouldn't be moved until they are balled and burlapped with a good, unbroken ball of soil attached to the roots.
www.botany.com /picea.html   (1136 words)

  
 Spruce Needle Rust
Spruce needle rust is easily identified by pale orange spore masses that erupt from infected needles in summer (Figure 1).
Spruce needle cast fungi invade new needles but the needles remain green until they are one year old and then turn reddish-brown.
For spruce needle rust to cause severe defoliation, serious growth loss, or mortality, infection of a tree would have to occur for several consecutive years.
www.fs.fed.us /r10/spf/fhp/leaflets/Sprneerus.htm   (1132 words)

  
 National Christmas Tree Association: White Spruce
White spruce has a cone-shaped crown, and when grown in the open develops a conical crown which extends nearly to the ground.
Leaves of white spruce are often infected by rust diseases resulting in premature shedding of needles.
White spruce is important as a source of food for grouse and seed eating birds.
www.christmastree.org /trees/wht_spr.cfm   (621 words)

  
 whitespruce
Spruce was used to cure Scurvy, a fatal disease cause by a lack of Vitamin C. Scurvy was common among the early Europeans, who were spending time at sea without fruit and vegetables.
Spruce baskets are made from the bark peeled in the spring, when it is flexible.
Spruce is also brewed as beer, not only as a cure for scurvy, but as a domestic beer.
www.geocities.com /lamewolf.geo/white.html   (706 words)

  
 Spruce
Spruce has scaling or flaking bark, and, in general, its needles are short enough for use in most sizes of bonsai, with many dwarf varieties available.
Spruce, in general, need to keep a decent-sized root ball, and may need to be planted in a deep pot to achieve this.
Picea engelmannii is one of the toughest spruces, and is forgiving of mistakes made due to over-enthusiastic root/branch pruning.
www.bonsai-bci.com /species/spruce.html   (1762 words)

  
 SPRUCE
SPRUCE is the exception - it is a high-level synthesiser which is designed to work independently of the low-level device it is driving.
SPRUCE is a high-level text-to-speech synthesis system which is capable of creating files suitable for driving most low-level synthesisers, including both formant and waveform concatenation systems.
SPRUCE is a knowledge based system, and in its basic form relies on a word-level dictionary to gain access to the linguistic knowledge essential for producing a natural sounding output.
www.cs.bris.ac.uk /~eric/research/spruce97.html   (3376 words)

  
 NPR : Killing the Golden Spruce
Sitka spruce have a high tolerance for salt spray and they often serve as the first line of defense between the sea and the forest; their great size and strength breaks storm-driven winds that can lay waste to lesser species.
Sitka spruce is the world’s largest and longest-lived species of spruce; it can live for more than 800 years and grow to heights exceeding 300 feet, which is tall even for a redwood.
Were it not for the fact that an individual spruce seed’s chances of survival are comparable to those of a human sperm, every parent tree would be a forest unto itself.
www.npr.org /templates/story/story.php?storyId=4679760   (1253 words)

  
 Black Spruce, Picea mariana
Black spruce usually grows on wet organic soils, but productive stands are found on a variety of soil types from deep humus through clays, loams, sands, coarse till, boulder pavements, and shallow soil mantles over bedrock.
Spruce Budworm causes defoliation and if it occurs several years in a row will lead to death, though Black Spruce is less susceptible than White Spruce, or Balsam Fir (Abies balsamea).
Wildfires are frequent and extensive in Black Spruce forests and usually prevent the development of uneven-aged stands excepting in bogs and muskegs with longer fire-free intervals.
www.rook.org /earl/bwca/nature/trees/piceamar.html   (2546 words)

  
 spruce genus description   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Each spruce needle springs from a tiny, woody peg; in fact, this peg is one of the best ways to identify a spruce.
Spruce cones hang down from the branches like those of Douglas-fir while true fir cones stand up, but spruce cones do not have Douglas-fir's pitchfork bracts.
And spruce bark is scaly--Douglas-fir and the true firs have smooth or ridged bark.
oregonstate.edu /trees/con/sprcgen.html   (262 words)

  
 Maine Tree Species Fact Sheet - Red Spruce
Spruce gum is obtained largely from this tree, which was the raw material for the flourishing chewing-gum industry in Maine during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Red spruce is a winter cover for deer and moose, ruffed grouse, snowshoe hare, songbirds and woodcock.
Pests of the Red Spruce include the spruce budworm, eastern spruce beetle, the European spruce sawfly and the yellowheaded spruce sawfly, eastern spruce gall, and the pine leaf adelgid.
www.umaine.edu /umext/mainetreeclub/FactSheets/RedSpruce.htm   (446 words)

  
 pollen grain morphology spruce   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Spruce pollen is distinguished from pine and fir by its large size (> 75 µm), and smooth transition between bladder and body.
The reticulate pattern on the bladders of spruce pollen becomes smaller near the bladder-body juncture.
Pine is smaller than spruce, and fir has a distinct separation between bladder and body.
www.geo.arizona.edu /palynology/pid00006.html   (233 words)

  
 WildWNC.org : Trees : Red Spruce   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Red spruce seedlings and the commonly associated balsam fir seedlings are similar in many ways and are controlled by the same factors, but as a rule spruce is the weaker, slower growing species during the establishment period (22).
Spruce and fir are shallow-rooted, with most of the feeding roots in the duff and the top few centimeters of mineral soil (11).
Although red spruce is much less vulnerable to damage than balsam fir or white spruce, largely due to later bud flushing in the spring (3), much damage and mortality occur in stands containing large quantities of mature balsam fir.
www.wildwnc.org /trees/Picea_rubens.html   (4224 words)

  
 Sitka Spruce
Sitka spruce is one of the tallest conifers, it can attain heights of more than 80 metres and can live for about 8 centuries.
In later experiments it was found that Sitka Spruce which had grown slow, creating many growth rings per inch of wood has a tonal quality which is perfect for musical instrument tops, such as guitars and basses.
Further investigation has shown that Sitka Spruce laminated front and back with solid wood veneers produces a top for hardbody guitars that is unmatchable for beauty, and strength, and seems to add to the instruments' tonal appeal.
www.alaskatonewood.com /sitkaspruce.htm   (243 words)

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