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Topic: Tritium


In the News (Fri 18 Apr 14)

  
  Tritium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tritium is also produced in heavy water-moderated reactors when deuterium captures a neutron; however, this reaction has a much smaller cross section and is only a useful tritium source for a reactor with a very high neutron flux.
This has raised concerns that if tritium is used in quantity, in particular for fusion reactors, it may contribute to radioactive contamination, although its short half-life should prevent any significant accumulation in the atmosphere.
Tritium was first predicted in the late 1920s by Walter Russell, using his "spiral" periodic table, then produced in 1934 from deuterium, another isotope of hydrogen, by Ernest Rutherford, working with Mark Oliphant and Paul Harteck.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Tritium   (805 words)

  
 Tritium Gas Explained   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
As the tritium nucleus decays it emits an electron, causing energy to be released in the form of beta radiation.
Since tritium gas cannot penetrate the skin, the radiation exposure is received through the lungs where it mixes with the body fluids.
Tritium is not absorbed by the bone marrow or other body organs and instead is expelled from the body through urination in a very short period of time.
www.isolite.com /abouttritium.htm   (561 words)

  
 EPA - Tritium - Information Home (EPA's Radiation Protection Program: Information)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Tritium (chemical symbol H-3) is a radioactive isotope of the element hydrogen (chemical symbol H).
Tritium is also produced during nuclear weapons explosions, as a byproduct in reactors producing electricity, and in special production reactors, where the isotope lithium-6 is bombarded to produce tritium.
Tritium is a hydrogen atom that has 2 neutrons in the nucleus, in addition to its single proton, giving it an atomic weight near 3.
www.epa.gov /radiation/radionuclides/tritium.htm   (885 words)

  
 Tritium Laboratory
Tritium is the radioactive isotope of hydrogen (half-life of 12.32 years, decay rate of 5.626 % per year).
Tritium concentrations in water found in soils, combined with the local precipitation tritium history can be used to estimate the travel time of rainwater through the soil.
The tritium concentration in the sample is then determined from the amount of in-grown helium-3, the length of time the sampled was sealed, and the radioactive decay rate (12.4 years) of tritium.
www.rsmas.miami.edu /groups/tritium   (1238 words)

  
 Tritium page
During a typical tritium bioassay, 1-5 milliliters of urine are mixed with a liquid scintillation medium and counted in a liquid scintillation counter.
Due to the solubility of the tritium, the concentration of the tritium in the urine equals the concentration in the soft tissues of the body.
Tritium is used in exit signs to light the exit in the event of an electrical outage or a fire.
www.physics.isu.edu /radinf/tritium.htm   (2056 words)

  
 Tritium   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Tritium is an isotope ; of hydrogen which has one proton ; and two neutrons ;.
Tritium is produced in accelerator cooling water systems which are subjected to large proton or neutron fluxes such as those of the meson production targets of the TRIUMF 500 MeV facility.
The tritium is produced by spallation  reactions with oxygen, nitrogen and carbon nuclei  present in the water systems and to a much lesser degree by radiative capture   of neutrons by the deuterium nuclei in water.
www.triumf.ca /safety/rpt/rpt_8/node8.html   (266 words)

  
 A Search for the Tritium Hyperfine Line from Nearby Stars
The tritium frequency is highly attractive for SETI work because the isotope is cosmically rare and the tritium hyperfine line is centered in the SETI waterhole region of the terrestrial microwave window.
Tritium is unimportant in advanced stellar evolution (Cujec and Fowler, 1980), and its 12.5-year β-decay half-life ensures its virtual natural absence in the neutral atomic state, giving an extraordinarily quiet background for beacon acquisition.
Observation of the tritium line may also be useful as a search for evidence for the by-products of a spacefaring industrial civilization (Freitas, 1985).
www.rfreitas.com /Astro/TritiumSearch1986.htm   (1677 words)

  
 Tritium from Power Plants gives India an H-bomb capability
The importance of tritium as a strategic material in the creation of thermonuclear weaponry, given the insignificance of its other uses, cannot be overstressed.
Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with a half-life of 12.3 years, meaning that 5.5 per cent of tritium will decay into helium-3 every year.
Tritium finds peripheral use in medical diagnostics, but it is mainly used in the construction of hydrogen bombs and to boost the yield of both fission and thermonuclear weapons.
www.ccnr.org /india_tritium.html   (2496 words)

  
 Tritium   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Tritium occurs naturally due to cosmic rays interacting with deuterium in the atmosphere.
Tritium figures prominently in studies of nuclear especially nuclear fusion due to its favorable reaction cross section and high energy yield (17.6 MeV T(d n)4He reaction).
Tritium was first produced in 1934 from deuterium another isotope of hydrogen by Ernest working with Mark Oliphant and Paul Harteck.
www.freeglossary.com /Tritium   (600 words)

  
 Tritium Production - Nuclear Weapons
Tritium is therefore used as a radioactive tracer element in biological research in the form of tritiated water (HTO or T
Because of its higher mass and consequent lower chemical activity, tritium gas is less strongly absorbed by the body, whether through the lungs or the skin.
Tritium can be stored and shipped as a gas, a metal hydride (e.g., of titanium) or tritide, and trapped in zeolites (hydrated aluminum silicate compounds with uniform size pores in their crystalline structure).
www.globalsecurity.org /wmd/intro/tritium.htm   (529 words)

  
 Tritium Definition Page
The amount of tritium in infiltrating precipitation that subsequently becomes ground-water recharge is controlled primarily by the quantity of tritium in the atmosphere when the precipitation formed, plus the length of time it takes water to move from the land surface to the water table.
Because tritium decays with a half-life of 12.32 years, ground water that does not contain detectable tritium is inferred to have infiltrated into the subsurface prior to 1953.
Because tritium is decaying rapidly, it is becoming more difficult to use bomb tritium to date the age of ground water.
toxics.usgs.gov /definitions/tritium.html   (673 words)

  
 Glossary Item - Tritium   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Discovered in 1934, tritium is an unstable isotope of the element hydrogen.
An atom of tritium consists of one proton, two neutrons and one electron.
Tritium is radioactive and has a half-life of about 12.5 years.
education.jlab.org /glossary/tritium.html   (36 words)

  
 Tritium Statement
Tritium is a highly radioactive isotope of hydrogen, with a specific activity of almost 10,000 curies per gram.
Tritium production activities as well as tritium creation as an incidental byproduct of reactor operation at SRS resulted in severe tritium contamination of the shallow aquifers on the plant site.
Regulations for restricting the concentrations of tritium in drinking water are based primarily on cancer risk to adults.
www.ieer.org /comments/tritstmt.html   (883 words)

  
 IEER Tritium Report
Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen which has both commercial and military applications.
Tritium requirements are currently being met by the surplus inventory from retired warheads.
Thus, despite tritium's low radiotoxicity in gaseous form and its tendency to pass out of the body rather rapidly as water, its health effects are made more severe by its property of being chemically identical to hydrogen.
www.ieer.org /reports/tritium.html   (3814 words)

  
 NRC: Fact Sheet on Tritium Production
Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen that typically is produced in nuclear reactors or high-energy accelerators.
DOE is responsible for re-establishing the capability to produce tritium by the end of 2005, in accordance with a Presidential directive.
DOE has developed a technology for producing tritium in pressurized water reactors that uses lithium, rather than boron (which is normally used), as a neutron absorber.
www.nrc.gov /reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/tritium.html   (991 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
She said it was a "low-cost option" that should be kept available as the department decides over the next two years how to resume production of tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen that enhances the explosive force of nuclear warheads.
For most of the nuclear age tritium was produced by the bombardment of lithium targets with neutrons generated by nuclear reactors at the Energy Department's Savannah River, S.C., weapons plant.
But because tritium decays by about 5.5 percent annually, the stockpile must be replenished periodically if the United States is going to remain a nuclear-weapons power.
www.hemp.net /~darral/tritium.html   (528 words)

  
 Tritium Technology in Military Watches
As it decays, tritium emits beta radiation, which are a group of excited electrons that in turn excite the electron in the phosphor atoms making them emit photons, or light.
Tritium, has a half life of 12.3 years, a half-life is simply the time it takes HALF of the tritium to decay.
The main advantage of tritium in military watches is that there is no additional drain on the watch battery to power the night light source, however these watches do have a drawback in that they can be picked up at great distance by night vision equipment.
www.submityourarticle.com /articles/Trevor-Rowell-942/tritium-4822.php   (551 words)

  
 PMag v05n3p20 -- Tritium
Tritium is the top priority of the U.S. Department of Energy (USDE), which is responsible for nuclear bomb-making.
It argued in a court case against Ontario Hydro that the operation of the facility, the shipment of the radioactive water, and the use and storage of tritium must be excluded from the exemption under the Environmental Assessment Act granted to the Darlington Nuclear Stations in 1977.
Contrary to ICRP belief that tritium is evenly distributed to all soft tissues in the body, it accumulates in ovaries and testes.
www.peacemagazine.org /archive/v05n3p20.htm   (1436 words)

  
 Tritium Lab Price Schedule
The tritium concentration determined from the amount of in-grown helium-3, the length of time the sample is sealed, and the tritium half-life (12.4 years).
The enriched water sample is vacuum distilled from the sodium hydroxide, and the yield is weighed to ± 2 mg, and the value is adjusted for hydrogen left in the sodium hydroxide.
Tritium efficiencies and background values are different in the nine counters and values are corrected for cosmic intensity, gas pressure and other parameters.
www.rsmas.miami.edu /groups/tritium/prices.html   (6362 words)

  
 Tritium Supply
Tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, boosts the explosive force of nuclear weapons and is used in every warhead in the U.S. arsenal.
In fact, the operation of planned new tritium supply facilities until the middle of this century is not based on any projected schedule for achieving disarmament, but only on an assumed design life for the facilities.
Tritium, a key ingredient of most nuclear weapons, needs to be replenished periodically because it decays at a rate of 5.5% per year.
www.wcpeace.org /tritium.htm   (3557 words)

  
 Nuclear Fusion
The deuterium fuel is abundant, but tritium must be either bred from lithium or gotten in the operation of the deuterium cycle.
Deuterium-Tritium fusion is the most promising of the hydrogen fusion reactions, but no tritium occurs in nature since it has a 10 year half-life.
The tritium part of the fuel is more problematic - there is no sizable natural source since tritium is radioactive with a halflife of about 10 years.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/nucene/fusion.html   (520 words)

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