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Topic: The Hundred Flowers Movement


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In the News (Thu 20 Jun 19)

  
  The Hundred Flowers Campaign
In this paper, I hope to show that the Hundred Flowers experiment was an attempt by Mao to further China's development by enlisting the aid of the nation's non-Party intellectuals, and that the movement's implementation signaled a major miscalculation on Mao's part.
The Party's official explanation for the movement and its abrupt termination was that it had been a ruse to ensnare counter-revolutionary elements remaining after the purges instituted earlier in the decade.
As MacFarquhar (Hundred Flowers 12) writes, however, "It is certainly unlikely that Mao would have gone to all the trouble of formulating his doctrine on contradictions to unearth bourgeois thoughts of whose existence he was already aware." Instead, it seems more likely that Mao was a victim of his own propaganda.
filebox.vt.edu /users/jojacks2/words/hundredflowers.htm   (3266 words)

  
  LET A HUNDRED FLOWERS BLOOM - The Magic Tortoise Taijiquan School
Taijiquan is an art of movement that originated in China.
A hundred schools of thought are in contention: let each appreciate its own uniqueness, but also feel the common ground from which it has sprung: the garden in whose soil its roots are entwined with those of others.
A hundred and fifty years ago, Taijiquan had to be learned by “peeping through a fence” in a remote Chinese village.
www.magictortoise.com /100flowers.htm   (5072 words)

  
  Mao Zedong - Printer-friendly - MSN Encarta
In the “Hundred Flowers” movement of 1957, Mao encouraged intellectuals to criticize the CCP, believing the criticism would be minor.
Criticism of Mao from outside the government was also muted because the educated elite remembered the turmoil of the “Hundred Flowers” and “Antirightist” campaigns of 1957.
Mao’s relationship with intellectuals was an uneasy one, and he was critical of the gap between the lives of the urban educated elite and the rural masses.
encarta.msn.com /text_761559589___7/Mao_Zedong.html   (655 words)

  
 Hundred Flowers Campaign Summary
The Hundred Flowers Campaign, also termed the Hundred Flowers Movement, (Simplified Chinese: 百花运动; pinyin: bǎihuā yùndòng) is the period referring to a brief interlude in the People's Republic of China from 1958 to 1966 during which the Communist Party authorities permitted or encouraged a variety of views and solutions to ongoing problems.
What would later be known as the Hundred Flowers Movement was first a small campaign aimed solely at local bureaucracies for non-communist-affiliated officials to speak out about the policies and the existing problems within the central government in a manner previously considered illegal.
The name of the movement originated in a poem: Simplified Chinese: 百花齐放,百家争鸣; Traditional Chinese: 百花齊放,百家爭鳴; pinyin: bǎi huā qífàng, bǎi jiā zhēngmíng; English translation: "Let a hundred flowers bloom; let a hundred schools of thought contend." Mao had used this to signal what he had wanted from the intellectuals of the country.
www.bookrags.com /Hundred_Flowers_Campaign   (1492 words)

  
 Cultural Revolution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This movement, aimed primarily at schoolchildren, did not have any immediate effect on Chinese politics, but it did influence a generation of youths, upon whom Mao could draw for support in the future.
By 1964, the Socialist Education Movement had become the new "Four Cleanups Movement", with the stated goal of the cleansing of politics, economics, ideas, and organization.
Supporters of the Chinese democracy movement see the Cultural Revolution as an example of what happens when democracy is lacking and place responsibility for the Cultural Revolution on the Communist Party of China.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cultural_Revolution   (7159 words)

  
 Yinghong Cheng | Beyond Moscow-Centric Interpretation: An Examination of the China Connection in Eastern Europe and ...
Therefore, both "hundred flowers" and "hundred schools" had been used in China since 1953 for theatrical and academic work, although they were proposed separately, spread within certain circles, and were not endowed with profound political meaning until spring 1956 in the context of de-Stalinization.
For example, at the peak of the liberalization movement, Phan Khoi, the editor of Nhan Van and the most famous figure of the movement, was in China representing Vietnamese intellectuals at the celebration of the twentieth anniversary of the death of Lu Xun.
The de-Stalinization and liberalization movement of the mid-1950s was a phenomenon of global communism and ought to be examined from a global perspective.
www.historycooperative.org /journals/jwh/15.4/cheng.html   (10693 words)

  
 Chongqing: Class Accents and Class Tensions
They had latched onto the student movement and echoed its slogans in part because they were aware that their own station was too low to command respect.
In the protest movement of 1989, a part of the new monied class was in rebellion against the old power elite.
The twists and turns of the movement, the students' demands, and the local authorities' tactics in handling the protesters all followed the same patterns and rhythm as the movement in Beijing.
www.tsquare.tv /links/Chan.html   (7839 words)

  
 A Summary of the Chinese Labour Movement Since 1949
In fact it could be argued that the establishment of Workers' Autonomous Federations (WAF) in the 1989 Democracy Movement was the logical conclusion of at least four waves of previous confrontations between the CCP and the urban working class.
In many ways the movement took up where the April Fifth Incident had been suppressed, and indeed it was the reversal of the government's official verdict on the latter that sparked the flowering of posters, speeches and magazines that constituted such an important part of the Democracy Wall.
The journal editors stressed that freedom of expression was one of the chief demands of the movement and the Wall became home to all sorts artistic and literary expression.
www.hartford-hwp.com /archives/55/290.html   (4882 words)

  
 Mao Zedong - MSN Encarta
During the May Fourth Movement of 1919, when students and intellectuals called for China’s modernization, Mao published articles criticizing the traditional values of Confucianism.
In 1927 Mao wrote a paper titled “Report on an Investigation of the Peasant Movement in Hunan,” in which he declared that peasants would be the main force in the revolution.
Because this viewpoint was contrary to orthodox Marxism, which held that workers were the basis for revolution, and because peasant revolt would alienate the KMT, the CCP rejected Mao’s ideas.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761559589/Mao_Zedong.html   (1628 words)

  
 Qing Decline 1799-1875 by Sanderson Beck
The White Lotus movement goes back to efforts in the 13th century against invading Mongols and the rebellions in the 14th century that overthrew the Yuan dynasty.
The Fairy of a Hundred Flowers is humiliated by this violation of nature and in penance decides to incarnate a hundred fairies on Earth.
The worldwide effort to end slavery stimulated the movement of Chinese coolies as contract labor to Southeast Asia, Hawaii, Peru, and the West Indies.
www.san.beck.org /3-9-QingDecline1799-1875.html   (15946 words)

  
 Stefan Landsberger's Chinese Propaganda Poster Pages--Double-Hundred Policy
The policy became known as the "Double-Hundred Policy": literature and art were to be guided by the slogan "Let a hundred flowers blossom", and the sciences should follow the slogan "Let a hundred schools of thought contend".
The movement was in part a response to the demoralization among intellectuals, who felt estranged from the Party and who subscribed to Hu Feng's views that opposed totalitarian control of intellectual and artistic activity.
Substantial numbers of 'rightists' had been rehabilitated before the Cultural Revolution started, but that movement caused many of them to be sent back to prison again.
www.iisg.nl /~landsberger/dhp.html   (407 words)

  
 Lost Garden
Movement prototype with primitive half circles for terrain and a blob for the player to test out movement and the 'fun factor' of the design.
Flowers seeds immediately blossom into flowers when they hit foliage.
A set of a hundred graphics presents a puzzle that surprisingly few are willing to decipher.
www.lostgarden.com   (7369 words)

  
 ★ The Hundred Flowers Movement ★   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
The bees are buzzing and the flowers are blooming.
The Hundred Flowers Campaign was a movement that was launched by the government of China to begin lifting the...
Nicole Flowers couldn't hold on to a job last year because she often had to leave work to pick up her disruptive son from school.
www.giftsandflowers.info /flowers/the-hundred-flowers-movement   (709 words)

  
 Biography of Mao Tse-tung
His 1927 "Report on the Peasant Movement in Hunan" expressed his view of the revolutionary potential of the peasantry--although this view was not yet phrased in a proper Marxian form.
In the Hundred Flowers movement of 1956-57 he encouraged intellectuals to make constructive criticism of the party's stewardship.
During the early and late 1980s, a general movement away from Mao's beliefs was noted, and his statue was removed from a number of sites throughout China.
cla.calpoly.edu /~lcall/mao.bio.html   (1907 words)

  
 The Making of a Socialist Society   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
Hundred Flowers Movement (May 1956- February 1957) and Antirightist Campaign (June 1957).
Hundred Flowers — proposal by Mao to "let a hundred flowers bloom" and "a hundred schools of thought contend." Enormous response with numerous criticisms of the Party.
Rationale: old society dominated by "exploiting classes" and people all influenced by their "ideological poisons", so that they have to be purged to become "new people".
history.binghamton.edu /hist274/Apr18.htm   (340 words)

  
 Son of the Revolution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
The historic movements of the period, the influence of Mao Thought, and the personal effects of the period on the Liang family, are related in stirring detail to the reader.
The movements related during the book included: "The Hundred Flowers Movement", "The Anti-Rightist Movement", "The Great Leap Forward", and "The Sixteen Articles", all of which made up the greater Cultural Revolution.
The effect of the differing societal movements on the people was one of unpredictability.
www.prin.edu /college/china/about/reports/revolution.shtml   (1119 words)

  
 Asia Times Online :: China News - In China all history is political
The ideological crackdown against Zhang Bojun and other intellectuals came in reaction to the so-called Hundred Flowers Blooming Movement in 1956-57, a period during which Mao invited criticism of the government with the ostensible aim of improving policymaking.
The name of the movement was inspired by a poem that read: "Let a hundred flowers bloom; let a hundred schools of thought contend."
Historians debate whether the movement was a trap or simply went beyond what Mao had bargained for.
www.atimes.com /atimes/China/IA26Ad01.html   (878 words)

  
 Chinese Political Slogans
This slogan, used during the Hundred Flowers period of 1956-57, harked back to the distant past during the Warring States period (476-221 BC) when many different schools of philosophy existed in China.
The modem 'Hundred Schools of Thought' were the criticisms of the Communist Party which Mao invited in late 1956, partly in response to the Hungarian uprising.
The ferocity and scale of the discontent which the Hundred Flowers campaign revealed severely shook the Party leaders, and in 1957 many of those who had offered their criticisms were punished as part of the Anti-Rightist Campaign, set in motion to eradicate the 'poisonous weeds' which had sprung up in such alarming numbers.
www.sacu.org /slogans.html   (1136 words)

  
 Cultural Movements In Chinese History quiz -- free game   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
One of its main tenets was the adoption of the vernacular style of writing for Chinese scholarly use.
He called for a blossoming of intellectual intercourse and suggested that people were free to criticize the government.
In 1979, a movement was started wherein intellectuals could write complaints and grievances on posters and place them on a wall in Beijing.
www.funtrivia.com /playquiz.cfm?qid=15907   (171 words)

  
 Chinese China History - Mao's Cultural Revolution
Mao was born on December 26, 1893 in Shao Shan, a village in Hunan Province.
An ancient Chinese adage, "let a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred schools of thought contend," 49 became The Hundred Flower's Movement.
Undaunted by the failure of the Hundred Flowers Movement, Mao in May of 1958 launched another grandiose plan: the Great Leap Forward.
www.123helpme.com /view.asp?id=23469   (2802 words)

  
 Human Rights in China
In 1957, Wang penned contributions to the paper supporting the Hundred Flowers movement, in which people were encouraged to criticize the shortcomings of the Party.
He was back in Beijing by the time of the 1976 April 5th Movement, a series of mass demonstrations in Tiananmen Square memorializing Zhou Enlai and denouncing the Gang of Four.
Aware of the significance of what were the first truly spontaneous mass protests since 1949, he cycled daily to the city center to find out what was happening before the demonstrations were crushed with force and widespread arrests.
www.hrichina.org /public/contents/article?revision_id=2044&item_id=2043   (1117 words)

  
 The Making of a Socialist Society   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
Hundred Flowers Movement (May 1956- February 1957) and Antirightist Campaign (June 1957).
Hundred Flowers — proposal by Mao to "let a hundred flowers bloom" and "a hundred schools of thought contend." Enormous response with numerous criticisms of the Party.
Rationale: old society dominated by "exploiting classes" and people all influenced by their "ideological poisons", so that they have to be purged to become "new people".
www.binghamton.edu /history/hist274/Apr18.htm   (340 words)

  
 The Chinese Economy from the 1949 Revolution to the Great Leap Forward
It would not be the last time Mao would use "the masses" as a force to batter the more conservative elements of the CPC into submission, to make his vision of "socialism" the dominant one within the Party and government.
In this case, Mao unleashed the so-called "Hundred Flowers Movement," in which the public was given the freedom to express their displeasure with the results of the first FYEP.
This reinforced Mao's position in opposition to a strict Soviet-style approach to development (which the "leftists" had already successfully undermined by the introduction of the communes, among other policies), but was not sufficient to completely eliminate this approach from the toolbox employed by government bureaucrats.
www.mtholyoke.edu /courses/sgabriel/economics/china-essays/3.html   (5094 words)

  
 Chinese Political Slogans
This slogan, used during the Hundred Flowers period of 1956-57, harked back to the distant past during the Warring States period (476-221 BC) when many different schools of philosophy existed in China.
The modem 'Hundred Schools of Thought' were the criticisms of the Communist Party which Mao invited in late 1956, partly in response to the Hungarian uprising.
The ferocity and scale of the discontent which the Hundred Flowers campaign revealed severely shook the Party leaders, and in 1957 many of those who had offered their criticisms were punished as part of the Anti-Rightist Campaign, set in motion to eradicate the 'poisonous weeds' which had sprung up in such alarming numbers.
sacu.org /slogans.html   (1136 words)

  
 United Earth - Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-Tung) Quotes, Biography & Chronology
Letting a hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools of thought contend is the policy for promoting the progress of the arts and the sciences and a flourishing culture in our land.
In a massive crackdown in 1957, those who had followed Mao’s encouragement to ”let a hundred flowers bloom, let a hundred schools of thought contend” were arrested and either imprisoned or sent to labor camps.
Although Maoist thought or “Maoism” had a large impact on third world resistance movements in the early to mid twentieth century, today there are only a handful of groups that follow Mao’s principles.
www.unitedearth.com.au /mao.html   (4501 words)

  
 Part 1: Ethnic Minority as Signifier for "Socialist Prosperity"
In May 1956, Mao initiated the "One Hundred Flowers" movement to invite criticism from intellectuals.
The movement was abruptly ended with the Anti-Rightist Campaign starting in June 1957.
They are celebrating the successes and achievements of the new regime, maybe also their "liberation" from the "old society." The colorfulness of their dresses, together with their happy facial expressions, substantiates Harriet Evan's (1999) gendered reading of Cultural Revolutionary posters.
mclc.osu.edu /rc/pubs/minzu/1partt.htm   (969 words)

  
 Asiaweek.com
One of the first was the Hundred Flowers movement of 1956, in which Mao Zedong encouraged people to express opposing points of view and criticize government policies.
Mao allowed a hundred flowers to bloom so he could identify his enemies and mow them down.
Mao Zedong ushered in a brief period of free debate with a call to "let a hundred flowers bloom, let a hundred schools of thought contend." Soon, the flowers were cut down by the Anti-Rightist Campaign.
www.pathfinder.com /asiaweek/98/0626/cs_1_china.html   (2200 words)

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